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A 3-year follow-up of sun behavior in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106960
Source
JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Feb;150(2):163-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Luise Winkel Idorn
Pameli Datta
Jakob Heydenreich
Peter Alshede Philipsen
Hans Christian Wulf
Author Affiliation
Dermatological Research Department D92, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
JAMA Dermatol. 2014 Feb;150(2):163-8
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Melanoma - etiology - pathology
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - etiology - pathology
Sunlight - adverse effects
Time Factors
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
IMPORTANCE UV radiation (UVR) exposure is the primary environmental risk factor for developing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). OBJECTIVE To measure changes in sun behavior from the first until the third summer after the diagnosis of CMM using matched controls as a reference. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three-year follow-up, observational, case-control study performed from May 7 to September 22, 2009, April 17 to September 15, 2010, and May 6 to July 31, 2011, at a university hospital in Denmark of 21 patients with CMM and 21 controls matched to patients by sex, age, occupation, and constitutive skin type participated in the study. Exposure to UVR was assessed the first and second summers (n=20) and the first and third summers (n=22) after diagnosis. Data from 40 participants were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Exposure to UVR was assessed by personal electronic UVR dosimeters that measured time-related UVR in standard erythema dose (SED) and corresponding sun diaries (mean, 74 days per participant each participation year). RESULTS Patients' daily UVR dose and UVR dose in connection with various behaviors increased during follow-up (quantified as an increase in daily UVR dose each year; all days: mean, 0.3 SED; 95% CI, 0.05-0.5 SED; days with body exposure: mean, 0.6 SED; 95% CI, 0.07-1.2 SED; holidays: mean, 1.2 SED; 95% CI, 0.3-2.1 SED; days abroad: 1.9 SED; 95% CI, 0.4-3.4 SED; and holidays with body exposure: mean, 2.3 SED; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4 SED). After the second year of follow-up, patients' UVR dose was higher than that of controls, who maintained a stable UVR dose. No difference was found between groups in the number of days with body exposure or the number of days using sunscreen in the second and third years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our findings suggest that patients with CMM do not maintain a cautious sun behavior in connection with an increase in UVR exposure, especially on days with body exposure, when abroad, and on holidays.
PubMed ID
24080851 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in health-related quality of life and the value of different factors in predicting health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259017
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2014
Author
Charlotte Chruzander
Charlotte Ytterberg
Kristina Gottberg
Ulrika Einarsson
Lotta Widén Holmqvist
Sverker Johansson
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Date
Apr-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Population Surveillance - methods
Predictive value of tests
Quality of Life - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is negatively affected compared to that of the general population. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms have been shown to predict worse HRQL in a short-term perspective. Considering the progressive nature of MS, it is essential to include the long-term (10 years) perspective of HRQL in PwMS.
The aim of this 10-year follow-up of a population-based sample of PwMS was to explore changes in and the predictive value of personal factors, degree of MS disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment on HRQL.
Data on personal and disease-specific factors, mood, and cognitive function was collected. Data on HRQL was collected, seen as a health profile with the Sickness Impact Profile, as a health index with the EuroQol 5D and as a single global question with the EQ Visual Analog Scale.
HRQL worsened over 10 years according to the health profile (Sickness Impact Profile Total and its physical dimension) and according to the health index. The effect sizes were small. HRQL assessed with the single global question remained unchanged. Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment predicted worse HRQL.
In a 10-year perspective the HRQL with regard to its physical domain or when seen as a total health profile tends to get worse in PwMS. Yet, HRQL with regard to its psychosocial domain and with regard to PwMS' self-rated health, remains stable. There is a potential for health-care professionals to decrease the impact of modifiable factors on HRQL in PwMS by identifying those with depressive symptoms and/or cognitive impairment and initiating evidence-based treatment as well as meeting the need for environmental facilitators aiming at reducing disability.
PubMed ID
24492009 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up study on subjective well-being and relationships to person-environment (P-E) fit and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence of older Swedish adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154920
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009 Jul-Aug;49(1):e16-22
Publication Type
Article
Author
Monica Werngren-Elgström
Gunilla Carlsson
Susanne Iwarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Box 157, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
Source
Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2009 Jul-Aug;49(1):e16-22
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Environment
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
In order to investigate how well-being and ill health is affected by the process of aging, the main aim was to investigate these self-perceived aspects of health over a 10-year period among older Swedish adults. The aim was also to study how these aspects correlated with objectively assessed functional limitations, use of mobility device, person-environment (P-E) fit (also denoted accessibility), problems in housing, and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence. Using the Swedish national population register, a baseline sample of persons aged 75-84 years was identified. Out of the 133 participants at baseline (1994), the 31 participants still available 10 years later were included. The data were collected by means of interview and observation at home visits. Overall, the participants rated their subjective well-being as high and a stable prevalence of ill-health symptoms over time was reported. Changes in subjective well-being as related to changes in functional aspects seem to mainly occur earlier in the aging process, while as time goes by these relations weaken. ADL dependence, however, is more influential in more advanced age. The results confirm the complexity of the construct of health. A main contribution is that the results shed light on the importance of taking the impact of environmental factors into consideration.
PubMed ID
18829123 View in PubMed
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The age- and sex-specific occurrence of bothersome neck pain in the general population--results from the Stockholm public health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120422
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Eva Skillgate
Cecilia Magnusson
Michael Lundberg
Johan Hallqvist
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, Stockholm, SE-17177, Sweden. Eva.Skillgate@ki.se
Source
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:185
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - diagnosis - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Prospective Studies
Public Health - methods - trends
Questionnaires
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Neck pain is very common but the occurrence of bothersome neck pain is not well described. Therefore our objective was to report on the prevalence and incidence of, as well as the rate of recovery from, bothersome neck pain in men and women of different ages in the general population.
We used data from a recently conducted population-based cohort study, comprising 23,794 individuals in Stockholm County, Sweden. Study participants were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire in 2002/2003 and 2007, and information on episodes of neck pain was gathered at baseline and at follow-up. We then measured bothersome neck pain in 2005 and 2006 retrospectively in 2007 using the follow-up questionnaire.
The one-year prevalence of bothersome neck pain for at least seven consecutive days was 25% (95% confidence interval (CI): 24-25) among women and 16% (95% CI: 15-16) among men, peaking in individuals aged 30-59 years. The one-year incidence proportion of bothersome neck pain was 7% (95% CI: 6-7) among women, and 4% (95% CI: 4-5) among men. Women recovered more infrequently than men. The one-year incidence proportion of recovery (of at least one year duration) was 11% (95% CI: 10-12) among women and 14% (95% CI: 12-16) among men.
Bothersome neck pain is most common in middle-aged individuals. Women are more likely than men to have and to develop bothersome neck pain, and less likely to recover from such pain. Younger men and women have a higher incidence, but recover more often from bothersome neck pain than older individuals.
Notes
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Cites: Ann Rheum Dis. 2003 Jan;62(1):33-612480666
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Cites: Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Aug 1;34(17):1863-819644338
Cites: Pain Physician. 2009 Jul-Aug;12(4):E35-7019668291
Cites: Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 1;36(3):E213-921079541
Cites: Pain. 2001 Sep;93(3):317-2511514090
PubMed ID
23006655 View in PubMed
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Aging, COPD, and other risk factors do not explain the increased prevalence of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature133244
Source
Chest. 2012 Jan;141(1):190-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Mohammed Al-Houqani
Frances Jamieson
Mauli Mehta
Pamela Chedore
Kevin May
Theodore K Marras
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
Source
Chest. 2012 Jan;141(1):190-7
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mycobacterium avium Complex - isolation & purification
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection - complications - epidemiology - microbiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - complications - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The cause of observed increases in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) isolation and disease is unexplained. To explore possible causes of the increase in pMAC isolation and disease prevalence in Ontario, Canada, we studied age and other population-level risk factors.
We determined age and sex of patients with pMAC disease between 2003 and 2008. We then estimated whether the potential effect of population aging and changes in prevalence of HIV infection, solid organ transplant, COPD, and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) inhibition have contributed to the observed increase in pMAC disease.
During 2003 to 2008, pMAC isolation and disease prevalence (per 100,000) both increased (8.44 to 12.62 and 4.35 to 6.81, respectively). The total number of cases of disease increased by 348 (2.46 per 100,000). Based on actual contemporary population changes, aging could explain 70 additional cases (increase of 0.57 per 100,000). The increase in self-reported COPD prevalence could potentially explain 11 (95% CI, 0-42) additional cases (increase of 0.09 per 100,000 [95% CI, 0-0.34 per 100,000]). HIV infection, solid organ transplant, and TNF-a inhibition combined could potentially explain no more than 73 additional cases (increase of 0.60 per 100,000).
Although population aging appears to be a major risk factor, the increase in pMAC disease in Ontario could be only partly explained by aging, increases in COPD, HIV, solid organ transplantation, and TNF-a inhibition therapy. The increase in pMAC is likely multifactorial and may be affected by environmental or pathogen factors not addressed in this study.
PubMed ID
21724552 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes in adults: results from the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124182
Source
Diabet Med. 2013 Jan;30(1):56-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
B. Rasouli
A. Ahlbom
T. Andersson
V. Grill
K. Midthjell
L. Olsson
S. Carlsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. bahareh.rasouli@ki.se
Source
Diabet Med. 2013 Jan;30(1):56-64
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Risk factors
Abstract
We investigated the influence of different aspects of alcohol consumption on the risk of Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes in adults.
We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT) study, in which all adults aged = 20 years from Nord-Trondelag County were invited to participate in three surveys in 1984-1986, 1995-1997 and 2006-2008. Patients with diabetes were identified using self-reports, and participants with onset age = 35 years were classified as having Type 2 diabetes if they were negative for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (n = 1841) and as having autoimmune diabetes if they were positive for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (n = 140). Hazard ratios of amount and frequency of alcohol use, alcoholic beverage choice, and binge drinking and alcohol use disorders were estimated.
Moderate alcohol consumption (adjusted for confounders) was associated with a reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes in men, but not in women (hazard ratio for men 10-15 g/day 0.48, 95% CI 0.28-0.77; hazard ratio for women = 10 g/day 0.81, 95% CI 0.33-1.96). The reduced risk was primarily linked to consumption of wine [hazard ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99 (per g/day)]. No increased risk was seen in participants reporting binge drinking or in problem drinkers. The results were also compatible with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes associated with alcohol consumption [hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.45-1.08 (frequent consumption) and hazard ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.97 (2-7 g/day)].
Moderate alcohol consumption associates with reduced risk of both Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes. A protective effect of alcohol intake may be limited to men. High alcohol consumption does not seem to carry an increased risk of diabetes.
PubMed ID
22612671 View in PubMed
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Amphetamine abuse during pregnancy: environmental factors and outcome after 14-15 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10396
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2000 Jun;28(2):154-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2000
Author
M. Eriksson
B. Jonsson
G. Steneroth
R. Zetterström
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Margareta.Eriksson@kbh.ki.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2000 Jun;28(2):154-7
Date
Jun-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Amphetamine - adverse effects
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - chemically induced
Cohort Studies
Developmental Disabilities - chemically induced - psychology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Foster Home Care - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome - complications
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Schools
Social Problems - statistics & numerical data
Social Work
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of social environmental factors on school performance and behavioural problems among 14-year-old children who had been exposed to amphetamine during foetal life. The study group comprised a cohort of 65 children who had suffered intrauterine exposure to amphetamine due to maternal drug abuse. This group has been followed since birth and examined at regular intervals. Information regarding the academic performance of the children was gathered from the school authorities. The psychosocial environment of the children was determined through interviews and through information obtained from the social authorities. Of the 64 children who attended a school within the state school system, 10 (15%) were a year behind for their age. The mean grades were significantly lower than those of their classmates. Behavioural problems were mentioned in the social authority documentation of one-third of the children, regardless of whether the child was placed in a foster home or was residing with the biological mother. A positive significant correlation was found between maternal age and the outcome of the children, as well as between therapy during pregnancy and outcome, whilst several environmental factors, particularly during the child's first four years, correlate negatively to outcome. Psychosocial factors early in life influence the outcome at 14 years. The positive effect of intervention during pregnancy illustrates the importance of early identification preferable during pregnancy.
PubMed ID
10954143 View in PubMed
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Application of metrics constructed from vibrotactile thresholds to the assessment of tactile sensory changes in the hands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158996
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Dec;122(6):3732-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
A J Brammer
P. Sutinen
U A Diva
I. Pyykkö
E. Toppila
J. Starck
Author Affiliation
Ergonomic Technology Center, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-2017 and Institute for Microstructural Sciences, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada. tony.brammer@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2007 Dec;122(6):3732-42
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Equipment Design
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Forestry - instrumentation
Hand - innervation
Humans
Hypesthesia - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Male
Mechanotransduction, Cellular
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Prospective Studies
Sensory Thresholds
Time Factors
Touch
Vibration - adverse effects
Abstract
Two tools for assessing tactile sensory disturbances in the hands have been constructed from mechanoreceptor-specific vibrotactile threshold shifts, and thresholds changes with time, and employed in a prospective study of forest workers (N=18). Statistically significant positive threshold shifts (i.e., reductions in sensitivity compared to the hands of healthy persons) were found in five hands at study inception (13.9%), and 15 hands at follow-up (41.7%). Four patterns of threshold shift could be identified, involving selectively the median and/or ulnar nerve pathways and/or end organs. Statistically significant positive threshold changes (i.e., reductions in sensitivity with time) were recorded in 69.4% of the hands over a five-year period, even though a majority of the workers remained symptom free. If the thresholds recorded from subjects not working with power tools are used to control for aging, lifestyle, and environmental factors during the five year period, then 40% of the remaining subjects are found to be experiencing work-related threshold changes in their hands. The ability of the threshold shift metric to predict the numbness reported by these subjects shows that it is closely associated with the tactile sensory changes occurring in their hands.
PubMed ID
18247781 View in PubMed
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[Assessment of risk associated with the contamination of drinking water with chemicals to population health of the Voronezh region].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118037
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Sep-Oct;(5):105-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu I Stepkin
N P Mamchik
A V Platunin
I V Kolnet
V I Rusin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Sep-Oct;(5):105-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drinking Water - chemistry
Environmental Illness - chemically induced - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Public Health - trends
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Water Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
THE THEME: Assessment of health risk from water chemicals to population health in the Voronezh regio.
Water sources, population of municipalities of the Voronezh region.
The substantiation of priority measures aimed at minimizing the human health risk due to chemical contamination of water fed for the needs of centralized water supply of population of the Voronezh region.
Method of human health risk assessment from environmental chemicals.
The priority pollutants of drinking water in municipalities are established. Also area of risk and the number of exposed population are identified.
PubMed ID
23243739 View in PubMed
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Association between 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine excretion and risk of lung cancer in a prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129988
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Jan 1;52(1):167-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2012
Author
Steffen Loft
Peter Svoboda
Kazuaki Kawai
Hiroshi Kasai
Mette Sørensen
Anne Tjønneland
Ulla Vogel
Peter Møller
Kim Overvad
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. stl@sund.ku.dk
Source
Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Jan 1;52(1):167-72
Date
Jan-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - enzymology - epidemiology - genetics - urine
Case-Control Studies
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
DNA Glycosylases - genetics - metabolism
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Genotype
Guanine - analogs & derivatives - urine
Homozygote
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - enzymology - epidemiology - genetics - urine
Male
Middle Aged
Oxidative Stress
Polymorphism, Genetic
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - urine
Abstract
Oxidative damage to guanine (8-oxoGua) is one of the most abundant lesions induced by oxidative stress and documented mutagenic. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) removes 8-oxoGua from DNA by excision. The urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua is a biomarker of exposure, reflecting the rate of damage in the steady state. The aim of this study was to investigate urinary 8-oxoGua as a risk factor for lung cancer. In a nested case-cohort design we examined associations between urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua and risk of lung cancer as well as potential interaction with the OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism in a population-based cohort of 25,717 men and 27,972 women aged 50-64 years with 3-7 years follow-up. We included 260 cases with lung cancer and a subcohort of 263 individuals matched on sex, age, and smoking duration for comparison. Urine collected at entry was analysed for 8-oxoGua by HPLC with electrochemical detection. There was no significant effect of smoking or OGG1 genotype on the excretion of 8-oxoGua. Overall the incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% confidence interval) of lung cancer was 1.06 (0.97-1.15) per doubling of 8-oxoGua excretion. The association between lung cancer risk and 8-oxoGua excretion was significant among men [IRR: 1.17 (1.03-1.31)], never-smokers [IRR: 9.94 (1.04-94.7)], and former smokers [IRR: 1.19 (1.07-1.33)]. There was no significant interaction with the OGG1 genotype, although the IRR was 1.14 (0.98-1.34) among subjects homozygous for Cys326. The association between urinary 8-oxoGua excretion and lung cancer risk among former and never-smokers suggests that oxidative stress with damage to DNA is important in this group.
PubMed ID
22044660 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between neighbourhood air pollution concentrations and dispensed medication for psychiatric disorders in a large longitudinal cohort of Swedish children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288095
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 06 03;6(6):e010004
Publication Type
Article
Date
06-03-2016
Author
Anna Oudin
Lennart Bråbäck
Daniel Oudin Åström
Magnus Strömgren
Bertil Forsberg
Source
BMJ Open. 2016 06 03;6(6):e010004
Date
06-03-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Child
Drug Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mental Disorders - drug therapy - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate associations between exposure to air pollution and child and adolescent mental health.
Observational study.
Swedish National Register data on dispensed medications for a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including sedative medications, sleeping pills and antipsychotic medications, together with socioeconomic and demographic data and a national land use regression model for air pollution concentrations for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5.
The entire population under 18 years of age in 4 major counties. We excluded cohort members whose parents had dispensed a medication in the same medication group since the start date of the register. The cohort size was 552 221.
Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for the outcomes, adjusted for individual-level and group-level characteristics.
The average length of follow-up was 3.5 years, with an average number of events per 1000 cohort members of ~21. The mean annual level of NO2 was 9.8 µg/m(3). Children and adolescents living in areas with higher air pollution concentrations were more likely to have a dispensed medication for a psychiatric disorder during follow-up (HR=1.09, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.12, associated with a 10 µg/m(3) increase in NO2). The association with NO2 was clearly present in 3 out of 4 counties in the study area; however, no statistically significant heterogeneity was detected.
There may be a link between exposure to air pollution and dispensed medications for certain psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents even at the relatively low levels of air pollution in the study regions. The findings should be corroborated by others.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27259522 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between pulmonary dysfunction as a result of occupational exposures and risk of developing cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119620
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Dec;54(12):1471-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Punam Pahwa
Chandima P Karunanayake
James A Dosman
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. pup165@mail.usask.ca
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Dec;54(12):1471-80
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - complications - diagnosis
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Diseases - complications - diagnosis
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Spirometry
Abstract
Cohen's hypothesis states that pulmonary dysfunction is the underlying unifying factor that leads to numerous health risks of inhaled toxicants.
To test the idea postulated by Cohen.
We compiled a retrospective cohort (n = 8024) composed of participants in eight population-based research and occupational studies conducted between 1977 and 1989. Smoking history, occupational exposures, health indicators, and demographic information were obtained by questionnaire. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometry.
Cox proportional hazards models were utilized to test the Cohen's hypothesis. Risk of developing cancer increased (hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67) if a subject had an obstructive pulmonary disease at baseline.
Impaired lung function caused by environmental and occupational exposures is one of the risk factors for the incidence of cancer.
PubMed ID
23085844 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in Finnish children and adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226555
Source
Allergy. 1991 Apr;46(3):161-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1991
Author
L. Pöysä
M. Korppi
M. Pietikäinen
K. Remes
K. Juntunen-Backman
Author Affiliation
Department of Paediatrics, Kuopio University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Allergy. 1991 Apr;46(3):161-5
Date
Apr-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Asthma - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - epidemiology
Rural Health
Urban health
Abstract
The parents of 3649 Finnish children and adolescents were interviewed in 1980 to evaluate the prevalence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. The same group was interviewed 6 years later to determine the incidence of new cases of bronchial asthma in the 1980s. Age- and sex-matched samples were taken from three areas, southern, eastern and northern Finland to allow assessment of possible regional differences in prevalences and incidences. The prevalences of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma were 1.7%, 6.0% and 4.3%, respectively. These figures are similar to those found in previous studies in Scandinavia and Finland over 10 years ago. The prevalence of atopy was highest (6.4%) in southern Finland, which is the most urbanized area of our country. The prevalence of asthma was highest (3.3%) in northern Finland. This is still low when compared with the incidences in other European countries. THe prevalences of asthma and atopy were lowest in eastern Finland which is the most agrarian area. The incidence of asthma was 1.5 cases/1000 individuals/year, but regional differences were shown.
PubMed ID
2058810 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asthma: epidemiology, etiology and risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148568
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Oct 27;181(9):E181-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-27-2009
Author
Padmaja Subbarao
Piush J Mandhane
Malcolm R Sears
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatric Respirology, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.
Source
CMAJ. 2009 Oct 27;181(9):E181-90
Date
Oct-27-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Recurrence
Respiratory Function Tests
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Young Adult
Notes
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PubMed ID
19752106 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asthma increase among farmers: a 12-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141075
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2011 Mar;116(1):60-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Anna Rask-Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. anna.rask-andersen@medsci.uu.se
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2011 Mar;116(1):60-71
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology
Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic - epidemiology
Asthma - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Immunoglobulin E - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Questionnaires
Sweden
Vital Capacity
Abstract
Respiratory disease is a well known health hazard for farmers, but the long-term prognosis is less well known. This is a 12-year follow-up of an investigation of Swedish farmers, most of them dairy farmers. A questionnaire was mailed to all 418 farmers who were alive of the farmers originally participating in 1982. They were invited to an interview, spirometry, and blood sampling. Ninety-one per cent (380) of the farmers, 321 men and 59 women, responded to the questionnaire. The mean age was 56 years for the men and 55 years for the women. Of the group, 10% were smokers, 25% ex-smokers, and 65% had never smoked. The population estimate for asthma in the farmers was 8.9% in 1994 compared to 2% in 1982, and to 5.4%-6.6% in the general population in the region in 1982. Of the asthmatic subjects, one-third had positive RAST tests (radioallergosorbent tests). Almost 90% of the new onset asthma cases since 1982 had non-IgE-mediated asthma. Most of the IgE-mediated asthmatics had had symptoms for many years, while 70% of the non-IgE-mediated asthmatic farmers had no or only wheezing with colds 1982. Two new cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified, and 7.3% had experienced inhalation fever during the last 12 years. In general, individuals with asthma and chronic bronchitis who had left farming were in better health in 1994 as compared to 1982. In conclusion, farmers have an enhanced risk to develop asthma increasing with age. Asthma in farmers is often non-IgE-mediated.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20812893 View in PubMed
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Automated follow-up facilities in Canada for monitoring delayed health effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature245197
Source
Am J Public Health. 1980 Dec;70(12):1261-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1980
Author
M E Smith
H B Newcombe
Source
Am J Public Health. 1980 Dec;70(12):1261-8
Date
Dec-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Computers
Confidentiality
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Information Systems - organization & administration
Medical Record Linkage
Mortality
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk
Abstract
Increased public awareness of the possible presence of carcinogens and other potentially harmful agents in the workplace and in other areas of the environment has created a demand for studies to determine the extent of the risks associated with exposure to such agents. These studies require large numbers of individuals in various "control" populations to be followed-up over long periods of time. Such large-scale follow-up can be greatly facilitated where information on all deaths and on cases of serious morbidity is accumulated centrally, for a whole country, in a form that permits rapid searching by computer and in which individuals are well enough identified to minimize the possibility of mistaken identity. The Canadian Mortality Data Base and the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System are two such centralized follow-up facilities which have been developed in Canada. We describe here the manner in which these files are used, the problems encountered, and their solutions.
Notes
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Cites: Methods Inf Med. 1979 Apr;18(2):89-97449717
Cites: Science. 1959 Oct 16;130(3381):954-914426783
PubMed ID
7435743 View in PubMed
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The BAMSE project: presentation of a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15268
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002;13 Suppl 15:11-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Magnus Wickman
Inger Kull
Göran Pershagen
S Lennart Nordvall
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden. magnus.wickman@smd.sll.se
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002;13 Suppl 15:11-3
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Eczema - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology
Infant Welfare
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Suburban Health
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban health
Abstract
The aims of this prospective and longitudinal project are to establish crucial risk factors for asthma and other allergic diseases in childhood, and to study factors of importance for prognosis at already established allergic disease. Socio-economic factors, such as inequality in health, are also to be addressed. The project started in February 1994. To reach sufficient power, 4,000 children had to be included. In November 1996, this number was reached (4,093). Inclusion in the study was made at 3-4 months of age. At that time, and before induction of allergic disease/ asthma of the child, a questionnaire focused on exposure, genetics and socio-economic factors was answered. Settled dust was sampled for later analysis of furred animal and mite allergens. When the children were aged both 1 and 2 years, their parents were asked to fill in new questionnaires focusing on respiratory and allergic (skin, gastrointestinal) symptoms, but also key variables of exposure. Cases with asthma are identified and, for every case, two matched controls drawn. During the following winter, the homes of cases and controls were investigated and the temperature, indoor humidity, air change rate and NO2 measured. Two hundred cases (5%) were expected to be identified during the first 2 years of the children's lives. Some 479 homes have now been investigated and 97.7% of the original 4,093 children still remain in the cohort. The 2-year symptom follow-up ended in November 1998. The 4-year follow-up started on 1 September 1998 and was planned to be finished in June 2000. Questionnaires (allergic and respiratory symptoms, key variables of exposure at home and day care) are sent out to all 4,093 families. All children are invited for examination, lung function tests (PEF, flow-volume, MVV and oxygen clearance) and physical performance. Blood is taken from all children (20 ml). Allergy screening is performed and specific IgE examined. Blood cells will be frozen to allow for later DNA extraction. In subsets (children with any allergic and/or respiratory manifestation and controls), markers of inflammation in blood and urine will be examined, as well as eosinophils in nasal smear. Interviews are carried out to assess the severity of asthma, type/periodicity of health care given, asthma medication and parental sick leave when appropriate. As a separate project, financed by the EU, outdoor pollution as risk factors for asthma and allergies are to be studied within the BAMSE cohort. A follow-up of 8-9 years is underway.
PubMed ID
12688617 View in PubMed
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Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153218
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Dec;34(6):451-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Vesa Riihimäki
Sinikka Valkonen
Bernt Engström
Antti Tossavainen
Pertti Mutanen
Antero Aitio
Author Affiliation
Good Practices and Competence, Statistical Services, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland. vesa.riihimaki@ttl.fi
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008 Dec;34(6):451-62
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - blood - urine
Alum Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Aluminum - analysis - blood - urine
Dust - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Ships
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Welding
X-Ray Diffraction
Abstract
The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed.
Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data.
The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles
PubMed ID
19137207 View in PubMed
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Birth weight and sex of children and the correlation to the body burden of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs of the mother.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206644
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106(2):61-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
T. Vartiainen
J J Jaakkola
S. Saarikoski
J. Tuomisto
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Feb;106(2):61-6
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Benzofurans - adverse effects - analysis
Birth Weight - drug effects
Body Burden
Diet
Education
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects - analysis
Pregnancy
Rural Population
Seafood
Sex ratio
Socioeconomic Factors
Soil Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - adverse effects - analogs & derivatives - analysis
Urban Population
Abstract
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in 167 random human milk samples from urban and rural areas in Finland. Dietary habits and background information on each mother and child were gathered by questionnaire. Body mass indexes (BMI) before pregnancy and delivery in the rural area were 5-10% higher than in the urban area, but fat content of mother's milk was about 10% higher in the urban area. The mean weights of children (+/- standard deviation) were similar in the rural and urban areas among primiparae, 3,500 +/- 597 g and 3,505 +/- 454 g, respectively, although dioxin international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs) were significantly higher in the urban area. The mother's level of education did not affect the weight of the child, but concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs (I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran,1,2, 3,7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin) and PCBs [sum of PCBs (sumPCB), PCB-TEQ, and most PCB congeners] increased with advanced education. This is considered to be due to differences in the mother's consumption of fish. The birth weight, especially of boys, slightly decreased with increasing concentrations of I-TEQ, 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5 dibenzofuran, 1,2,3, 7,8-Cl5 dibenzodioxin, and 2,3,7,8-Cl4 dibenzodioxin; however, when the analysis was restricted to primiparae, there was no statistically significant correlation between birth weight and the concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs. No correlation was found between the weight of the child and PCBs, PCB-TEQs, or individual PCB congeners in the whole material or among primiparae, or among boys or girls. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs inhuman milk were modeled for primiparae by weighing fish consumption, age of mother, milk fat content, and BMI before pregnancy. The linear regression resulted in values of R = 0.67 and 0.30 for the modeled dioxin I-TEQs in the urban and rural areas, respectively, and the corresponding values for sumPCBs of R = 0.60 and 0.11. The increase of PCDD/PCDF body burden was calculated to be on average 0.58 pg I-TEQ/g milk fat/year in the urban area and 0.39 pg I-TEQ/g milk fat/year in the rural area.
Notes
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PubMed ID
9432971 View in PubMed
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Blood Cadmium Levels and Incident Cardiovascular Events during Follow-up in a Population-Based Cohort of Swedish Adults: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285888
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 May;124(5):594-600
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Lars Barregard
Gerd Sallsten
Björn Fagerberg
Yan Borné
Margaretha Persson
Bo Hedblad
Gunnar Engström
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 May;124(5):594-600
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
C-Reactive Protein
Cadmium - blood
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Diet
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Follow-Up Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Cadmium exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The only published longitudinal study on cadmium and incident cardiovascular disease was performed in American Indians with relatively high cadmium exposure.
Our aim was to examine the association between blood cadmium at baseline and incident cardiovascular events in a population-based study of Swedish men and women with cadmium levels similar to those of most European and U.S.
A Swedish population-based cohort (n = 6,103, age 46-67 years) was recruited between 1991 and 1994. After we excluded those with missing data on smoking, 4,819 participants remained. Acute coronary events, other major cardiac events, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality were followed until 2010. Associations with blood cadmium (estimated from cadmium in erythrocytes) were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression including potential confounders and important cardiovascular risk factors.
Hazard ratios for all cardiovascular end points were consistently increased for participants in the 4th blood cadmium quartile (median, 0.99 ?g/L). In models that also included sex, smoking, waist circumference, education, physical activity, alcohol intake, serum triglycerides, HbA1c, and C-reactive protein, the hazard ratios comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of exposure were 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.7) for acute coronary events, and 1.9 (1.3, 2.9) for stroke. Hazard ratios in never-smokers were consistent with these estimates.
Blood cadmium in the highest quartile was associated with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in our population-based samples of Swedish adults. The consistent results among never-smokers are important because smoking is a strong confounder. Our findings suggest that measures to reduce cadmium exposures are warranted, even in populations without unusual sources of exposure.
Barregard L, Sallsten G, Fagerberg B, Born? Y, Persson M, Hedblad B, Engstr?m G. 2016. Blood cadmium levels and incident cardiovascular events during follow-up in a population-based cohort of Swedish adults: the Malm? Diet and Cancer Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:594-600; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509735.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26517380 View in PubMed
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