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A 12-year Trend of Psychological Distress: National Study of Finnish University Students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285639
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2017 Jun;25(2):113-119
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Airi Oksanen
Katri Laimi
Katja Björklund
Eliisa Löyttyniemi
Kristina Kunttu
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 2017 Jun;25(2):113-119
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Students - psychology
Universities
Abstract
The study aimed to explore changes in the prevalence of psychological distress and co-occurring psychological symptoms among 19-34 years old Finnish university students between the years 2000 and 2012.
The prevalence of perceived frequent psychological symptoms was compared in four nationwide cross-sectional student health surveys with random samples (N=11,502) in the following years: 2000 (N=3,174), 2004 (N=3,153), 2008 (N=2,750), and 2012 (N=2,425).
In the time phase from 2000 to 2012, the overall psychological distress (12-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) increased from 22% to 28%, while there was also an increase in the frequently experienced psychological symptoms (depressiveness from 13% to 15%, anxiety from 8% to 13%, concentration problems from 12% to 18%, and psychological tension from 13% to 18% with a peak prevalence observed in 2008). The co-occurrence of different psychological symptoms increased as well. Psychological distress was more common in females and in older students.
The findings suggest an increasing trend of frequent psychological distress among Finnish university students over the years from 2000 to 2012, with the peak prevalence occurring in 2008, which may reflect the growing multifaceted environmental demands.
PubMed ID
28662321 View in PubMed
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25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian adults: biological, environmental, and behavioral correlates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141385
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2011 May;22(5):1389-99
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
L S Greene-Finestone
C. Berger
M. de Groh
D A Hanley
N. Hidiroglou
K. Sarafin
S. Poliquin
J. Krieger
J B Richards
D. Goltzman
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. linda.greene-finestone@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Osteoporos Int. 2011 May;22(5):1389-99
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dietary Supplements
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - complications - epidemiology
Seasons
Sex Distribution
Skin Pigmentation - physiology
Sunlight
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
We assessed vitamin D status and its correlates in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Results showed that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
PubMed ID
20730415 View in PubMed
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Actual vs best practice for families post-stroke according to three rehabilitation disciplines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161684
Source
J Rehabil Med. 2007 Sep;39(7):513-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2007
Author
Annie Rochette
Nicol Korner-Bitensky
Johanne Desrosiers
Author Affiliation
School of Rehabilitation, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Quebec, Canada. annie.rochette@umontreal.ca
Source
J Rehabil Med. 2007 Sep;39(7):513-9
Date
Sep-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Community Health Services
Cost of Illness
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational therapy
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Physical Therapy Modalities
Questionnaires
Speech Therapy
Spouses - psychology
Stroke - psychology - rehabilitation
Abstract
To investigate occupational therapists', physiotherapists' and speech language pathologists' family-related rehabilitation practice post-stroke and its association with clinician and environmental variables.
A Canadian cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted on 1755 clinicians. Three case studies describing typical patients after stroke receiving acute care, in-patient rehabilitation, or community rehabilitation, and including specific descriptors regarding family stress and concern, were used to elicit information on patient management.
One-third of the sample identified a family-related problem and offered a related intervention, but only 12/1755 clinicians indicated that they would typically use a standardized assessment of family functioning. Working in the community out-patient setting was associated (OR 9.16), whereas working in a rehabilitation in-patient setting was negatively associated (OR 0.58) with being a problem identifier, the reference group being acute care. Being a PT (OR 0.53) or an SLP (OR 0.49) vs an OT was negatively associated with being a problem identifier, whereas being older (OR 1.02 ) or working in Ontario (OR 1.58) was associated with being a problem identifier. To work in a community out-patient setting (OR 2.43), being older clinicians (OR 1.02) or not perceiving their work environment being supportive of an on-going professional learning (OR 1.72) was associated with being an intervention user,whereas being a PT (OR 0.50) was negatively associated with being a user.
For these 3 disciplines, the prevalence of a family-related focus is low post-stroke. Given the increasing evidence regarding the effectiveness of family-related interventions on stroke outcomes, it is imperative that best practice is implemented.
PubMed ID
17724549 View in PubMed
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Acute otitis media and sociomedical risk factors among unselected children in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3493
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-1999
Author
P. Homøe
R B Christensen
P. Bretlau
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. rh03259@rh.dk
Source
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Jun 15;49(1):37-52
Date
Jun-15-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Recurrence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Social Environment
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociomedical risk factors associated with episodes of acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent AOM (rAOM), and chronic otitis media (COM) in Greenlandic children and especially to point out children at high risk of rAOM (defined as > 5 AOM episodes since birth) and COM which are prevalent among Inuit children all over the Arctic. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and included 740 unselected children, 3, 4, 5, and 8-years-old, living in two major Greenlandic towns, Nuuk and Sisimiut. All children were otologically examined and the parents answered a questionnaire containing sociomedical variables including ethnicity, family history of OM, housing, insulation, crowding, daycare, passive cigarette smoking, breast feeding, type of diet, allergy, and chronic diseases. Historical data were cross-checked in medical records which also formed the basis for the drop-out analyses. Statistical analyses included frequency tests, calculation of odds ratio (OR), and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The attendance rate was 86%. Former episode of AOM was reported by 2/3 of the children, rAOM by 20%, and COM by 9%. The following variables were found significantly more often in children with AOM by simple frequency testing: Parental (OR = 1.83), sibling (OR = 1.62), and parental plus sibling (OR = 2.56) history of OM, crowding (OR = 5.55), long period of exclusive breast feeding ( > 4 months) (OR = 2.47), and recent acute disease (P = 0.034). The following variables were found significantly more often in children with rAOM or COM by simple frequency testing: Parental history of OM (OR = 1.60; OR = 2.11, respectively) and no recall of breast feeding (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively). Also, COM was found significantly more often in children with two Greenlandic parents (OR = 3.07). A multiple logistic regression test denoted only parental history of OM (OR = 1.82) and long period of exclusive breast feeding (OR = 1.14) as significant predictors of AOM. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the risk factors usually associated with AOM could not be confirmed as risk factors in this survey. Parental history of OM and long period of exclusive breast feeding were the strongest factors associated with AOM in Greenlandic children and ethnicity was associated with COM. However, the study confirms that AOM is a multifactorial disease determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors.
PubMed ID
10428404 View in PubMed
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Adult asthma and traffic exposure at residential address, workplace address, and self-reported daily time outdoor in traffic: A two-stage case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139159
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:716
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Anna Lindgren
Jonas Björk
Emilie Stroh
Kristina Jakobsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Sweden. anna.lindgren@med.lu.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:716
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - physiopathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Residence Characteristics
Sweden - epidemiology
Transportation
Young Adult
Abstract
Most epidemiologic studies use traffic at residential address as a surrogate for total traffic exposure when investigating effects of traffic on respiratory health. This study used GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to estimate traffic exposure, not only on residential, but also on workplace address, in addition to survey questions on time spent in traffic during commuting or other daily activities.The aim was to investigate 1) if there is an association between traffic exposure and prevalence of adult asthma and asthma symptoms, and 2) if so, does this association become stronger using more complete traffic exposure information.
This study was conducted in two stages: A first cross-sectional survey in Southern Sweden 2004 (n = 24819, 18-80 years, response rate 59%) was followed by a case-control study in 2005 to obtain more detailed exposure and confounder information (n = 2856, asthmatics and controls (1:3), 86% response rate). In the first survey, only residential address was known. In the second survey, questions about workplace addresses and daily time spent in traffic were also included. Residential and workplace addresses were geocoded and linked with GIS to road data and dispersion modelled outdoor concentrations of NOx (annual mean, 250 × 250 m resolution).
Living within 50 m of a road (measured by GIS) with traffic intensity of >10 cars/minute (compared with no road within this distance) was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = (1.1-2.8), and with asthma symptoms last 12 months. No statistically significant effects were seen for traffic exposure at workplace address, daily time spent in traffic, or commuting time to work, after adjustment for confounders. A combined total exposure estimate did not give a stronger association with asthma prevalence or asthma symptoms.
Traffic exposure at close proximity to residential address showed association with asthma prevalence and asthma symptoms last 12 months, among adults in southern Sweden. The associations were not stronger when accounting for total traffic exposure. This could reflect exposure misclassfication at workplace address and for other daily time in traffic, but also that residential address remains the main determinant for traffic exposure among adults.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21092159 View in PubMed
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Adult-onset asthma and occupational exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15626
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
K. Torén
B. Järvholm
J. Brisman
S. Hagberg
B A Hermansson
L. Lillienberg
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Kjell.Toren@ymk.gu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):430-5
Date
Oct-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Age of Onset
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - classification
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sampling Studies
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study examined certain occupational exposures and the risk for adult-onset asthma. METHODS: A nested case-referent study of adult-onset asthma was performed on a random population sample (N=15813), aged 21 to 51 years. Cases for the study included 2 groups: subjects reporting "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and a broader "asthma" group (N=362). The "asthma" group consisted of subjects with "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=251) and subjects reporting asthma-like symptoms without having "physician-diagnosed" asthma (N=111). The referents (N=2044) were randomly selected from the whole population sample. The case-referent sample was investigated with a comprehensive questionnaire about occupational exposures, asthma, respiratory symptoms, smoking, and atopy. Odds ratios were calculated with stratification for gender, year of diagnosis, and birth year. RESULTS: The highest odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma was associated with exposure to flour dust [odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-5.2] and the occupational handling of resin-based paints (isocyanates) (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.9). Exposure to welding fumes, textile dust, and work with glues containing acrylates was also associated with an increased odds ratio for "physician-diagnosed" asthma. Including persons with asthma-like symptoms (ie, the asthma group) showed similar results. CONCLUSION: This population-based case-referent study from Sweden indicates that occupational exposure to acrylate-based compounds and welding fumes is associated with increased risk for adult-onset asthma.
PubMed ID
10569463 View in PubMed
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Adult smoking as a proxy for environmental tobacco smoke exposure among children - comparing the impact of the level of information in Estonia, Finland and Latvia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150353
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Aug-Sep;49(2-3):240-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kristiina Patja
Samu Hakala
Ritva Prättälä
Kirstel Ojala
Elena Boldo
Mattias Oberg
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland. Kristiina.patja@promedico.fi
Source
Prev Med. 2009 Aug-Sep;49(2-3):240-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Estonia - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Latvia - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Parents - psychology
Prevalence
Proxy - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
International comparability of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure levels is difficult. This study assesses whether estimating children's exposure from information on adult smoking and exposure to ETS makes international comparisons more reliable.
The exposure among children was estimated using three different combinations (models) based on different sets of information on adult smoking, household composition or adult exposure to ETS at home in three cross-sectional nationally representative samples drawn from data sets from Estonia (n=2650), Finland (n=2829) and Latvia (n=5440) in the years 2002 and 2004. The first two models were based on adult smoking and the third also included ETS exposure.
The parental smoking rate was similar to the general smoking prevalence. ETS exposure in non-smoking parents ranged from 22% in Finland to 60% in Latvia. All models gave rather comparative ranges except in Latvia, where the proportion of children with exposure varied from 67% with the simplest model to 81% with the most complex one.
Adult exposure at home or adult smoking prevalence, preferably among people with children, could be used as a proxy for children's exposure to ETS. It is recommended that population questionnaires include detailed information on exposure and household composition.
PubMed ID
19520109 View in PubMed
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Age and temporal trends of total physical activity in Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49755
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Apr;35(4):617-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Anna Norman
Rino Bellocco
Florin Vaida
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
The National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003 Apr;35(4):617-22
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - epidemiology
Occupations
Physical Fitness
Public Health
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Sports
Sweden
Abstract
INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: Despite a large public health interest in physical activity and its role in obesity and other chronic diseases, only few reports to date have addressed total levels and trends of physical activity. We have studied in a cross-sectional setting with a retrospective recall of physical activity an association of levels of total physical activity and different types of activities with age and with calendar-time. METHODS: In a population-based study of 33,466 men aged 45-79 yr in central Sweden, information on physical activity and other lifestyle factors was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Level of total activity at ages 15, 30, and 50 yr was assessed quantitatively, based on six questions on different activities: work/occupation, housework, walking/bicycling, exercise, inactive leisure time, and sleeping. The physical activity levels were measured as metabolic equivalents, MET-hours per days. RESULTS: Total daily physical activity decreased at age 30 yr (-1.6%, 95% CI: -1.7, -1.4) and at age 50 yr (-3.9%, 95% CI: -4.0, -3.7) compared with age 15 yr. Total physical activity decreased over a period of 60 yr in all three separate age groups (-9.1% among 15-yr-olds, 95% CI: -9.8, -8.5; -2.3% among 30-yr-olds 95% CI: -3.0, -1.6; and -2.9% among 50-yr-olds, 95% CI: -3.4, -2.5). CONCLUSION: These negative trends in physical activity observed by age and with time might explain the trends in increasing prevalence of obesity.
PubMed ID
12673145 View in PubMed
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Age at menarche in the Canadian population: secular trends and relationship to adulthood BMI.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154086
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2008 Dec;43(6):548-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
M Anne Harris
Jerilynn C Prior
Mieke Koehoorn
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. aharris7@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
J Adolesc Health. 2008 Dec;43(6):548-54
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Body mass index
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Linear Models
Menarche
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies from around the world indicate a trend toward younger ages of menarche. The extent of this trend in the Canadian population is unknown, and the relationship to later-life health indicators has not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to estimate the trend in age at menarche (AAM) in the Canadian population and evaluate the relationship between AAM and adult body mass index (BMI).
Our data source was a nationally representative survey (the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2.2), and analyses included 8080 women, aged 15 and older, who self-reported AAM. Height and weight were measured by the interviewers for the calculation of current BMI. We modeled the secular trend in AAM over time, and the relationship between current BMI and AAM.
We found a statistically significant decline in AAM in successive age cohorts, indicating a 0.73-year (8.8-month) decrease in AAM between the oldest and youngest age cohorts in the sample. A 1-year increase in AAM was associated with a decrease in mean BMI of approximately 0.5 kg/m(2), after adjustment for covariates. A current age-AAM interaction term was nonsignificant, indicating that the relationship was stable throughout increasing temporal separation from puberty.
The observed trend toward earlier menarche could be an indicator of a change in insulin-related metabolism, possibly mediated by behavioral and environmental variables. This study suggests that AAM may be an important clinical and public health indicator of susceptibility to overweight and obesity and attendant morbidity.
Notes
Comment In: J Adolesc Health. 2008 Dec;43(6):525-619027638
PubMed ID
19027642 View in PubMed
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Age-related associations between work over-commitment and zest for work among Swedish employees from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289925
Source
Work. 2017; 57(2):269-279
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Roma Runeson-Broberg
Jean-Baptist du Prel
Peter Westerholm
Maria Nordin
Anders Knutsson
Lars Alfredsson
Göran Fahlén
Richard Peter
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Work. 2017; 57(2):269-279
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Occupational Stress - psychology
Reward
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Workload - psychology
Abstract
In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood.
To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work.
During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n?=?2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets.
Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed.
The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.
PubMed ID
28582947 View in PubMed
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Age-related macular degeneration among the Inuit in Greenland

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6642
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
, and at the Sisi- miut Health Centre during the months of April and May in 2001 . More than 70 % of the invited persons partici- pated in the study. Preliminary genealogical in- vestigations were subsequently performed in the National Eye Clinic for the Visually Impaired. The original fundus
  1 document  
Author
Andersen, N
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Rigshospitalet, The University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 320-323 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cross-Sectional Studies
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Macular degeneration - epidemiology - ethnology
Middle Aged
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Visual impairment
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical appearance and prevalence of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) among the Inuit in Greenland, to investigate risk factors and to initiate the search for possible genetic markers. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population study including all individuals older than 60 years of age, born in Greenland and living in the communities of Nuuk and Sisimiut, was performed in 2000 and 2001. METHODS: All participants underwent an ophthalmologic examination, which was complemented by fundus photography and a questionnaire. RESULTS: 689 individuals, or more than 70%, participated in the study. Data are currently being processed. The preliminary data suggest that AMD among the Inuit is characterised by a rather uniform morphology and poor visual outcome. The detection of more cases of AMD in the early and late stages in relation to intermediate stages furthermore indicates a rapid development of AMD among the Inuit. CONCLUSION: The relative homogeneity of the Inuit population of Greenland may represent an opportunity for identifying the aetiological factors responsible for the development of AMD. The future results of this research project will hopefully also contribute towards an increased focus on the growing number of individuals with visual impairment due to AMD among the Inuit.
PubMed ID
15736677 View in PubMed
Documents
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Agreement between birthplace and self-reported ethnicity in a population-based mammography service.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154371
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):511-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
Chris D Bajdik
M C Barroetavena
S R Saroa
T Gregory Hislop
Author Affiliation
BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver BC, Canada. cbajdik@bccrc.ca
Source
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):511-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - ethnology - prevention & control
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Early Detection of Cancer
European Continental Ancestry Group - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Mammography
Mass Screening - organization & administration
Program Evaluation
Residence Characteristics
Risk assessment
Self Disclosure
Abstract
Ethnicity is associated with genetic, environmental, lifestyle and social constructs. Difficult to define using a single variable, but strongly predictive of health outcomes and useful for planning healthcare services, it is often lacking in administrative databases, necessitating the use of a surrogate measure. A potential surrogate for ethnicity is birthplace. Our aim was to measure the agreement between birthplace and ethnicity among six major ethic groups as recorded at the population-based mammography service for British Columbia, Canada (BC).
We used records from the most-recent visits of women attending the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia to cross-tabulate women's birthplaces and self-reported ethnicities, and separately considered results for the time periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2006. In general, we combined countries according to the system adopted by the United Nations, and defined ethnic groups that correspond to the nation groups. The analysis considered birthplaces and corresponding ethnicities for South Asia, East/Southeast Asia, North Europe, South Europe, East Europe, West Europe and all other nations combined. We used the kappa statistic to measure the concordance between self-reported ethnicity and birthplace.
Except for the 'Other' category, the most-common birthplace was East/Southeast Asia and the most-common ethnicity was East/Southeast Asian. The agreement between birthplace and self-reported ethnicity was poor overall, as evidenced by kappa scores of 0.22 in both 1990-1999 and 2000-2006. There was substantial agreement between ethnicity and birthplace for South Asians, excellent agreement for East/Southeast Asians, but poor agreement for Europeans.
Birthplace can be used as a surrogate for ethnicity amongst people with South Asian and East/Southeast Asian ethnicity in BC.
PubMed ID
18990030 View in PubMed
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Airborne occupational exposure, ABO phenotype, and risk of obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature53175
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun;29(6):689-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
P. Suadicani
H O Hein
F. Gyntelberg
Author Affiliation
The Copenhagen Male Study, Epidemiological Research Unit, Clinic of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, NV, Denmark. PS11@bbh.hosp.dk
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Jun;29(6):689-96
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - chemically induced
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Health Surveys
Humans
Industry
Inflammation Mediators - toxicity
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - blood - chemically induced - etiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: We have previously found a quite strong interplay between occupational airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), with long-term exposure being associated with a significantly increased risk among men with phenotype O, and not among men with other ABO phenotypes. We suggested that the biological pathway could be a stronger systemic inflammatory response in men with blood group O. Several inflammatory mediators likely to increase the risk of IHD have recently been linked also to obesity, suggesting that long-term exposure to airborne pollutants might play a role in the aetiology of obesity. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that long-term occupational exposure to airborne pollutants would be more strongly associated with obesity in men with phenotype O than in men with other ABO phenotypes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional exposure-response study taking into account potential confounders. SETTING: The Copenhagen Male Study. SUBJECTS: A total of 3290 men aged 53-74 y. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of obesity (BMI > or =30 (kg/m2)). RESULTS: Overall, no differences were found in the prevalence of obesity between men with the O phenotype (n=1399) and men with other phenotypes (n=1891), 8.6 and 9.0%. However, only among men with the O phenotype was long-term occupational exposure (at least 5 y of frequent exposure) to various respirable airborne pollutants: dust, asbestos, soldering fumes, welding fumes, organic solvents, fumes from lacquer, paint or varnish, toxic components, breath irritants, stench or strongly smelling products, and irritants (other than breath irritants or contagious components) associated with an increased prevalence of obesity. Statistically, the strongest univariate associations were found for asbestos exposure, welding fumes, and breath irritants. Odds ratios (95% confidence limits) for these factors were 3.7 (1.8-7.6), 2.7 (1.6-4.4), and 2.6 (1.5-4.4), respectively. This particular relationship of airborne exposures with obesity in men with phenotype O was supported in multivariate analysis including interaction terms and taking into account a number of potential confounders. In contrast, no gene-environment interactions with obesity were found with respect to ABO phenotypes and a number of nonrespirable exposures. CONCLUSION: The finding of a quite strong interplay between long-term exposure to airborne pollutants, ABO phenotypes, and risk of obesity may open up new possibilities for clarifying mechanisms underlying the global obesity epidemic.
PubMed ID
15809661 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and childhood respiratory health: exposure to sulfate and ozone in 10 Canadian rural communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217580
Source
Environ Res. 1994 Aug;66(2):125-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
B R Stern
M E Raizenne
R T Burnett
L. Jones
J. Kearney
C A Franklin
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Environ Res. 1994 Aug;66(2):125-42
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Lung - physiology
Lung Diseases - epidemiology
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was designed to examine differences in the respiratory health status of preadolescent school children, aged 7-11 years, who resided in 10 rural Canadian communities areas of moderate and low exposure to regional sulfate and ozone pollution. Five of the communities were located in central Saskatchewan, a low-exposure region, and five were located in southwestern Ontario, an area with moderately elevated exposures resulting from long-range atmospheric transport of polluted air masses. In this cross-sectional study, the child's respiratory symptoms and illness history were evaluated using a parent-completed questionnaire, administered in September 1985. Respiratory function was assessed once for each child in the schools between October 1985 and March 1986, by the measurement of pulmonary function for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), mean forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC curve (FEF25-75), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the expired vital capacity (V50max). The 1986 annual mean of the 1-hr daily maxima of ozone was higher in Ontario (46.3 ppb) than in Saskatchewan (34.1 ppb), with 90th percentile concentrations of 80 ppb in Ontario and 47 ppb in Saskatchewan. Summertime 1-hr daily maxima means were 69.0 ppb in Ontario and 36.1 ppb in Saskatchewan. Annual mean and 90th percentile concentrations of inhalable sulfates were three times higher in Ontario than in Saskatchewan; there were no significant differences in levels of inhalable particles (PM10) or particulate nitrates. Levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were low in both regions. After controlling for the effects of age, sex, parental smoking, parental education, and gas cooking, no significant regional differences were observed in rates of chronic cough or phlegm, persistent wheeze, current asthma, bronchitis in the past year, or any chest illness that kept the child at home for 3 or more consecutive days during the previous year. Children living in southwestern Ontario had statistically significant (P 0.05).
PubMed ID
8055835 View in PubMed
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Airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel: trichloramine exposure, exhaled NO and protein profiling of nasal lavage fluids.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123142
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013 Jul;86(5):571-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Louise Fornander
Bijar Ghafouri
Mats Lindahl
Pål Graff
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013 Jul;86(5):571-80
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - analysis
Biological Markers - metabolism
Chlorides - adverse effects - analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Female
Humans
Immunoblotting
Male
Middle Aged
Nasal Lavage Fluid - chemistry
Nitric Oxide - metabolism
Nitrogen Compounds - adverse effects - analysis
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - metabolism
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Prevalence
Proteome - metabolism
Respiratory Tract Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - metabolism
Risk factors
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
Sweden - epidemiology
Swimming Pools
Abstract
Occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel was investigated. The aims of this study were to assess trichloramine exposure levels and exhaled nitric oxide in relation to the prevalence of airway symptoms in swimming pool facilities and to determine protein effects in the upper respiratory tract.
The presence of airway symptoms related to work was examined in 146 individuals working at 46 indoor swimming pool facilities. Levels of trichloramine, as well as exhaled nitric oxide, were measured in five facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation and four facilities with no airway irritation among the personnel. Nasal lavage fluid was collected, and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach.
17 % of the swimming pool personnel reported airway symptoms related to work. The levels of trichloramine in the swimming pool facilities ranged from 0.04 to 0.36 mg/m(3). There was no covariance between trichloramine levels, exhaled nitric oxide and prevalence of airway symptoms. Protein profiling of the nasal lavage fluid showed that the levels alpha-1-antitrypsin and lactoferrin were significantly higher, and S100-A8 was significantly lower in swimming pool personnel.
This study confirms the occurrence of airway irritation among indoor swimming pool personnel. Our results indicate altered levels of innate immunity proteins in the upper airways that may pose as potential biomarkers. However, swimming pool facilities with high prevalence of airway irritation could not be explained by higher trichloramine exposure levels. Further studies are needed to clarify the environmental factors in indoor swimming pools that cause airway problems and affect the immune system.
PubMed ID
22729567 View in PubMed
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Airway symptoms and lung function in the local population after the oil tank explosion in Gulen, Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118172
Source
BMC Pulm Med. 2012;12:76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Jens-Tore Granslo
Magne Bråtveit
Bjørg Eli Hollund
Ågot Irgens
Cecilie Svanes
Nils Magerøy
Bente Elisabeth Moen
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. jens-tore.granslo@helse-bergen.no
Source
BMC Pulm Med. 2012;12:76
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Explosions
Female
Humans
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Questionnaires
Respiration Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Spirometry
Abstract
Oil tanks containing a mixture of hydrocarbons, including sulphuric compounds, exploded and caught fire in an industrial harbour. This study assesses airway symptoms and lung function in the nearby population 1½ years after the explosion.
A cross-sectional study included individuals =18 years old. Individuals living 20 km away formed a control group. A questionnaire and spirometry tests were completed by 223 exposed individuals (response rate men 70%, women 75%) and 179 control individuals (response rate men 51%, women 65%). Regression analyses included adjustment for smoking, occupational exposure, atopy, infection in the preceding month and age. Analyses of symptoms were also adjusted for stress reactions related to the accident.
Exposed individuals experienced significantly more blocked nose (odds ratio 1.7 [95% confidence interval 1.0, 2.8]), rhinorrhoea (1.6 [1.1, 3.3]), nose irritation (3.4 [2.0, 5.9]), sore throat (3.1 [1.8, 5.5]), morning cough (3.5 [2.0, 5.5]), daily cough (2.2 [1.4, 3.7]), cough >3 months a year (2.9 [1.5, 5.3]) and cough with phlegm (1.9 [1.2, 3.1]) than control individuals. A significantly increasing trend was found for nose symptoms and cough, depending on the proximity of home address to explosion site (daily cough, 3-6km 1.8 [1.0, 3.1],
Notes
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PubMed ID
23234609 View in PubMed
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Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth: awareness and use in schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131582
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):137-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Shauna M Downs
Anna Farmer
Maira Quintanilha
Tanya R Berry
Diana R Mager
Noreen D Willows
Linda J McCargar
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):137-40
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alberta
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Food Services
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Health promotion
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Nutritional Status
Questionnaires
Schools
Social Environment
Abstract
In June 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth. We evaluated the awareness of and intent to use the guidelines in Alberta schools, and sought to determine whether organizational characteristics were a factor in adoption of the guidelines.
Randomly selected schools from across Alberta completed a 19-question telephone survey, which included open- and closed-ended questions about the schools' characteristics, the priority given to healthy eating, awareness of the guidelines, and the schools' intent to use the guidelines. Of the 554 schools contacted, 357 (64%) completed the survey.
Overall, 76.1% of schools were aware of the guidelines and 65% were in the process of adopting them. Fifty percent of schools identified healthy eating as a high priority and 65.9% reported making changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year. Schools that were larger, public, and urban, and had a school champion and healthy eating as a high priority were more likely to be adopting the guidelines.
Most schools were aware of the nutrition guidelines and many had begun the adoption process. Identifying a school champion may be an important first step for schools in terms of adopting health promotion initiatives.
PubMed ID
21896251 View in PubMed
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Alcoholism--North America and Asia. A comparison of population surveys with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229351
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Apr;47(4):313-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1990
Author
J E Helzer
G J Canino
E K Yeh
R C Bland
C K Lee
H G Hwu
S. Newman
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110.
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1990 Apr;47(4):313-9
Date
Apr-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alberta
Alcoholism - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Comorbidity
Cross-Cultural Comparison
Cross-Sectional Studies
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Humans
Korea
Male
Middle Aged
Missouri
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Puerto Rico
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Taiwan
Abstract
The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) is a highly structured instrument that enables lay examiners to gather the clinical information necessary to generate psychiatric disorders according to the DSM-III, Feighner, and Research Diagnostic Criteria. It was developed originally as the diagnostic interview for the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) survey. Because it adheres to DSM-III and can be used by lay interviewers, thus making it practical for studies involving large samples, it has been used for other population surveys in North and South America, Europe, and Asia. This investigation compares the epidemiology of DSM-III-defined alcohol abuse and addiction in DIS-based population surveys cross-nationally (in St Louis, Mo; Edmonton, Canada; Puerto Rico; Taipei City, Taiwan; and South Korea). We found considerable variation in the lifetime prevalence of alcoholism but a similarity in the age of onset, the symptomatic expression, and the associated risk factors. We also found an inverse correlation between the prevalence of alcoholism and the strength of the association of the risk factors we examined. The work described herein demonstrates the utility of consistent definition and method in cross-cultural psychiatric research. The substantive findings have implications for the definition of alcoholism and for a better understanding of genetic and environmental interactions in its etiology.
PubMed ID
2322082 View in PubMed
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Alcohol prevention at sporting events: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285143
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Jun 06;16:471
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-06-2016
Author
Natalie Durbeej
Tobias H Elgán
Camilla Jalling
Johanna Gripenberg
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Jun 06;16:471
Date
Jun-06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - prevention & control
Alcoholic Intoxication - prevention & control
Commerce - legislation & jurisprudence
Control Groups
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Licensure
Male
Middle Aged
Sports
Sweden
Violence - prevention & control
Abstract
Alcohol intoxication and overserving of alcohol at sporting events are of great concern, given the relationships between alcohol consumption, public disturbances, and violence. During recent years this matter has been on the agenda for Swedish policymakers, authorities and key stakeholders, with demands that actions be taken. There is promising potential for utilizing an environmental approach to alcohol prevention as a strategy to reduce the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events. Examples of prevention strategies may be community mobilization, Responsible Beverage Service training, policy work, and improved controls and sanctions. This paper describes the design of a quasi-experimental control group study to examine the effects of a multi-component community-based alcohol intervention at matches in the Swedish Premier Football League.
A baseline assessment was conducted during 2015 and at least two follow-up assessments will be conducted in 2016 and 2017. The two largest cities in Sweden are included in the study, with Stockholm as the intervention area and Gothenburg as the control area. The setting is Licensed Premises (LP) inside and outside Swedish football arenas, in addition to arena entrances. Spectators are randomly selected and invited to participate in the study by providing a breath alcohol sample as a proxy for Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC). Actors are hired and trained by an expert panel to act out a standardized scene of severe pseudo-intoxication. Four types of cross-sectional data are generated: (i) BAC levels among?=?4 200 spectators, frequency of alcohol service to pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to purchase alcohol at LP (ii) outside the arenas (=200 attempts) and (iii) inside the arenas (= 200 attempts), and (iv) frequency of security staff interventions towards pseudo-intoxicated patrons attempting to enter the arenas (= 200 attempts).
There is an urgent need nationally and internationally to reduce alcohol-related problems at sporting events, and it is essential to test prevention strategies to reduce intoxication levels among spectators. This project makes an important contribution not only to the research community, but also to enabling public health officials, decision-makers, authorities, the general public, and the sports community, to implement appropriate evidence-based strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27267058 View in PubMed
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Allergy and respiratory health effects of dampness and dampness-related agents in schools and homes: a cross-sectional study in Danish pupils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288350
Source
Indoor Air. 2016 12;26(6):880-891
Publication Type
Article
Date
12-2016
Author
G J Holst
A. Høst
G. Doekes
H W Meyer
A M Madsen
K B Plesner
T. Sigsgaard
Source
Indoor Air. 2016 12;26(6):880-891
Date
12-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air pollution, indoor
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Housing
Humans
Humidity - adverse effects
Hypersensitivity - etiology
Male
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology
Schools
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Little is known about the health effects of school-related indoor dampness and microbial exposures. In this study, we investigated dampness and dampness-related agents in both homes and schools and their association with allergy and respiratory health effects in 330 Danish pupils. Classroom dampness was identified based on technical inspection and bedroom dampness on parents' self-report. Classroom and bedroom dust was analyzed for seven microbial components. Skin prick testing determined atopic sensitization. Lung function was expressed as z-scores for forced expiratory volume in one-second (zFEV1 ), forced vital capacity (zFVC) and the ratio zFEV1 /zFVC using GLI-2012 prediction equations. The parents reported children's allergies, airway symptoms, and doctor-diagnosed asthma. High classroom dampness, but not bedroom dampness, was negatively associated with zFEV1 (ß-coef. -0.71; 95% CI -1.17 to -0.23) and zFVC (ß-coef. -0.52; 95% CI -0.98 to -0.06) and positively with wheezing (OR 8.09; 95% CI 1.49 to 43.97). No consistent findings were found between any individual microbial components or combination of microbial components and health outcomes. Among other indoor risk factors, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) decreased zFEV1 (ß-coef. -0.22; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.02) and zFEV1 /zFVCratio (ß-coef. -0.26; 95% CI -0.44 to -0.07) and increased upper airway symptoms (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.03-2.66). In conclusion, dampness in classrooms may have adverse respiratory health effects in pupils, but microbial agents responsible for this effect remain unknown.
PubMed ID
26643593 View in PubMed
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