First, to explore item pools developed to measure the physical home environment of pre-school children and assess the psychometric properties of these item pools; second, to explore associations between this environment and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds.
Data were collected in three steps: (i) a parental web-based questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing the child's vegetable consumption; (ii) direct observation of the children's fruit, berry and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten; and (iii) a parental web-based 24 h recall.
The target group for this study was pre-school children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in the counties of Vestfold and Buskerud, Norway.
A total of 633 children participated.
Principal component analysis on the thirteen-item pool assessing availability/accessibility resulted in two factors labelled 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home', while the eight-item pool assessing barriers resulted in two factors labelled 'serving barriers' and 'purchase barriers'. The psychometric properties of these factors were satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed generally positive associations with 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home' and negative associations with 'serving barriers'.
This age group has so far been understudied and there is a need for comparable studies. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the physical home environment of pre-school children in future interventions as there are important modifiable factors that both promote and hinder vegetable consumption in this environment.
To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child's weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years.
Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
A total of 50?943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy.
Child's body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1?year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories.
Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (200?mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years.
Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy.
Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22. In total, 1725 children (2.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. In non-users of supplemental iodine (53,360 mothers), we found no association between iodine intake from food and risk of child ADHD diagnosis (p = 0.89), while low iodine from food (
aDepartment of Medicine Solna bDepartment of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine cDepartment of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC), a cancer occurring within a short interval of a colonoscopy, might be partly explained as missed or incompletely resected lesions. Associated risk factors are age, sex, comorbidity, cancer location, and colonoscopy volume. There is a gap in the knowledge of prevalence of PCCRC and the impact of different risk factors in Sweden.
This is a retrospective population-based observational cohort study of the colonoscopies performed on adults during the years 2001-2010 that were identified from Swedish health registers. The rate of PCCRC (diagnosed 6-36 months after the first colonoscopy) was defined as the number of PCCRCs divided by the number of colorectal cancers (CRC) in the interval of 0-36 months. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses examined associations with PCCRC.
There were 289?729 colonoscopies performed on 249?079 individuals included in the study. There were 16?319 individuals with a colorectal cancer diagnosis 0-36 months after a colonoscopy. Of these, 1286 (7.9%) were PCCRCs. In the multivariate analysis, young age (18-30 years) and former polyp diagnosis had the highest risks [relative risk (RR)=3.3; 95% confidence interval: 2.1-5.2 and RR=3.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.7-3.6]. The impact of other risk factors, such as female sex, comorbidity, right sided colorectal cancer location, and time period, was consistent with the finding in other studies.
The prevalence of PCCRC in Sweden seems to be relatively high, indicating that there is room for improvement in colonoscopy quality. The high RR of PCCRC in the youngest age group, even though there were only a few cases, has not been described in other studies.
The DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) are comorbid with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and with each other. It remains unclear which PD criteria are most likely to drive onset and recurrence of AUD and which are merely confounded with those criteria. We determine which individual PD criteria predict AUD and the degree of underlying genetic and/or environmental aetiology.
A prospective observational twin study.
A total of 2528 and 2275 Norwegian adult twins in waves 1 and 2 variable-selection analyses, and 2785 in biometric analyses.
DSM-IV PDs and their 80 criteria were assessed using a structured personal interview, and AUD using the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
In a variable-selection analysis, two PD criteria were associated with AUD even after taking all the other criteria into account: criterion 8 of antisocial PD (childhood conduct disorder) and criterion 4 of borderline PD (self-damaging impulsive behaviours). Adjusting for each other, their respective odds ratios were 3.4 [confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-5.4] and 5.0 (CI = 3.3-7.7). Endorsement strength of the criteria was associated with AUD in a dose-response manner and they explained 5.5% of variation in AUD risk-more than the full diagnoses of antisocial and borderline PDs together (0.5%). The association between borderline criterion 4 and AUD 10 years later derived mainly from their overlapping genetic factors, whereas the association between antisocial criterion 8 and AUD 10 years later was due to both genetic and non-genetic factors.
Conduct disorder and self-harming impulsivity are the foremost risk traits for alcohol use disorder among the 80 personality disorder criteria of DSM-IV, predicting alcohol use disorder more effectively than personality disorder diagnoses. The twin-study analysis suggested that conduct disorder represents a joint genetic and developmental risk for alcohol use disorder and that impulsivity is a genetic risk.
Severe and uncontrolled asthma is associated with increased risk of exacerbations and death. A substantial proportion of asthma patients have poor asthma control, and a concurrent COPD diagnosis often increases disease burden. The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence and managemant of severe asthma in a Swedish asthma popuöation.
In this observational cohort study, primary care medical records data (2006-2013) from 36 primary health care centers were linked to data from national mandatory Swedish health registries. The studied population (>18 years) had a record of drug collection for obstructive pulmonary disease (ATC code R03) during 2011-2012, and a physician diagnosed asthma (ICD-10 code J45-J46) prior to drug collection. Severe asthma was classified as collection of high dose inhaled steroid (> 800 budesonide or equivalent per day) and leukotriene receptor antagonist and/or long-acting beta-agonist. Poor asthma control was defined as either collection of =600 doses of short-acting beta-agonists, and/or =1 exacerbation(s) during the year post index date.
A total of 18,724 asthma patients (mean 49 years, 62.8% women) were included, of whom 17,934 (95.8%) had mild to moderate and 790 (4.2%) had severe asthma. Exacerbations were more prevalent in severe asthma (2.59 [2.41-2.79], Relative Risk [95% confidence interval]; p?
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar 1;183(5):589-95 PMID 20889908