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Active aging - resilience and external support as modifiers of the disablement outcome: AGNES cohort study protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299192
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-02-2018
Author
Taina Rantanen
Milla Saajanaho
Laura Karavirta
Sini Siltanen
Merja Rantakokko
Anne Viljanen
Timo Rantalainen
Katja Pynnönen
Anu Karvonen
Inna Lisko
Lotta Palmberg
Johanna Eronen
Eeva-Maija Palonen
Timo Hinrichs
Markku Kauppinen
Katja Kokko
Erja Portegijs
Author Affiliation
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Univerisity of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (viv 149), 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland. taina.rantanen@jyu.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Date
05-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Literacy
Humans
Male
Resilience, Psychological
Social Support
Abstract
Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing. We will examine cohort effects on functional phenotypes underlying active aging and disability.
For this population-based study, we plan to recruit 1000 participants aged 75, 80 or 85 years living in central Finland, by drawing personal details from the population register. Participants are interviewed on active aging, wellbeing, disability, environmental and social support, mobility, health behavior and health literacy. Physical activity and heart rate are monitored for 7 days with wearable sensors. Functional tests include hearing, vision, muscle strength, reaction time, exercise tolerance, mobility, and cognitive performance. Clinical examination by a nurse and physician includes an electrocardiogram, tests of blood pressure, orthostatic regulation, arterial stiffness, and lung function, as well as a review of chronic and acute conditions and prescribed medications. C-reactive protein, small blood count, cholesterol and vitamin D are analyzed from blood samples. Associations of factors potentially underlying active aging and wellbeing will be studied using multivariate methods. Cohort effects will be studied by comparing test results of physical and cognitive functioning with results of a cohort examined in 1989-90.
The current study will renew research on positive gerontology through the novel approach to active aging and by suggesting new biomarkers of resilience and active aging. Therefore, high interdisciplinary impact is expected. This cross-sectional study will not provide knowledge on temporal order of events or causality, but an innovative cross-sectional dataset provides opportunities for emergence of novel creative hypotheses and theories.
PubMed ID
29716566 View in PubMed
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Air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits in Saint John, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196821
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Publication Type
Article
Author
D M Stieb
R C Beveridge
J R Brook
M. Smith-Doiron
R T Burnett
R E Dales
S. Beaulieu
S. Judek
A. Mamedov
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. dave_stieb@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2000 Sep-Oct;10(5):461-77
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Allergens - adverse effects - isolation & purification
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Humans
New Brunswick - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Seasons
Abstract
Existing studies of the association between air pollution, aeroallergens and emergency department (ED) visits have generally examined the effects of a few pollutants or aeroallergens on individual conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we considered a wide variety of respiratory and cardiac conditions and an extensive set of pollutants and aeroallergens, and utilized prospectively collected information on possible effect modifiers which would not normally be available from purely administrative data. The association between air pollution, aeroallergens and cardiorespiratory ED visits (n = 19,821) was examined for the period 1992 to 1996 using generalized additive models. ED visit, air pollution and aeroallergen time series were prefiltered using LOESS smoothers to minimize temporal confounding, and a parsimonious model was constructed to control for confounding by weather and day of week. Multipollutant and multi-aeroallergen models were constructed using stepwise procedures and sensitivity analyses were conducted by season, diagnosis, and selected individual characteristics or effect modifiers. In single-pollutant models, positive effects of all pollutants but NO2 and COH were observed on asthma visits, and positive effects on all respiratory diagnosis groups were observed for O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO4(2-). Among cardiac conditions, only dysrhythmia visits were positively associated with all measures of particulate matter. In the final year-round multipollutant models, a 20.9% increase in cardiac ED visits was attributed to the combination of O3 (16.0%, 95% CI 2.8-30.9) and SO2 (4.9%, 95%CI 1.7-8.2) at the mean concentration of each pollutant. In the final multipollutant model for respiratory visits, O3 accounted for 3.9% of visits (95% CI 0.8-7.2), and SO2 for 3.7% (95% CI 1.5-6.0), whereas a weak, negative association was observed with NO2. In multi-aeroallergen models of warm season asthma ED visits, Ascomycetes, Alternaria and small round fungal spores accounted for 4.5% (95% CI 1.8-7.4), 4.7% (95% CI 1.0-8.6) and 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.1), respectively, of visits at their mean concentrations, and these effects were not sensitive to adjustment for air pollution effects. In conclusion, we observed a significant influence of the air pollution mix on cardiac and respiratory ED visits. Although in single-pollutant models, positive associations were noted between ED visits and some measures of particulate matter, in multipollutant models, pollutant gases, particularly ozone, exhibited more consistent effects. Aeroallergens were also significantly associated with warm season asthma ED visits.
PubMed ID
11051536 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and childhood respiratory health: exposure to sulfate and ozone in 10 Canadian rural communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217580
Source
Environ Res. 1994 Aug;66(2):125-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
B R Stern
M E Raizenne
R T Burnett
L. Jones
J. Kearney
C A Franklin
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Environ Res. 1994 Aug;66(2):125-42
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Lung - physiology
Lung Diseases - epidemiology
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Questionnaires
Rural Population
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was designed to examine differences in the respiratory health status of preadolescent school children, aged 7-11 years, who resided in 10 rural Canadian communities areas of moderate and low exposure to regional sulfate and ozone pollution. Five of the communities were located in central Saskatchewan, a low-exposure region, and five were located in southwestern Ontario, an area with moderately elevated exposures resulting from long-range atmospheric transport of polluted air masses. In this cross-sectional study, the child's respiratory symptoms and illness history were evaluated using a parent-completed questionnaire, administered in September 1985. Respiratory function was assessed once for each child in the schools between October 1985 and March 1986, by the measurement of pulmonary function for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1.0), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), mean forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC curve (FEF25-75), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the expired vital capacity (V50max). The 1986 annual mean of the 1-hr daily maxima of ozone was higher in Ontario (46.3 ppb) than in Saskatchewan (34.1 ppb), with 90th percentile concentrations of 80 ppb in Ontario and 47 ppb in Saskatchewan. Summertime 1-hr daily maxima means were 69.0 ppb in Ontario and 36.1 ppb in Saskatchewan. Annual mean and 90th percentile concentrations of inhalable sulfates were three times higher in Ontario than in Saskatchewan; there were no significant differences in levels of inhalable particles (PM10) or particulate nitrates. Levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were low in both regions. After controlling for the effects of age, sex, parental smoking, parental education, and gas cooking, no significant regional differences were observed in rates of chronic cough or phlegm, persistent wheeze, current asthma, bronchitis in the past year, or any chest illness that kept the child at home for 3 or more consecutive days during the previous year. Children living in southwestern Ontario had statistically significant (P 0.05).
PubMed ID
8055835 View in PubMed
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Association between ambient carbon monoxide levels and hospitalizations for congestive heart failure in the elderly in 10 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature209090
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1997
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
J R Brook
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 Mar;8(2):162-7
Date
Mar-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Health Care Surveys
Heart Failure - epidemiology - etiology - therapy
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data - trends
Humans
Incidence
Linear Models
Male
Regression Analysis
Risk assessment
Abstract
We examined the role that ambient air pollution plays in exacerbating cardiac disease by relating daily fluctuations in admissions to 134 hospitals for congestive heart failure in the elderly to daily variations in ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and the coefficient of haze in Canada's 10 largest cities for the 11-year period 1981-1991 inclusive. We adjusted the hospitalization time series for seasonal, subseasonal, and weekly cycles and for hospital usage patterns. The logarithm of the daily high-hour ambient carbon monoxide concentration recorded on the day of admission displayed the strongest and most consistent association with hospitalization rates among the pollutants, after stratifying the time series by month of year and adjusting simultaneously for temperature, dew point, and the other ambient air pollutants. The relative risk for a change from 1 ppm to 3 ppm, the 25th and 75th percentiles of the exposure distribution, was 1.065 (95% confidence interval = 1.028-1.104). The regression coefficients of the other air pollutants were much more sensitive to simultaneous adjustment for either multiple pollutant or weather model specifications.
PubMed ID
9229208 View in PubMed
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The association between daily mortality and ambient air particle pollution in Montreal, Quebec. 2. Cause-specific mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature194475
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
M S Goldberg
R T Burnett
J C Bailar
J. Brook
Y. Bonvalot
R. Tamblyn
R. Singh
M F Valois
R. Vincent
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1A2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2001 May;86(1):26-36
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Coronary Disease - mortality
Diabetes Mellitus - mortality
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Mortality
Quebec - epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Sulfates - analysis
Abstract
This study was undertaken to determine whether variations in concentrations of particulates in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, during the period 1984 to 1993, were associated with daily variations in cause-specific daily mortality. Fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal provided daily mean levels of various measures of particles and gaseous pollutants. Total sulfate was also measured daily (1986-1993) at a monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We used coefficient of haze (COH), extinction coefficient, and sulfate from the Sutton station to predict fine particles and sulfate from fine particles for days that were missing. We estimated associations between cause-specific mortality and PM(2.5), PM(10), predicted fine particles and fine sulfate particles, total suspended particles, coefficient of haze, extinction coefficient, and total sulfate measured at the Sutton station. We selected a set of underlying causes of death, as recorded on the death certificates, as the endpoint and then regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on the daily mean levels for the above measures of particulates, after accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, non-Poisson dispersion, weather variables, and gaseous pollutants. We found positive and statistically significant associations between the daily measures of ambient particle mass and sulfate mass and the deaths from respiratory diseases and diabetes. The mean percentage change in daily mortality (MPC), evaluated at the interquartile range for pollutants averaged over the day of death and the preceding 2 days, for deaths from respiratory diseases was MPC(COH)=6.90% (95% CI: 3.69-10.21%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)= 9.03% (95% CI: 5.83- 12.33%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.64% (95% CI: 2.46-6.86%). For diabetes, the corresponding estimates were MPC(COH)=7.50% (95% CI: 1.96-13.34%), MPC(Predicted PM2.5)=7.59% (95% CI: 2.36-13.09%), and MPC(Sutton sulfate)=4.48% (95% CI: 1.08-7.99%). Among individuals older than 65 years at time of death, we found consistent associations across our metrics of particles for neoplasms and coronary artery diseases. Associations with sulfate mass were also found among elderly persons who died of cardiovascular diseases and of lung cancer. These associations were consistent with linear relationships. The associations found for respiratory diseases and for cardiovascular diseases, especially in the elderly, are in line with some of the current hypotheses regarding mechanisms by which ambient particles may increase daily mortality. The positive associations found for cancer and for diabetes may be understood through a general hypothesis proposed by Frank and Tankersley, who suggested that persons in failing health may be at higher risk for external insults through the failure of regulating physiological set points. The association with diabetes may be interpreted in light of recent toxicological findings that inhalation of urban particles in animals increases blood pressure and plasmatic levels of endothelins that enhance vasoconstriction and alter electrophysiology. Further research to confirm these findings and to determine whether they are causal is warranted.
PubMed ID
11386738 View in PubMed
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Association between ozone and hospitalization for acute respiratory diseases in children less than 2 years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195575
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):444-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2001
Author
R T Burnett
M. Smith-Doiron
D. Stieb
M E Raizenne
J R Brook
R E Dales
J A Leech
S. Cakmak
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, 200 Environmental Health Center, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1A OL2. rick_burnett@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):444-52
Date
Mar-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Child, Hospitalized - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Seasons
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To clarify the health effects of ozone exposure in young children, the authors studied the association between air pollution and hospital admissions for acute respiratory problems in children less than 2 years of age during the 15-year period from 1980 to 1994 in Toronto, Canada. The daily time series of admissions was adjusted for the influences of day of the week, season, and weather. A 35% (95% confidence interval: 19%, 52%) increase in the daily hospitalization rate for respiratory problems was associated with a 5-day moving average of the daily 1-hour maximum ozone concentration of 45 parts per billion, the May-August average value. The ozone effect persisted after adjustment for other ambient air pollutants or weather variables. Ozone was not associated with hospital admissions during the September-April period. Ambient ozone levels in the summertime should be considered a risk factor for respiratory problems in children less than 2 years of age.
PubMed ID
11226976 View in PubMed
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Association between ozone and hospitalization for respiratory diseases in 16 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature210280
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
R T Burnett
J R Brook
W T Yung
R E Dales
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Health Canada, Environmental Health Center, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. rick-burnett@isdtcp3.hwc.ca
Source
Environ Res. 1997 Jan;72(1):24-31
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants
Canada
Hospitalization - trends
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Abstract
The effects of tropospheric ozone on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been well documented at relatively high concentrations. However, previous investigations have failed to establish a clear association between tropospheric ozone and respiratory diseases severe enough to require hospitalization after controlling for climate, and with gaseous and particulate air pollution at the lower concentrations typically observed in Canada today. To determine if low levels of tropospheric ozone contribute to hospitalization for respiratory disease, air pollution data were compared to hospital admissions for 16 cities across Canada representing 12.6 million people. During the 3927-day period from April 1, 1981, to December 31, 1991, there were 720,519 admissions for which the principle diagnosis was a respiratory disease. After controlling for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, soiling index, and dew point temperature, the daily high hour concentration of ozone recorded 1 day previous to the date of admission was positively associated with respiratory admissions in the April to December period but not in the winter months. The relative risk for a 30 ppb increase in ozone varied from 1.043 (P
PubMed ID
9012369 View in PubMed
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Association between particulate- and gas-phase components of urban air pollution and daily mortality in eight Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184322
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2000;12 Suppl 4:15-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
R T Burnett
J. Brook
T. Dann
C. Delocla
O. Philips
S. Cakmak
R. Vincent
M S Goldberg
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, and Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. rick_burnett@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2000;12 Suppl 4:15-39
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cities
Humans
Logistic Models
Mortality - trends
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Weather
Abstract
Although some consensus has emerged among the scientific and regulatory communities that the urban ambient atmospheric mix of combustion related pollutants is a determinant of population health, the relative toxicity of the chemical and physical components of this complex mixture remains unclear. Daily mortality rates and concurrent data on size-fractionated particulate mass and gaseous pollutants were obtained in eight of Canada's largest cities from 1986 to 1996 inclusive in order to examine the relative toxicity of the components of the mixture of ambient air pollutants to which Canadians are exposed. Positive and statistically significant associations were observed between daily variations in both gas- and particulate-phase pollution and daily fluctuations in mortality rates. The association between air pollution and mortality could not be explained by temporal variation in either mortality rates or weather factors. Fine particulate mass (less than 2.5 microns in average aerometric diameter) was a stronger predictor of mortality than coarse mass (between 2.5 and 10 microns). Size-fractionated particulate mass explained 28% of the total health effect of the mixture, with the remaining effects accounted for by the gases. Forty-seven elemental concentrations were obtained for the fine and coarse fraction using nondestructive x-ray fluorescence techniques. Sulfate concentrations were obtained by ion chromatography. Sulfate ion, iron, nickel, and zinc from the fine fraction were most strongly associated with mortality. The total effect of these four components was greater than that for fine mass alone, suggesting that the characteristics of the complex chemical mixture in the fine fraction may be a better predictor of mortality than mass alone. However, the variation in the effects of the constituents of the fine fraction between cities was greater than the variation in the mass effect, implying that there are additional toxic components of fine particulate matter not examined in this study whose concentrations and effects vary between locations. One of these components, carbon, represents half the mass of fine particulate matter. We recommend that measurements of elemental and organic carbon be undertaken in Canadian urban environments to examine their potential effects on human health.
PubMed ID
12881885 View in PubMed
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Association of particulate matter components with daily mortality and morbidity in urban populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195396
Source
Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2000 Aug;(95):5-72, discussion 73-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
M. Lippmann
K. Ito
A. Nádas
R T Burnett
Author Affiliation
New York University School of Medicine, Department of Environmental Medicine, 57 Old Forgo Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA.
Source
Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2000 Aug;(95):5-72, discussion 73-82
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Data Collection
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Michigan - epidemiology
Morbidity
Mortality
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Urban health
Abstract
Indices of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) have been reported to be associated with daily mortality and morbidity in a large number of recent time-series studies. However, the question remains as to which components of PM are responsible for the reported associations. Multiple PM components rarely are measured simultaneously. To investigate PM effects on mortality and morbidity, we used the multiple PM components measured in Windsor, Ontario, at a site only a few miles from downtown Detroit, Michigan. This study focused primarily on two study periods in which multiple PM components were measured in Windsor: 1985 to 1990, when levels of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfate from TSP (TSP-SO4(2-)), PM less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10), and nonthoracic TSP (TSP-PM10) were measured throughout the year; and 1992 to 1994, when data on PM10, PM2.5 (PM less than 2.5 microns in diameter), PM10-2.5 (PM10 minus PM2.5), particle acidity (H+), and artifact-free sulfates (SO4(2-)) were available for mostly summer months. Mortality data were analyzed for the 1985 to 1990 study period, and data on both mortality and hospital admissions of elderly patients were analyzed for the 1992 through 1994 period. Poisson regressions were used to estimate the effects of these PM components and gaseous criteria pollutants on mortality (nonaccidental, circulatory, respiratory, and nonaccidental without circulatory and respiratory) and on hospital admissions of elderly patients (for pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD], ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke), adjusting for temperature and humidity, trends and seasonal cycles, and day of the week. Both PM10 and TSP were associated significantly with respiratory mortality for the 1985 to 1990 period, with similar relative risk (RR) estimates for PM10 (RR = 1.123; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0361-1.218) and TSP (RR = 1.109; 95% CI 1.028-1.197), per 5th to 95th percentile increment. The effect-size estimates for TSP-SO4(2-) and TSP-PM10 were smaller and less significant. In two-pollutant models, simultaneous inclusion of gaseous pollutants with PM10 or TSP reduced PM coefficients by 0 to 34%. The effect-size estimates for total mortality, circulatory mortality, and total minus circulatory and respiratory mortality were less than those for respiratory mortality. Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) also were associated significantly with total and circulatory mortality, but a simultaneous consideration of these pollutants with PM10 reduced PM10 coefficients only slightly, or even increased them. In these results, pollution coefficients often were positive at multiple lag days (0-day through 3-day lags were examined), but for PM indices, 1-day lag coefficients were most significant. However, when all combinations of multiple-day average exposures were examined, for cases in which multiple lag days were positive, the choice of single-day or multiple-day average exposure did not appreciably change the estimated effect sizes. An examination of temporal correlation showed that the order of spatial uniformity as expressed by the median site-to-site correlation was O3 (0.83), PM10 (0.78), TSP (0.71), NO2 (0.70), carbon monoxide (CO) (0.50), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (0.49), which suggests less exposure error for O3 and PM10 than for the other measured pollutants. Thus, these results suggest that spatially homogeneous pollution indices show higher associations with measured health outcomes.
PubMed ID
11246487 View in PubMed
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Associations between ambient particulate sulfate and admissions to Ontario hospitals for cardiac and respiratory diseases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214790
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-1995
Author
R T Burnett
R. Dales
D. Krewski
R. Vincent
T. Dann
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jul 1;142(1):15-22
Date
Jul-1-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
The association of daily cardiac and respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada, with daily levels of particulate sulfates was examined over the 6-year period 1983-1988. Sulfate levels were recorded at nine monitoring stations in regions of southern and central Ontario spanned by three monitoring networks. A 13-micrograms/m3 increase in sulfates recorded on the day prior to admission (the 95th percentile) was associated with a 3.7% (p
PubMed ID
7785669 View in PubMed
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Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266937
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Johanna Eronen
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Timo Törmäkangas
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Environment Design
Exercise
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Health status
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Questionnaires
Walking
Abstract
To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
PubMed ID
25045839 View in PubMed
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Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157662
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso
Sarianna Sipilä
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. alfredo.ortega@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adiposity - genetics
Age Factors
Aged
Aging - genetics
Electric Impedance
Environment
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Locomotion - genetics
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Models, Genetic
Obesity - genetics - physiopathology
Physical Endurance - genetics
Risk factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Walking
Abstract
In older adults, mobility limitations often coexist with overweight or obesity, suggesting that similar factors may underlie both traits. This study examined the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association between adiposity and mobility in older women. Body fat percentage (bioimpedance test), walking speed over 10 m, and distance walked in a 6-min test were evaluated in 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 104 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin sisters reared together, aged 63-76 years. Genetic and environmental influences on each trait were estimated using age-adjusted multivariate genetic modeling. The analyses showed that the means (and s.d.) for body fat percentage, walking speed, and walking endurance were 33.2+/-7.3%, 1.7+/-0.3 m/s and 529.7+/-75.4 m, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between adiposity and walking speed was -0.32 and between adiposity and endurance it was -0.33. Genetic influences explained 80% of the association between adiposity and speed, and 65% of adiposity and walking endurance. Cross-trait genetic influences accounted for 12% of the variability in adiposity, 56% in walking speed, and 34% in endurance. Trait-specific genetic influences were also detected for adiposity (54%) and walking endurance (13%), but not speed. In conclusion, among community-living older women, an inverse association was found between adiposity and mobility that was mostly due to the effect of shared genes. This result suggests that the identification of genetic variants for body fat metabolism may also provide understanding of the development of mobility limitations in older women.
PubMed ID
18421266 View in PubMed
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Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291084
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ritva Sakari
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Susanne Iwarsson
Sarianna Sipilä
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
1 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Environment
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Lower Extremity - physiopathology
Male
Mobility Limitation
Perception
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance.
Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB).
Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances.
The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.
PubMed ID
27056910 View in PubMed
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Effect of short-term exposure to gaseous pollution on asthma hospitalisation in children: a bi-directional case-crossover analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187332
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
M. Lin
Y. Chen
R T Burnett
P J Villeneuve
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):50-5
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Child
Cross-Over Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Gases - adverse effects
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects
Regression Analysis
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects
Abstract
Assess associations between short-term exposure to gaseous pollutants and asthma hospitalisation among boys and girls 6 to12 years of age.
A bi-directional case-crossover analysis was used. Conditional logistic regression models were fitted to the data for boys and girls separately. Exposures averaged over periods ranging from one to seven days were used to assess the effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation. Estimated relative risks for asthma hospitalisation were calculated for an incremental exposure corresponding to the interquartile range in pollutant levels, adjusted for daily weather conditions and concomitant exposure to particulate matter.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
A total of 7319 asthma hospitalisations for children 6 to 12 years of age (4629 for boys and 2690 for girls) in Toronto between 1981 and 1993.
A significant acute effect of carbon monoxide on asthma hospitalisation was found in boys, and sulphur dioxide showed significant effects of prolonged exposure in girls. Nitrogen dioxide was positively associated with asthma admissions in both sexes. The lag time for certain gaseous pollutant effects seemed to be shorter in boys (around two to three days for carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide), as compared with girls (about six to seven days for sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide). The effects of gaseous pollutants on asthma hospitalisation remained after adjustment of particulate matter. The data showed no association between ozone and asthma hospitalisation in children.
The study showed positive relations between gaseous pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide) at comparatively low levels and asthma hospitalisation in children, using bi-directional case-crossover analyses. Though, the effects of certain specific gaseous pollutants were found to vary in boys and girls.
Notes
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Comment In: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Feb;58(2):157; author reply 157-814729901
PubMed ID
12490649 View in PubMed
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The effect of the urban ambient air pollution mix on daily mortality rates in 11 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205205
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):152-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
R T Burnett
S. Cakmak
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. rickvburnett@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89(3):152-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Canada - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Mortality - trends
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Statistics, nonparametric
Sulfur Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
Determine the risk of premature mortality due to the urban ambient air pollution mix in Canada.
The number of daily deaths for non-accidental causes were obtained in 11 cities from 1980 to 1991 and linked to concentrations of ambient gaseous air pollutants using relative risk regression models for longitudinal count data.
Nitrogen dioxide had the largest effect on mortality with a 4.1% increased risk (p
Notes
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):228, 238, 240 passim9735513
PubMed ID
9654797 View in PubMed
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Effects of low ambient levels of ozone and sulfates on the frequency of respiratory admissions to Ontario hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218206
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1994
Author
R T Burnett
R E Dales
M E Raizenne
D. Krewski
P W Summers
G R Roberts
M. Raad-Young
T. Dann
J. Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Center, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
Environ Res. 1994 May;65(2):172-94
Date
May-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergencies
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sulfates - adverse effects - analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
To investigate the acute respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution, the number of emergency of urgent daily respiratory admissions to 168 acute care hospitals in Ontario were related to estimates of exposure to ozone and sulfates in the vicinity of each hospital. Ozone levels were obtained from 22 monitoring stations maintained by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment for the period January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1988. Daily levels of sulfates were recorded at nine monitoring stations representing three different networks operated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada. Positive and statistically significant associations were found between hospital admissions and both ozone and sulfates recorded on the day of admission and up to 3 days prior to the date of admission. Five percent of daily respiratory admissions in the months of May to August were associated with ozone, with sulfates accounting for an additional 1% of these admissions. Ozone was a stronger predictor of admissions than sulfates. Positive and statistically significant (P
PubMed ID
8187735 View in PubMed
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Effects of particulate and gaseous air pollution on cardiorespiratory hospitalizations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202645
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Mar-Apr;54(2):130-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
R T Burnett
M. Smith-Doiron
D. Stieb
S. Cakmak
J R Brook
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Mar-Apr;54(2):130-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Heart Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Lung Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Particle Size
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Abstract
We obtained data on daily numbers of admissions to hospital in Toronto, Canada, from 1980 to 1994 for respiratory, cardiac, cerebral vascular, and peripheral vascular diseases. We then linked the data to daily measures of particulate mass less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate mass less than 2.5 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and particulate mass between 2.5 and 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10-2.5), ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Air pollution was only associated weakly with hospitalization for cerebral vascular and peripheral vascular diseases. We controlled for temporal trends and climatic factors, and we found that increases of 10 microg/m3 in PM10, PM2.5, and PM10-2.5 were associated with 1.9%, 3.3%, and 2.9% respective increase in respiratory and cardiac hospital admissions. We further controlled for gaseous pollutants, and the percentages were reduced to 0.50%, 0.75%, and 0.77%, respectively. Of the 7.72 excess daily hospital admissions in Toronto attributable to the atmospheric pollution mix, 11.8% resulted from PM2.5, 8.2% to PM10-2.5, 17% to carbon monoxide, 40.4% to nitrogen dioxide, 2.8% to sulfur dioxide, and 19.8% to ozone.
PubMed ID
10094292 View in PubMed
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Environmental barriers, person-environment fit and mortality among community-dwelling very old people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265500
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Timo Törmäkangas
Taina Rantanen
Maria Haak
Susanne Iwarsson
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility
Environment
Female
Frail Elderly
Housing for the Elderly
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Mortality - trends
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Environmental barriers are associated with disability-related outcomes in older people but little is known of the effect of environmental barriers on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured barriers in the outdoor, entrance and indoor environments are associated with mortality among community-dwelling 80- to 89-year-old single-living people.
This longitudinal study is based on a sample of 397 people who were single-living in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were interviewed during 2002-2003, and 393 were followed up for mortality until May 15, 2012.Environmental barriers and functional limitations were assessed with the Housing Enabler instrument, which is intended for objective assessments of Person-Environment (P-E) fit problems in housing and the immediate outdoor environment. Mortality data were gathered from the public national register. Cox regression models were used for the analyses.
A total of 264 (67%) participants died during follow-up. Functional limitations increased mortality risk. Among the specific environmental barriers that generate the most P-E fit problems, lack of handrails in stairs at entrances was associated with the highest mortality risk (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), whereas the total number of environmental barriers at entrances and outdoors was not associated with mortality. A higher number of environmental barriers indoors showed a slight protective effect against mortality even after adjustment for functional limitations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00).
Specific environmental problems may increase mortality risk among very-old single-living people. However, the association may be confounded by individuals' health status which is difficult to fully control for. Further studies are called for.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23981906 View in PubMed
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Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151341
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Apr;57(4):634-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Minna Mänty
Susanne Iwarsson
Timo Törmäkangas
Raija Leinonen
Eino Heikkinen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Finnish Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. merja.rantakokko@sport.jyu.fi
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Apr;57(4):634-40
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Fear
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Logistic Models
Male
Mobility Limitation
Musculoskeletal Diseases - complications
Prospective Studies
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.
Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses.
Community and research center.
Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up.
Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period.
At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively).
Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.
PubMed ID
19392955 View in PubMed
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The genetic and environmental effects on depressive symptoms among older female twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176906
Source
Twin Res. 2004 Dec;7(6):626-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Sanna Takkinen
Asko Tolvanen
Jaakko Kaprio
Stig Berg
Markku Koskenvuo
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
Source
Twin Res. 2004 Dec;7(6):626-36
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Environment
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Models, Biological
Risk factors
Twins - genetics - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to depressive symptoms among older women. The participants were 102 monozygotic and 115 dizygotic female twin pairs aged 64 to 76 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The contribution of genetic and environmental effects was estimated for the constructed depressiveness factor and for the subscales which were depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, lack of wellbeing and interpersonal difficulties. Of the variance in depressiveness, shared environmental influences accounted for 39% and nonshared environmental influences 61%. For the subscales, 24% to 62% of the variance was explained by individual, and 13% to 23% by shared, environmental factors. Lack of wellbeing had its own moderate additive genetic effect explaining 30% of the variance. This study showed that in older women predominantly environmental factors underlay individual differences in depressiveness; however, the factors varied to some extent between dimensions measured by the subscales.
PubMed ID
15607014 View in PubMed
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