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Active aging - resilience and external support as modifiers of the disablement outcome: AGNES cohort study protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299192
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-02-2018
Author
Taina Rantanen
Milla Saajanaho
Laura Karavirta
Sini Siltanen
Merja Rantakokko
Anne Viljanen
Timo Rantalainen
Katja Pynnönen
Anu Karvonen
Inna Lisko
Lotta Palmberg
Johanna Eronen
Eeva-Maija Palonen
Timo Hinrichs
Markku Kauppinen
Katja Kokko
Erja Portegijs
Author Affiliation
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Univerisity of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (viv 149), 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland. taina.rantanen@jyu.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Date
05-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Literacy
Humans
Male
Resilience, Psychological
Social Support
Abstract
Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing. We will examine cohort effects on functional phenotypes underlying active aging and disability.
For this population-based study, we plan to recruit 1000 participants aged 75, 80 or 85 years living in central Finland, by drawing personal details from the population register. Participants are interviewed on active aging, wellbeing, disability, environmental and social support, mobility, health behavior and health literacy. Physical activity and heart rate are monitored for 7 days with wearable sensors. Functional tests include hearing, vision, muscle strength, reaction time, exercise tolerance, mobility, and cognitive performance. Clinical examination by a nurse and physician includes an electrocardiogram, tests of blood pressure, orthostatic regulation, arterial stiffness, and lung function, as well as a review of chronic and acute conditions and prescribed medications. C-reactive protein, small blood count, cholesterol and vitamin D are analyzed from blood samples. Associations of factors potentially underlying active aging and wellbeing will be studied using multivariate methods. Cohort effects will be studied by comparing test results of physical and cognitive functioning with results of a cohort examined in 1989-90.
The current study will renew research on positive gerontology through the novel approach to active aging and by suggesting new biomarkers of resilience and active aging. Therefore, high interdisciplinary impact is expected. This cross-sectional study will not provide knowledge on temporal order of events or causality, but an innovative cross-sectional dataset provides opportunities for emergence of novel creative hypotheses and theories.
PubMed ID
29716566 View in PubMed
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Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275825
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2016 Feb;28(1):149-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Kristine Marceau
Valerie S Knopik
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Paul Lichtenstein
Erica L Spotts
Jody M Ganiban
David Reiss
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 2016 Feb;28(1):149-66
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Environment
Family Relations
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genotype
Humans
Male
Mothers
Parent-Child Relations
Parents
Social Environment
Sweden
Twins - genetics - psychology
Abstract
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25924807 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290102
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Jessica E Salvatore
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jan Sundquist
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Divorce - statistics & numerical data
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects.
We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers. We described the association between AUD and divorce using tetrachorics and used twin and sibling models to estimate genetic and environmental influences on divorce, on the covariance between AUD and divorce and the latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce.
Sweden.
A total of 670?836 individuals (53% male) born 1940-1965.
Life-time measures of AUD and divorce.
AUD and divorce were related strongly (males: rtet  = +0.44, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.45; females rtet  = +0.37, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.38). Genetic factors accounted for a modest proportion of the variance in divorce (males: 21.3%, 95% CI = 7.6, 28.5; females: 31.0%, 95% CI = 18.8, 37.1). Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between AUD and divorce (males: 52.0%, 95% CI = 48.8, 67.9; females: 53.74%, 95% CI = 17.6, 54.5), followed by non-shared environmental factors (males: 45.0%, 95% CI = 37.5, 54.9; females: 41.6%, 95% CI = 40.3, 60.2). Shared environmental factors accounted for a negligible proportion of the covariance (males: 3.0%, 95% CI = -3.0, 13.5; females: 4.75%, 95% CI = 0.0, 6.6). The AUD-divorce genetic correlations were high (males: rA = +0.76, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; females +0.52, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.67). The non-shared environmental correlations were modest (males: rE = +0.32, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.40; females: +0.27, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.36).
Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies. Covariation between AUD and divorce results from overlapping genetic and non-shared environmental factors. Latent genetic and non-shared environmental correlations for alcohol use disorder and divorce are high and moderate.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27981669 View in PubMed
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Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138617
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:763
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Pia Svedberg
Annina Ropponen
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Alexanderson
Author Affiliation
Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. pia.svedberg@ki.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:763
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disabled Persons
Female
Humans
Insurance, Disability
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
Sensitivity and specificity
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Universal Coverage
Abstract
Self-reported disability pension (DP) and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1) to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2) to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex.
All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT) 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals). The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity.
The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university) vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school) but not for LTSA.
Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of genetic and environmental effects from twin models, heritability estimates would not be biased.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21159191 View in PubMed
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Association of Labor Induction With Offspring Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283703
Source
JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Sep 06;170(9):e160965
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-06-2016
Author
Anna Sara Oberg
Brian M D'Onofrio
Martin E Rickert
Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
Jeffrey L Ecker
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Larsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian T Bateman
Source
JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Sep 06;170(9):e160965
Date
Sep-06-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Autism Spectrum Disorder - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Labor, Induced
Pregnancy
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Induction of labor is a frequently performed obstetrical intervention. It would thus be of great concern if reported associations between labor induction and offspring risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) reflected causal influence.
To assess the associations of labor induction with ASD, comparing differentially exposed relatives (siblings and cousins discordant for induction).
Follow-up of all live births in Sweden between 1992 and 2005, defined in the Medical Birth Register. The register was linked to population registers of familial relations, inpatient and outpatient visits, and education records. Diagnoses of ASD were from 2001 through 2013, and data were analyzed in the 2015-2016 year.
Induction of labor.
Autism spectrum disorders identified by diagnoses from inpatient and outpatient records between 2001 and 2013. Hazard ratios (HRs) quantified the association between labor induction and offspring ASD. In addition to considering a wide range of measured confounders, comparison of exposure-discordant births to the same woman allowed additional control for all unmeasured factors shared by siblings.
The full cohort included 1?362?950 births, of which 22?077 offspring (1.6%) were diagnosed with ASD by ages 8 years through 21 years. In conventional models of the full cohort, associations between labor induction and offspring ASD were attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for measured potential confounders (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24). When comparison was made within siblings whose births were discordant with respect to induction, thus accounting for all environmental and genetic factors shared by siblings, labor induction was no longer associated with offspring ASD (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.10).
In this nationwide sample of live births we observed no association between induction of labor and offspring ASD within sibling comparison. Our findings suggest that concern for ASD should not factor into the clinical decision about whether to induce labor.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27454803 View in PubMed
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Association of Perinatal Risk Factors With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Population-Based Birth Cohort, Sibling Control Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282263
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 01;73(11):1135-1144
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-01-2016
Author
Gustaf Brander
Mina Rydell
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Lorena Fernández de la Cruz
Paul Lichtenstein
Eva Serlachius
Christian Rück
Catarina Almqvist
Brian M D'Onofrio
Henrik Larsson
David Mataix-Cols
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 01;73(11):1135-1144
Date
Nov-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Apgar score
Birth weight
Breech Presentation
Case-Control Studies
Cesarean Section
Cohort Studies
Epigenesis, Genetic
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature, Diseases - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Perinatal care
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Perinatal complications may increase the risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Previous reports were based on small, retrospective, specialist clinic-based studies that were unable to rigorously control for unmeasured environmental and genetic confounding.
To prospectively investigate a wide range of potential perinatal risk factors for OCD, controlling for unmeasured factors shared between siblings in the analyses.
This population-based birth cohort study included all 2?421?284 children from singleton births in Sweden from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1996, who were followed up through December 31, 2013. From the 1?403?651 families in the cohort, differentially exposed siblings from the 743?885 families with siblings were evaluated; of these, 11?592 families included clusters of full siblings that were discordant for OCD. Analysis of the data was conducted from January, 26, 2015, to September, 5, 2016.
Perinatal data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and included maternal smoking during pregnancy, labor presentation, obstetric delivery, gestational age (for preterm birth), birth weight, birth weight in relation to gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score, and head circumference.
Previously validated OCD codes (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems, Tenth Revision, code F42) in the Swedish National Patient Register.
Of 2?421?284 individuals included in the cohort, 17?305 persons were diagnosed with OCD. Of these, 7111 were men (41.1%). The mean (SD) age of individuals at first diagnosis of OCD was 23.4 (6.5) years. An increased risk for OCD remained after controlling for shared familial confounders and measured covariates (including sex, year of birth, maternal and paternal age at birth, and parity), for smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.58), breech presentation (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06-1.71), delivery by cesarean section (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34), preterm birth (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43), birth weight 1501 to 2500 g (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.05-1.62) and 2501 to 3500 g (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16), being large for gestational age (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.45), and Apgar distress scores at 5 minutes (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.07-2.09). Gestational age and birth weight followed inverse dose-response associations, whereby an increasingly higher risk for OCD was noted in children with a shorter gestational age and lower birth weight. We also observed a dose-response association between the number of perinatal events and increased OCD risk, with HRs ranging from 1.11 (95% CI, 1.07-1.15) for 1 event to 1.51 (95% CI, 1.18-1.94) for 5 or more events.
A range of perinatal risk factors is associated with a higher risk for OCD independent of shared familial confounders, suggesting that perinatal risk factors may be in the causal pathway to OCD.
PubMed ID
27706475 View in PubMed
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Autism spectrum disorders and autistic like traits: similar etiology in the extreme end and the normal variation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128266
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;69(1):46-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Sebastian Lundström
Zheng Chang
Maria Råstam
Christopher Gillberg
Henrik Larsson
Henrik Anckarsäter
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden. sebastian.lundstrom@neuro.gu.se
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;69(1):46-52
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - genetics - psychology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interview, Psychological
Male
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - genetics - psychology
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been suggested to represent the extreme end of a normal distribution of autistic like traits (ALTs). However, the evidence of this notion is inconclusive.
To study whether there are similar genetic and/or environmental etiologies behind ASDs and ALTs.
A nationwide twin study.
Consenting parents of all Swedish twins aged 9 and 12 years, born between July 1, 1992, and December 31, 2001 (n = 19 208), were interviewed by telephone to screen for child psychiatric conditions, including ASDs.
Two validated cutoffs for ASDs, 2 cutoffs encompassing the normal variation, and 1 continuous measure of ALTs were used with DeFries-Fulker extreme-end analyses and standard twin study methods.
We discerned a strong correlation between the 4 cutoffs and the full variation of ALTs. The correlation was primarily affected by genes. We also found that the heritability for the 4 cutoffs was similar.
We demonstrate an etiological similarity between ASDs and ALTs in the normal variation and, with results from previous studies, our data suggest that ASDs and ALTs are etiologically linked.
PubMed ID
22213788 View in PubMed
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Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266937
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Johanna Eronen
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Timo Törmäkangas
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Environment Design
Exercise
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Health status
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Questionnaires
Walking
Abstract
To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
PubMed ID
25045839 View in PubMed
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Birth weight as an independent predictor of ADHD symptoms: a within-twin pair analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268834
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;56(4):453-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Erik Pettersson
Arvid Sjölander
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Anckarsäter
Brian M D'Onofrio
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;56(4):453-9
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Birth Weight - physiology
Child
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Prognosis
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Studies have found an association between low birth weight and ADHD, but the nature of this relation is unclear. First, it is uncertain whether birth weight is associated with both of the ADHD dimensions, inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Second, it remains uncertain whether the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity is confounded by familial factors.
Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms by the Autism - Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory (N = 21,775 twins). Birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical Birth Registry. We used a within-twin pair design to control for genetic and shared environmental factors.
Reduced birth weight was significantly associated with a mean increase in total ADHD (ß = -.42; 95% CI: -.53, -.30), inattentive (ß = -.26; 95% CI: -.33, -.19), and hyperactive-impulsive (ß = -.16; 95% CI: -.22, -.10) symptom severity. These results imply that a change of one kilogram of birth weight corresponded to parents rating their child nearly one unit higher (going from "no" to "yes, to some extent" on a given symptom) on the total ADHD scale. These associations remained within pairs of MZ and DZ twins, and were also present when restricting the analyses to full term births.
There is an independent association between low birth weight and all forms of ADHD symptoms, even after controlling for all environmental and genetic confounds shared within twin pairs. These results indicate that fetal growth restriction (as reflected in birth weight differences within twin pairs) and/or the environmental factors which influence it is in the casual pathway leading to ADHD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040291 View in PubMed
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A Bivariate Genetic Analysis of Drug Abuse Ascertained Through Medical and Criminal Registries in Swedish Twins, Siblings and Half-Siblings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282467
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 Nov;46(6):735-741
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Hermine H Maes
Michael C Neale
Henrik Ohlsson
Mahsa Zahery
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 Nov;46(6):735-741
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Criminals
Female
Genetic Heterogeneity
Humans
Male
Registries
Siblings
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated the correlation of genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse as ascertained from medical and criminal registries by modeling twin and sibling data. Medical drug abuse was defined using public inpatient and outpatient records, while criminal drug abuse was ascertained through legal records. Twin, full and half sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Standard bivariate genetic structural equation modeling was applied to the population-based data on drug abuse ascertained through medical and crime registries, using OpenMx. Analyses of all possible pairs of twins (MZ: N = 4482; DZ: N = 9838 pairs), full- (N = 1,278,086) and half-siblings (paternal: N = 7767; maternal N = 70,553) who grew up together suggested that factors explaining familial resemblance for drug abuse as defined through medical or criminal registries were mostly the same. Results showed substantial heritability and moderate contributions of shared environmental factors to drug abuse; both were higher in males versus females, and higher for drug abuse ascertained through criminal than medical records. Because of the low prevalence of both assessments of drug abuse, having access to population data was crucial to obtain stable estimates. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse-whether ascertained through medical versus criminal records-was highly heritable. Furthermore, shared environmental factors contributed significantly to the liability of drug abuse. Genetic and shared environmental risk factors for these two forms of drug abuse were highly correlated.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27480873 View in PubMed
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Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157662
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso
Sarianna Sipilä
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. alfredo.ortega@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adiposity - genetics
Age Factors
Aged
Aging - genetics
Electric Impedance
Environment
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Locomotion - genetics
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Models, Genetic
Obesity - genetics - physiopathology
Physical Endurance - genetics
Risk factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Walking
Abstract
In older adults, mobility limitations often coexist with overweight or obesity, suggesting that similar factors may underlie both traits. This study examined the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association between adiposity and mobility in older women. Body fat percentage (bioimpedance test), walking speed over 10 m, and distance walked in a 6-min test were evaluated in 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 104 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin sisters reared together, aged 63-76 years. Genetic and environmental influences on each trait were estimated using age-adjusted multivariate genetic modeling. The analyses showed that the means (and s.d.) for body fat percentage, walking speed, and walking endurance were 33.2+/-7.3%, 1.7+/-0.3 m/s and 529.7+/-75.4 m, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between adiposity and walking speed was -0.32 and between adiposity and endurance it was -0.33. Genetic influences explained 80% of the association between adiposity and speed, and 65% of adiposity and walking endurance. Cross-trait genetic influences accounted for 12% of the variability in adiposity, 56% in walking speed, and 34% in endurance. Trait-specific genetic influences were also detected for adiposity (54%) and walking endurance (13%), but not speed. In conclusion, among community-living older women, an inverse association was found between adiposity and mobility that was mostly due to the effect of shared genes. This result suggests that the identification of genetic variants for body fat metabolism may also provide understanding of the development of mobility limitations in older women.
PubMed ID
18421266 View in PubMed
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Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as an extreme of a continuous trait: a quantitative genetic study of 8,500 twin pairs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131220
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Henrik Larsson
Henrik Anckarsater
Maria Råstam
Zheng Chang
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. henrik.larsson@ki.se
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Genetic Linkage - genetics
Genetic Testing
Health Surveys - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Although the clinical utility of categorically defined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established, there is also strong evidence supporting the notion of ADHD as an extreme of a continuous trait. Nevertheless, the question of whether the etiology is the same for different levels of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to assess genetic links between the extreme and the subthreshold range of ADHD symptoms.
Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and associated conditions. Two validated cutoff values were used for screening and assigning research diagnoses. Response rate was 80%. Twin methods were applied to investigate the extent to which ADHD is etiologically distinct from subthreshold variations in ADHD symptoms.
Extremes analyses indicated a strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation, with almost identical group heritability estimates around .60 for the diagnostic (prevalence 1.78%) and screening (prevalence 9.75%) criteria of ADHD.
A strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation of DSM-IV based assessments of ADHD symptoms was found. The data suggest that ADHD is best viewed as the quantitative extreme of genetic and environmental factors operating dimensionally throughout the distribution of ADHD symptoms, indicating that the same etiologic factors are involved in the full range of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
PubMed ID
21923806 View in PubMed
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Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the development of adolescent alcohol problems: A prospective, population-based study of Swedish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285886
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2016 Oct;171(7):958-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Patrick D Quinn
Erik Pettersson
Sebastian Lundström
Henrik Anckarsäter
Niklas Långström
Clara Hellner Gumpert
Henrik Larsson
Paul Lichtenstein
Brian M D'Onofrio
Source
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2016 Oct;171(7):958-70
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alcohol Drinking - genetics - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - complications - etiology - genetics
Child
Conduct Disorder - psychology
Environment
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genotype
Humans
Male
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Substance-Related Disorders - etiology - genetics
Sweden
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of problematic alcohol and other substance use in adolescence. This study used data from an ongoing, prospective, population-based twin study of Swedish children and adolescents to evaluate the extent to which the association between ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems reflects a unique source of genetic or environmental risk related to ADHD versus a broader predisposition to youth externalizing behavior. We used all available data from same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins on ADHD symptoms in childhood (age 9/12; N?=?15,549) and alcohol problems in late adolescence (age 18; N?=?2,564). Consistent with prior longitudinal studies, the phenotypic association between hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems was small in magnitude, whereas the association for inattentive symptoms was even weaker. Additive genetic influences explained 99.8% of the association between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and alcohol problems. Furthermore, we found that the genetic risk specifically associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms was attenuated when estimated in the context of externalizing behavior liability during childhood, of which ADHD symptoms were specific expressions. In sensitivity analyses exploring hyperactivity in mid-adolescence, we found a similar pattern of genetic associations. These results are consistent with previous findings of genetically driven overlap in the etiology of ADHD and problematic alcohol use. At least some of this co-occurrence may result from a general predisposition to externalizing behaviors in youth. ? 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26714985 View in PubMed
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Cohort Profile: Swedish Twin Study on Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267037
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Jun;18(3):273-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Catarina Almqvist
Anne K Örtqvist
Vilhelmina Ullemar
Cecilia Lundholm
Paul Lichtenstein
Patrik K E Magnusson
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2015 Jun;18(3):273-80
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Algorithms
Asthma - epidemiology - genetics - prevention & control
Breath Tests
Child
DNA - blood
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics - prevention & control
Eicosanoids - urine
Feces - microbiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hematologic Tests
Humans
Hydrocortisone - analysis
Life Style
Male
Microbiota
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Parents
Puberty
Questionnaires
Registries
Research Design
Respiratory Sounds
Risk factors
Saliva - chemistry
Spirometry
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Asthma is a common childhood disease and several risk factors have been identified; however, the impact of genes and environment is not fully understood. The aim of the Swedish Twin study On Prediction and Prevention of Asthma (STOPPA) is to identify environmental (birth characteristics and early life) and genetic (including epigenetic) factors as determinants for asthmatic disease. Based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) (parental interview at 9 or 12 years, N ~23,900) and an asthma and/or wheezing algorithm, we identified a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) same-sexed twin pairs. The twin pairs were classified as asthma concordant (ACC), asthma discordant (ADC) and healthy concordant (HCC). A sample of 9- to 14-year-old twins and their parents were invited to participate in a clinical examination. Background characteristics were collected in questionnaires and obtained from the National Health Registers. A clinical examination was performed to test lung function and capacity (spirometry with reversibility test and exhaled nitric oxide) and collect blood (serology and DNA), urine (metabolites), feces (microbiota), and saliva (cortisol). In total, 376 twin pairs (752 individual twins) completed the study, response rate 52%. All participating twins answered the questionnaire and >90% participated in lung function testing, blood-, and saliva sampling. This article describes the design, recruitment, data collection, measures, and background characteristics, as well as ongoing and planned analyses in STOPPA. Potential gains of the study include the identification of biomarkers, the emergence of candidates for drug development, and new leads for prevention of asthma and allergic disease.
PubMed ID
25900604 View in PubMed
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Common etiological factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior: a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258813
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Therese Ljung
Qi Chen
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The prevention of suicidal behavior is one of the most important tasks for mental health clinicians. Although a few studies have indicated an increased risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the development of more effective ways of identifying and modifying the risk is hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for this association.
To explore whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior share genetic and environmental risk factors.
Matched cohort design across different levels of family relatedness recorded from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. We identified 51?707 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (through patient and prescribed drug registers) in Sweden and their relatives by linking longitudinal population-based registers. Control participants were matched 1:5 on sex and birth year.
Any record of suicide attempt or completed suicide defined by discharge diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases.
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands) had increased risks of attempted and completed suicide, even after adjusting for comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.62 [95% CI, 3.29-3.98] and 5.91 [95% CI, 2.45-14.27], respectively). The highest familial risk was observed among first-degree relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?2.42 [95% CI, 2.36-2.49] among parents of probands with ADHD and OR?=?2.28 [95% CI, 2.17-2.40] among full siblings of probands with ADHD; completed suicide: OR?=?2.24 [95% CI, 2.06-2.43] and OR?=?2.23 [1.83-2.73], respectively), whereas the risk was considerably lower among more genetically distant relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?1.59 [95% CI, 1.47-1.73] among maternal half siblings, OR?=?1.57 [95% CI, 1.45-1.70] among paternal half siblings, and OR?=?1.39 [95% CI, 1.35-1.43] among cousins; completed suicide: OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.08-2.10], OR?=?2.02 [95% CI, 1.47-2.79], and OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). These familial aggregation patterns remained similar across sex, after excluding relatives with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and probands with suicidal behavior, and after excluding probands and relatives with severe comorbid disorders.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with an increased risk of both attempted and completed suicide. The pattern of familial risks across different levels of relatedness suggests that shared genetic factors are important for this association. This is an important first step toward identifying the underlying mechanisms for the risk of suicidal behavior in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suggests that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their family members are important targets for suicide prevention and treatment.
PubMed ID
24964928 View in PubMed
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Current parental depression and offspring perceived self-competence: a quasi-experimental examination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123496
Source
Behav Genet. 2012 Sep;42(5):787-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Quetzal A Class
Brian M D'Onofrio
Amber L Singh
Jody M Ganiban
E L Spotts
Paul Lichtenstein
David Reiss
Jenae M Neiderhiser
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, 1101 E. 10th Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. qaclass@indiana.edu
Source
Behav Genet. 2012 Sep;42(5):787-97
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Family
Female
Humans
Intergenerational Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Parents - psychology
Self Concept
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Young Adult
Abstract
A genetically-informed, quasi-experimental design was used to examine the genetic and environmental processes underlying associations between current parental depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence. Participants, drawn from a population-based Swedish sample, were 852 twin pairs and their male (52 %) and female offspring aged 15.7 ± 2.4 years. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Offspring perceived self-competence was measured using a modified Harter Perceived Competence Scale. Cousin comparisons and Children of Twins designs suggested that associations between maternal depressive symptoms and offspring perceived self-competence were due to shared genetic/environmental liability. The mechanism responsible for father-offspring associations, however, was independent of genetic factors and of extended family environmental factors, supporting a causal inference. Thus, mothers and fathers may impact offspring perceived self-competence via different mechanisms and unmeasured genetic and environmental selection factors must be considered when studying the intergenerational transmission of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22692226 View in PubMed
Less detail

The Decomposition of Shared Environmental Influences on Externalizing Syndromes in the Swedish Population: A Multivariate Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289470
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Henrik Ohlsson
Kenneth S Kendler
Paul Lichtenstein
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research,Lund University,Malmö,Sweden.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics
Criminal Behavior
Environment
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Registries
Substance-Related Disorders - genetics
Sweden
Syndrome
Abstract
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%). Concerning syndrome-specific influences in males, close family effects were stronger for CB and AUD, while community effects were stronger for DA. The two C components in between community experiences and close family experiences (family and household) were estimated to almost entirely derive from the common latent factor. In females, among the four components of C, the community experiences were just slightly above zero, while the C components referred to as the household effect were almost zero. The total close family experiences were similar and most important across syndromes were also divided into common and specific components. For all syndromes, for both males and females, the effects of additive genetic factors were 2-4 times the size of the total effect of the shared environment. Applying standard methods to novel relationships, we expand our understanding of how the shared environment contributes to individual differences in three externalizing syndromes.
Notes
Cites: Psychol Med. 2015 Aug;45(11):2253-62 PMID 25936380
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Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;69(7):690-7 PMID 22393206
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Cites: Psychol Med. 2000 Mar;30(2):281-94 PMID 10824649
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Cites: Behav Genet. 1994 Jan;24(1):35-49 PMID 8192619
PubMed ID
28578747 View in PubMed
Less detail

The Decomposition of Shared Environmental Influences on Externalizing Syndromes in the Swedish Population: A Multivariate Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289628
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Henrik Ohlsson
Kenneth S Kendler
Paul Lichtenstein
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research,Lund University,Malmö,Sweden.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics
Criminal Behavior
Environment
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Registries
Substance-Related Disorders - genetics
Sweden
Syndrome
Abstract
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%). Concerning syndrome-specific influences in males, close family effects were stronger for CB and AUD, while community effects were stronger for DA. The two C components in between community experiences and close family experiences (family and household) were estimated to almost entirely derive from the common latent factor. In females, among the four components of C, the community experiences were just slightly above zero, while the C components referred to as the household effect were almost zero. The total close family experiences were similar and most important across syndromes were also divided into common and specific components. For all syndromes, for both males and females, the effects of additive genetic factors were 2-4 times the size of the total effect of the shared environment. Applying standard methods to novel relationships, we expand our understanding of how the shared environment contributes to individual differences in three externalizing syndromes.
Notes
Cites: Psychol Med. 2015 Aug;45(11):2253-62 PMID 25936380
Cites: Psychol Bull. 2009 Jul;135(4):608-37 PMID 19586164
Cites: Behav Genet. 2016 Mar;46(2):183-92 PMID 26494460
Cites: Psychol Med. 2015 Apr;45(5):1061-72 PMID 25171596
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;171(2):209-17 PMID 24077613
Cites: Psychol Med. 2014 Jul;44(9):1913-25 PMID 24180693
Cites: Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2015 Aug;50(8):1277-84 PMID 25708193
Cites: Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 19;44(3):247-50 PMID 22344220
Cites: Psychol Med. 2014 Nov;44(15):3181-7 PMID 24766797
Cites: Psychol Med. 2015 Oct;45(13):2897-907 PMID 26040779
Cites: J Abnorm Psychol. 1992 Feb;101(1):3-17 PMID 1537970
Cites: J Adolesc. 2012 Aug;35(4):823-31 PMID 22240325
Cites: J Subst Abuse. 2001;13(4):391-424 PMID 11775073
Cites: Psychol Sci. 2003 May;14(3):273-7 PMID 12741753
Cites: J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;55(4):304-12 PMID 24261560
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;160(4):687-95 PMID 12668357
Cites: Psychometrika. 2016 Jun;81(2):535-49 PMID 25622929
Cites: Behav Genet. 2002 May;32(3):221-7 PMID 12141783
Cites: Psychol Bull. 2002 May;128(3):490-529 PMID 12002699
Cites: JAMA Psychiatry. 2015 Mar;72(3):211-8 PMID 25565339
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;69(7):690-7 PMID 22393206
Cites: Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 Nov;48(11):1841-9 PMID 23344783
Cites: Psychol Med. 2000 Mar;30(2):281-94 PMID 10824649
Cites: JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;70(2):235-42 PMID 23229904
Cites: Psychol Med. 2016 Jun;46(8):1639-50 PMID 26996079
Cites: Nature. 2014 Feb 13;506(7487):185-90 PMID 24463508
Cites: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Feb;54(2):178-84 PMID 9040286
Cites: Nature. 2009 Aug 6;460(7256):748-52 PMID 19571811
Cites: Behav Genet. 1994 Jan;24(1):35-49 PMID 8192619
PubMed ID
28578747 View in PubMed
Less detail

Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291084
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ritva Sakari
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Susanne Iwarsson
Sarianna Sipilä
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
1 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Environment
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Lower Extremity - physiopathology
Male
Mobility Limitation
Perception
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance.
Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB).
Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances.
The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.
PubMed ID
27056910 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does population density and neighborhood deprivation predict schizophrenia? A nationwide Swedish family-based study of 2.4 million individuals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269645
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Mar;41(2):494-502
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Amir Sariaslan
Henrik Larsson
Brian D'Onofrio
Niklas Långström
Seena Fazel
Paul Lichtenstein
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2015 Mar;41(2):494-502
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Depression - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pedigree
Population Density
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
People living in densely populated and socially disorganized areas have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity, but the potential causal status of such factors is uncertain. We used nationwide Swedish longitudinal registry data to identify all children born 1967-1989 (n = 2361585), including separate datasets for all cousins (n = 1715059) and siblings (n = 1667894). The nature of the associations between population density and neighborhood deprivation and individual risk for a schizophrenia diagnosis was investigated while adjusting for unobserved familial risk factors (through cousin and sibling comparisons) and then compared with similar associations for depression. We generated familial pedigree structures using the Multi-Generation Registry and identified study participants with schizophrenia and depression using the National Patient Registry. Fixed-effects logistic regression models were used to study within-family estimates. Population density, measured as ln(population size/km(2)), at age 15 predicted subsequent schizophrenia in the population (OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.09; 1.11). Unobserved familial risk factors shared by cousins within extended families attenuated the association (1.06; 1.03; 1.10), and the link disappeared entirely within nuclear families (1.02; 0.97; 1.08). Similar results were found for neighborhood deprivation as predictor and for depression as outcome. Sensitivity tests demonstrated that timing and accumulation effects of the exposures (mean scores across birth, ages 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years) did not alter the findings. Excess risks of psychiatric morbidity, particularly schizophrenia, in densely populated and socioeconomically deprived Swedish neighborhoods appear, therefore, to result primarily from unobserved familial selection factors. Previous studies may have overemphasized the etiological importance of these environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25053652 View in PubMed
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