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Active aging - resilience and external support as modifiers of the disablement outcome: AGNES cohort study protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299192
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-02-2018
Author
Taina Rantanen
Milla Saajanaho
Laura Karavirta
Sini Siltanen
Merja Rantakokko
Anne Viljanen
Timo Rantalainen
Katja Pynnönen
Anu Karvonen
Inna Lisko
Lotta Palmberg
Johanna Eronen
Eeva-Maija Palonen
Timo Hinrichs
Markku Kauppinen
Katja Kokko
Erja Portegijs
Author Affiliation
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Univerisity of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (viv 149), 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland. taina.rantanen@jyu.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Date
05-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Literacy
Humans
Male
Resilience, Psychological
Social Support
Abstract
Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing. We will examine cohort effects on functional phenotypes underlying active aging and disability.
For this population-based study, we plan to recruit 1000 participants aged 75, 80 or 85 years living in central Finland, by drawing personal details from the population register. Participants are interviewed on active aging, wellbeing, disability, environmental and social support, mobility, health behavior and health literacy. Physical activity and heart rate are monitored for 7 days with wearable sensors. Functional tests include hearing, vision, muscle strength, reaction time, exercise tolerance, mobility, and cognitive performance. Clinical examination by a nurse and physician includes an electrocardiogram, tests of blood pressure, orthostatic regulation, arterial stiffness, and lung function, as well as a review of chronic and acute conditions and prescribed medications. C-reactive protein, small blood count, cholesterol and vitamin D are analyzed from blood samples. Associations of factors potentially underlying active aging and wellbeing will be studied using multivariate methods. Cohort effects will be studied by comparing test results of physical and cognitive functioning with results of a cohort examined in 1989-90.
The current study will renew research on positive gerontology through the novel approach to active aging and by suggesting new biomarkers of resilience and active aging. Therefore, high interdisciplinary impact is expected. This cross-sectional study will not provide knowledge on temporal order of events or causality, but an innovative cross-sectional dataset provides opportunities for emergence of novel creative hypotheses and theories.
PubMed ID
29716566 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorder and divorce: evidence for a genetic correlation in a population-based Swedish sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290102
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Date
Apr-2017
Author
Jessica E Salvatore
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jan Sundquist
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.
Source
Addiction. 2017 Apr; 112(4):586-593
Date
Apr-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Twin Study
Keywords
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics
Divorce - statistics & numerical data
Environment
European Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects.
We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers. We described the association between AUD and divorce using tetrachorics and used twin and sibling models to estimate genetic and environmental influences on divorce, on the covariance between AUD and divorce and the latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce.
Sweden.
A total of 670?836 individuals (53% male) born 1940-1965.
Life-time measures of AUD and divorce.
AUD and divorce were related strongly (males: rtet  = +0.44, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.45; females rtet  = +0.37, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.38). Genetic factors accounted for a modest proportion of the variance in divorce (males: 21.3%, 95% CI = 7.6, 28.5; females: 31.0%, 95% CI = 18.8, 37.1). Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between AUD and divorce (males: 52.0%, 95% CI = 48.8, 67.9; females: 53.74%, 95% CI = 17.6, 54.5), followed by non-shared environmental factors (males: 45.0%, 95% CI = 37.5, 54.9; females: 41.6%, 95% CI = 40.3, 60.2). Shared environmental factors accounted for a negligible proportion of the covariance (males: 3.0%, 95% CI = -3.0, 13.5; females: 4.75%, 95% CI = 0.0, 6.6). The AUD-divorce genetic correlations were high (males: rA = +0.76, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; females +0.52, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.67). The non-shared environmental correlations were modest (males: rE = +0.32, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.40; females: +0.27, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.36).
Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies. Covariation between AUD and divorce results from overlapping genetic and non-shared environmental factors. Latent genetic and non-shared environmental correlations for alcohol use disorder and divorce are high and moderate.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27981669 View in PubMed
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Association between major depression and type 2 diabetes in midlife: findings from the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271541
Source
Psychosom Med. 2015 Jun;77(5):559-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Briana Mezuk
Victor Heh
Elizabeth Prom-Wormley
Kenneth S Kendler
Nancy L Pedersen
Source
Psychosom Med. 2015 Jun;77(5):559-66
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Comorbidity
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - etiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Cohort studies suggest that the relationship between major depression (MD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is bidirectional. However, this association may be confounded by shared genetic or environmental factors. The objective of this study was to use a twin design to investigate the association between MD and T2DM.
Data come from the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin Study, a sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins 40 years or older sampled from the Swedish Twin Registry (n = 37,043). MD was assessed by using the Composite International Diagnostic Inventory. Structural equation twin modeling and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the relationship between MD and T2DM.
Approximately 19% of respondents had a history of MD and 5% had a history of T2DM. MD was associated with 32% increased likelihood of T2DM (95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.80) among twins aged 40 to 55 years, even after accounting for genetic risk, but was not associated with T2DM among twins older than 55 years. T2DM was associated with 33% increased likelihood of MD (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.72) among younger, but not older twins. Cholesky decomposition twin modeling indicated that common unique environmental factors contribute to the association between MD and T2DM.
Environmental factors that are unique to individuals (i.e., not shared within families) but common to both MD and T2DM contribute to their co-occurrence in midlife. However, we cannot exclude the possibility of bidirectional causation as an alternate explanation. It is likely that multiple processes are operating to effect the relation between psychiatric and medical conditions in midlife.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25967355 View in PubMed
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Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266937
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Johanna Eronen
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Timo Törmäkangas
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Environment Design
Exercise
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Health status
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Questionnaires
Walking
Abstract
To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
PubMed ID
25045839 View in PubMed
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A Bivariate Genetic Analysis of Drug Abuse Ascertained Through Medical and Criminal Registries in Swedish Twins, Siblings and Half-Siblings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282467
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 Nov;46(6):735-741
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2016
Author
Hermine H Maes
Michael C Neale
Henrik Ohlsson
Mahsa Zahery
Paul Lichtenstein
Kristina Sundquist
Jan Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Source
Behav Genet. 2016 Nov;46(6):735-741
Date
Nov-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Criminals
Female
Genetic Heterogeneity
Humans
Male
Registries
Siblings
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - genetics
Abstract
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated the correlation of genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse as ascertained from medical and criminal registries by modeling twin and sibling data. Medical drug abuse was defined using public inpatient and outpatient records, while criminal drug abuse was ascertained through legal records. Twin, full and half sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Standard bivariate genetic structural equation modeling was applied to the population-based data on drug abuse ascertained through medical and crime registries, using OpenMx. Analyses of all possible pairs of twins (MZ: N = 4482; DZ: N = 9838 pairs), full- (N = 1,278,086) and half-siblings (paternal: N = 7767; maternal N = 70,553) who grew up together suggested that factors explaining familial resemblance for drug abuse as defined through medical or criminal registries were mostly the same. Results showed substantial heritability and moderate contributions of shared environmental factors to drug abuse; both were higher in males versus females, and higher for drug abuse ascertained through criminal than medical records. Because of the low prevalence of both assessments of drug abuse, having access to population data was crucial to obtain stable estimates. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse-whether ascertained through medical versus criminal records-was highly heritable. Furthermore, shared environmental factors contributed significantly to the liability of drug abuse. Genetic and shared environmental risk factors for these two forms of drug abuse were highly correlated.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27480873 View in PubMed
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Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157662
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso
Sarianna Sipilä
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. alfredo.ortega@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adiposity - genetics
Age Factors
Aged
Aging - genetics
Electric Impedance
Environment
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Locomotion - genetics
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Models, Genetic
Obesity - genetics - physiopathology
Physical Endurance - genetics
Risk factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Walking
Abstract
In older adults, mobility limitations often coexist with overweight or obesity, suggesting that similar factors may underlie both traits. This study examined the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association between adiposity and mobility in older women. Body fat percentage (bioimpedance test), walking speed over 10 m, and distance walked in a 6-min test were evaluated in 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 104 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin sisters reared together, aged 63-76 years. Genetic and environmental influences on each trait were estimated using age-adjusted multivariate genetic modeling. The analyses showed that the means (and s.d.) for body fat percentage, walking speed, and walking endurance were 33.2+/-7.3%, 1.7+/-0.3 m/s and 529.7+/-75.4 m, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between adiposity and walking speed was -0.32 and between adiposity and endurance it was -0.33. Genetic influences explained 80% of the association between adiposity and speed, and 65% of adiposity and walking endurance. Cross-trait genetic influences accounted for 12% of the variability in adiposity, 56% in walking speed, and 34% in endurance. Trait-specific genetic influences were also detected for adiposity (54%) and walking endurance (13%), but not speed. In conclusion, among community-living older women, an inverse association was found between adiposity and mobility that was mostly due to the effect of shared genes. This result suggests that the identification of genetic variants for body fat metabolism may also provide understanding of the development of mobility limitations in older women.
PubMed ID
18421266 View in PubMed
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The Decomposition of Shared Environmental Influences on Externalizing Syndromes in the Swedish Population: A Multivariate Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289628
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Henrik Ohlsson
Kenneth S Kendler
Paul Lichtenstein
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research,Lund University,Malmö,Sweden.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics
Criminal Behavior
Environment
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Registries
Substance-Related Disorders - genetics
Sweden
Syndrome
Abstract
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%). Concerning syndrome-specific influences in males, close family effects were stronger for CB and AUD, while community effects were stronger for DA. The two C components in between community experiences and close family experiences (family and household) were estimated to almost entirely derive from the common latent factor. In females, among the four components of C, the community experiences were just slightly above zero, while the C components referred to as the household effect were almost zero. The total close family experiences were similar and most important across syndromes were also divided into common and specific components. For all syndromes, for both males and females, the effects of additive genetic factors were 2-4 times the size of the total effect of the shared environment. Applying standard methods to novel relationships, we expand our understanding of how the shared environment contributes to individual differences in three externalizing syndromes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28578747 View in PubMed
Less detail

The Decomposition of Shared Environmental Influences on Externalizing Syndromes in the Swedish Population: A Multivariate Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289470
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Henrik Ohlsson
Kenneth S Kendler
Paul Lichtenstein
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Author Affiliation
Center for Primary Health Care Research,Lund University,Malmö,Sweden.
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 08; 20(4):298-309
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - genetics
Criminal Behavior
Environment
Family
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Registries
Substance-Related Disorders - genetics
Sweden
Syndrome
Abstract
Using information from Swedish population registries, we attempt to decompose the shared environment (C) into four subcomponents: close family, family, household, and community. Among pairs differing in their genetic and geographical/household relationships, we examine three externalizing syndromes: drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB), and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The best-fitting common pathway model suggested that total estimates for C were higher for DA (21% for males and 18% for females) than for AUD (16% and 14%) and CB (17% and 10%). Concerning syndrome-specific influences in males, close family effects were stronger for CB and AUD, while community effects were stronger for DA. The two C components in between community experiences and close family experiences (family and household) were estimated to almost entirely derive from the common latent factor. In females, among the four components of C, the community experiences were just slightly above zero, while the C components referred to as the household effect were almost zero. The total close family experiences were similar and most important across syndromes were also divided into common and specific components. For all syndromes, for both males and females, the effects of additive genetic factors were 2-4 times the size of the total effect of the shared environment. Applying standard methods to novel relationships, we expand our understanding of how the shared environment contributes to individual differences in three externalizing syndromes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28578747 View in PubMed
Less detail

Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291084
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ritva Sakari
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Susanne Iwarsson
Sarianna Sipilä
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
1 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Environment
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Lower Extremity - physiopathology
Male
Mobility Limitation
Perception
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance.
Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB).
Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances.
The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.
PubMed ID
27056910 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does low alcohol use increase the risk of sickness absence? A discordant twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284782
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Aug 18;16(1):825
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-18-2016
Author
Kristian Amundsen Østby
Nikolai Czajkowski
Gun Peggy Knudsen
Eivind Ystrøm
Line C Gjerde
Kenneth S Kendler
Ragnhild E Ørstavik
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Source
BMC Public Health. 2016 Aug 18;16(1):825
Date
Aug-18-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcoholism - complications
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Risk factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Twins - statistics & numerical data
Young Adult
Abstract
Results from observational studies suggest that people who drink little or no alcohol are less healthy than medium drinkers. This has been demonstrated for many different measures of health, including sick leave. However, whether these associations are causal or due to confounding remains to be clarified. The aim of this study was to use a discordant twin design to determine whether the increased level of sick leave associated with a low level of alcohol consumption, as compared to those with a medium level of consumption, reflects a causal mechanism or is due to genetic or environmental confounding.
Six thousand seven hundred thirty-four young adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health's twin panel were in 1998 assessed for frequency of alcohol use and binge drinking. Data were linked to the Norwegian National Insurance Administration's recordings of sick leave over a 10 year period. The associations between alcohol consumption and sick leave were first estimated in the total study population, and then within di- and monozygotic twin pairs discordant for alcohol use.
Compared to medium consumption, both low and high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of sick leave. When low level drinkers were compared to medium level drinkers in a discordant twin design, the results were consistent with the association being due to genetic confounding rather than a causal effect.
The increased level of sick leave observed with low level drinkers seems to be mainly explained by confounding from genetic factors. In all observational studies of the relationship between alcohol consumption and health, one should be aware that important genetic confounders are likely to influence the results.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27538396 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effect of Marriage on Risk for Onset of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Longitudinal and Co-Relative Analysis in a Swedish National Sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282325
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 01;173(9):911-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-01-2016
Author
Kenneth S Kendler
Sara Larsson Lönn
Jessica Salvatore
Jan Sundquist
Kristina Sundquist
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 01;173(9):911-8
Date
Sep-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Cohort Studies
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Marriage - psychology
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Statistics as Topic
Survival Analysis
Sweden
Abstract
The authors sought to clarify the relationship between marriage and risk for alcohol use disorder.
The association between marital status and risk for first registration for alcohol use disorder in medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries was assessed in a population-based Swedish cohort (N=3,220,628) using longitudinal time-dependent survival and co-relative designs.
First marriage was associated with a substantial decline in risk for onset of alcohol use disorder in men (hazard ratio=0.41, 95% CI=0.40-0.42) and women (hazard ratio=0.27, 95% CI=0.26-0.28). This association was slightly stronger when the spouse had no lifetime alcohol use disorder, while marriage to a spouse with lifetime alcohol use disorder increased risk for subsequent alcohol use disorder registration in both men (hazard ratio=1.29, 95% CI=1.16-1.43) and women (hazard ratio=1.18, 95% CI=1.06-1.30). In both sexes, the protective effect of marriage was significantly stronger in those with than those without a family history of alcohol use disorder. In both men and women, the associations between marriage and risk for alcohol use disorder in cousins, half siblings, full siblings, and monozygotic twins discordant for marital status were as strong as that seen in the general population.
First marriage to a spouse with no lifetime alcohol use disorder is associated with a large reduction in risk for alcohol use disorder. This association cannot be explained by standard covariates or, as indicated by co-relative analyses, familial genetic or shared environmental confounders. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the psychological and social aspects of marriage, and in particular health-monitoring spousal interactions, strongly protect against the development of alcohol use disorder. The protective effects of marriage on risk for alcohol use disorder are increased in those at high familial risk for alcoholism.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27180900 View in PubMed
Less detail

Environmental barriers, person-environment fit and mortality among community-dwelling very old people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265500
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Timo Törmäkangas
Taina Rantanen
Maria Haak
Susanne Iwarsson
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility
Environment
Female
Frail Elderly
Housing for the Elderly
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Mortality - trends
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Environmental barriers are associated with disability-related outcomes in older people but little is known of the effect of environmental barriers on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured barriers in the outdoor, entrance and indoor environments are associated with mortality among community-dwelling 80- to 89-year-old single-living people.
This longitudinal study is based on a sample of 397 people who were single-living in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were interviewed during 2002-2003, and 393 were followed up for mortality until May 15, 2012.Environmental barriers and functional limitations were assessed with the Housing Enabler instrument, which is intended for objective assessments of Person-Environment (P-E) fit problems in housing and the immediate outdoor environment. Mortality data were gathered from the public national register. Cox regression models were used for the analyses.
A total of 264 (67%) participants died during follow-up. Functional limitations increased mortality risk. Among the specific environmental barriers that generate the most P-E fit problems, lack of handrails in stairs at entrances was associated with the highest mortality risk (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), whereas the total number of environmental barriers at entrances and outdoors was not associated with mortality. A higher number of environmental barriers indoors showed a slight protective effect against mortality even after adjustment for functional limitations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00).
Specific environmental problems may increase mortality risk among very-old single-living people. However, the association may be confounded by individuals' health status which is difficult to fully control for. Further studies are called for.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23981906 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evidence for distinct genetic effects associated with response to 35% CO2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116916
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar;30(3):259-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Roxann Roberson-Nay
Sara Moruzzi
Anna Ogliari
Elettra Pezzica
Kristian Tambs
Kenneth S Kendler
Marco Battaglia
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. rrobersonnay@vcu.edu
Source
Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar;30(3):259-66
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology - genetics
Biological Markers
Carbon Dioxide - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Health Surveys
Humans
Inhalation - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - genetics
Risk factors
Abstract
Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) hypersensitivity represents an individual difference response to breathing CO2 enriched air. People with a history of panic attacks or panic disorder are particularly prone to anxious response, suggesting that CO2 hypersensitivity is a robust risk marker of panic spectrum vulnerability.
Twin pairs (n = 346) from the general population-based Norwegian NIPH Mental Health Study completed a measure of anxiety before and after vital capacity inhalation of 35% CO2 air and before and after inhalation of regular air. Three hypotheses regarding genetic factors for CO2 hypersensitivity were examined: (1) a single set of genetic risk factors impacts anxiety before exposure to CO2 and these same genes constitute the only genetic influences on anxiety in response to CO2 , (2) the genetic effects on pre-CO2 anxiety are entirely different from the genetic effects on anxiety in response to exposure to CO2 (i.e., new genetic effects), and (3) pre-CO2 anxiety influences anxiety in response to CO2 as well as unique genetic factors that become activated by respiratory stimulation.
Our results support the latter hypothesis for response to 35% CO2 , with additive genetic and unique environmental factors best fitting the data. Evidence of new genetic effects was observed, accounting for 20% unique variance in post 35% CO2 anxiety response. New genetic effects were not observed for anxiety ratings made post regular air where only preregular air anxiety ratings explained significant variance in this outcome.
These data suggest that there are distinct genetic factors associated with responsivity to respiratory stimulation via 35% CO2 .
Notes
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PubMed ID
23349098 View in PubMed
Less detail

Familial and neighborhood effects on psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270483
Source
J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Jul-Aug;66-67:7-15
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jan Sundquist
Xinjun Li
Henrik Ohlsson
Maria Råstam
Marilyn Winkleby
Kristina Sundquist
Kenneth S Kendler
Casey Crump
Source
J Psychiatr Res. 2015 Jul-Aug;66-67:7-15
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety Disorders - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Conduct Disorder - epidemiology
Family
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Individuality
Logistic Models
Mood Disorders - epidemiology
Registries
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
More knowledge is needed on potential associations between individual-, family-, and neighborhood-level factors and psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents.
To examine associations between, individual-, family-, and neighborhood-level factors and incident internalizing (anxiety and mood) disorders and externalizing (ADHD and conduct) disorders in children and adolescents, and to estimate the relative contributions of family and neighborhood to individual variation in these disorders.
We performed a three-level logistic regression on all 542,195 children born in Sweden in 1992-1996, nested in 427,954 families, which in turn were nested in 8475 neighborhoods. The children were followed from 2000 to 2010 for incident internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders, assessed from medical records.
26,514 children (4.8%) were diagnosed with internalizing or externalizing psychiatric disorders. Approximately 29% of the total individual variance in internalizing disorders could be attributed to the family level, which includes both genetic and family environmental effects, and 5% to the neighborhood level. The corresponding figures for externalizing disorders were 43.5% and 5.5%, respectively. After adjustment for individual-level sociodemographic factors, high neighborhood deprivation was associated with increased risks of externalizing and internalizing psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% credible interval [CI] = 1.25-1.50 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.25-1.45, respectively), including conduct disorder (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.58-2.55), anxiety disorders (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.29-1.52), and mood disorders (OR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.09-1.35). The strongest association between neighborhood deprivation and ADHD was observed in moderately deprived neighborhoods (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.19-1.44).
These findings call for policies to promote mental health that consider potential influences from children's family and neighborhood environments.conclusion
Not applicable.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25953099 View in PubMed
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Fear of moving outdoors and development of outdoor walking difficulty in older people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151341
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Apr;57(4):634-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Minna Mänty
Susanne Iwarsson
Timo Törmäkangas
Raija Leinonen
Eino Heikkinen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Finnish Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. merja.rantakokko@sport.jyu.fi
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Apr;57(4):634-40
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chi-Square Distribution
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Fear
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Logistic Models
Male
Mobility Limitation
Musculoskeletal Diseases - complications
Prospective Studies
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
To study which individual characteristics and environmental factors correlate with fear of moving outdoors and whether fear of moving outdoors predicts development of mobility limitation.
Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses.
Community and research center.
Seven hundred twenty-seven community-living people aged 75 to 81 were interviewed at baseline, of whom 314 took part in a 3.5-year follow-up.
Fear of moving outdoors and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Perceived difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km were assessed twice a year over a 3.5-year period.
At baseline, 65% of the women and 29% of the men reported fear of moving outdoors. Poor socioeconomic status; musculoskeletal diseases; slow walking speed; and the presence of poor street conditions, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic correlated with fear of moving outdoors. At the first 6-month follow-up, participants with fear of moving outdoors had more than four times the adjusted risk (odds ratio (OR)=4.6, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.92-11.00) of developing difficulties in walking 0.5 km and a three times greater adjusted risk (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.49-6.46) for developing difficulty in walking 2 km compared with those without fear. The difference in the prevalence of walking difficulties remained statistically significant over the 3.5-year follow-up (P=.02 and P=.009, respectively).
Fear of moving outdoors is common in older adults and increases the risk of developing self-reported difficulties in walking 0.5 km and 2 km. Knowledge about individual and environmental factors underlying fear of moving outdoors and finding ways to alleviate fear of moving outdoors are important for community planning and prevention of disability.
PubMed ID
19392955 View in PubMed
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Genetic and environmental contributions to long-term sick leave and disability pension: a population-based study of young adult Norwegian twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113302
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Aug;16(4):759-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2013
Author
Line C Gjerde
Gun Peggy Knudsen
Nikolai Czajkowski
Nathan Gillespie
Steven H Aggen
Espen Røysamb
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Kristian Tambs
Kenneth S Kendler
Ragnhild E Orstavik
Author Affiliation
Department of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. line.gjerde@fhi.no
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2013 Aug;16(4):759-66
Date
Aug-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetics, Population
Humans
Insurance, Disability - statistics & numerical data - trends
Male
Models, Theoretical
Norway - epidemiology
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data - trends
Twins - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Although exclusion from the workforce due to long-term sick leave (LTSL) and disability pension (DP) is a major problem in many Western countries, the etiology of LTSL and DP is not well understood. These phenomena have a strong association as most patients receiving DP have first been on LTSL. However, only a few of those on LTSL end up with DP. The present study aimed to investigate the common and specific genetic and environmental risk factors for LTSL and DP. The present study utilizes a population-based sample of 7,710 young adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, which has been linked to the Historical-Event Database (FD-Trygd; 1998-2008). Univariate and bivariate twin models were fitted to determine to what degree genetic and environmental factors contribute to variation in LTSL and DP. The estimated heritabilities of LTSL and DP were 0.49 and 0.66, respectively. There was no evidence for shared environmental or sex-specific factors. The phenotypic-, genetic-, and non-familial environmental correlations between the variables were 0.86, 0.82, and 0.94, respectively. Our results indicate that familial transmission of LTSL and DP is due to genetic and not environmental factors. The risk factors contributing to LTSL and DP were mainly shared, suggesting that what increases risk for LTSL also increases risk for DP. However, a non-negligible part of the genetic variance was not shared between the variables, which may contribute to explaining why some progress from LTSL to DP, whereas others return to work.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23743022 View in PubMed
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The genetic and environmental effects on depressive symptoms among older female twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176906
Source
Twin Res. 2004 Dec;7(6):626-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2004
Author
Sanna Takkinen
Asko Tolvanen
Jaakko Kaprio
Stig Berg
Markku Koskenvuo
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden.
Source
Twin Res. 2004 Dec;7(6):626-36
Date
Dec-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Environment
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Models, Biological
Risk factors
Twins - genetics - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to depressive symptoms among older women. The participants were 102 monozygotic and 115 dizygotic female twin pairs aged 64 to 76 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The contribution of genetic and environmental effects was estimated for the constructed depressiveness factor and for the subscales which were depressed mood, psychomotor retardation, lack of wellbeing and interpersonal difficulties. Of the variance in depressiveness, shared environmental influences accounted for 39% and nonshared environmental influences 61%. For the subscales, 24% to 62% of the variance was explained by individual, and 13% to 23% by shared, environmental factors. Lack of wellbeing had its own moderate additive genetic effect explaining 30% of the variance. This study showed that in older women predominantly environmental factors underlay individual differences in depressiveness; however, the factors varied to some extent between dimensions measured by the subscales.
PubMed ID
15607014 View in PubMed
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Genetic and environmental influences on hearing at different frequencies separately for the better and worse hearing ear in older women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160056
Source
Int J Audiol. 2007 Dec;46(12):772-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Anne Viljanen
Jaakko Kaprio
Ilmari Pyykkö
Martti Sorri
Markku Kauppinen
Markku Koskenvuo
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. anne.viljanen@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Int J Audiol. 2007 Dec;46(12):772-9
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aging - physiology
Auditory Threshold - physiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hearing Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Humans
Middle Aged
Registries
Severity of Illness Index
Twins, Dizygotic
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental effects on the air-conducted hearing threshold levels at low (0.125-0.5 kHz), mid (1-2 kHz), and high (4-8 kHz) frequencies separately for the better and worse hearing ear in older women. We also examined the distribution of audiogram configurations. Data was analysed using quantitative genetic modelling. As part of the Finnish twin study on aging (FITSA), hearing was measured in 103 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic female twin pairs aged 63-76 years. Approximately every third subject had a flat type, and two-thirds a descending type of audiogram configuration. No significant difference was observed in the distribution of audiogram configurations between zygosity groups. In the better ear, additive genetic effects accounted for 64%-74% of the total variance at different frequencies. For the worse ear, environmental effects were larger. Although overall heritability is rather constant across the frequency spectrum, it is noteworthy that at low and high frequencies frequency-specific genetic and environmental effects together accounted for the majority of the total variance.
PubMed ID
18049966 View in PubMed
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Genetic and Environmental Structure of DSM-IV Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder: A Twin Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288056
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 May;47(3):265-277
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Tom Rosenström
Eivind Ystrom
Fartein Ask Torvik
Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski
Nathan A Gillespie
Steven H Aggen
Robert F Krueger
Kenneth S Kendler
Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Source
Behav Genet. 2017 May;47(3):265-277
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antisocial Personality Disorder - genetics
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Environment
Female
Genotype
Humans
Male
Norway
Phenotype
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
Results from previous studies on DSM-IV and DSM-5 Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) have suggested that the construct is etiologically multidimensional. To our knowledge, however, the structure of genetic and environmental influences in ASPD has not been examined using an appropriate range of biometric models and diagnostic interviews. The 7 ASPD criteria (section A) were assessed in a population-based sample of 2794 Norwegian twins by a structured interview for DSM-IV personality disorders. Exploratory analyses were conducted at the phenotypic level. Multivariate biometric models, including both independent and common pathways, were compared. A single phenotypic factor was found, and the best-fitting biometric model was a single-factor common pathway model, with common-factor heritability of 51% (95% CI 40-67%). In other words, both genetic and environmental correlations between the ASPD criteria could be accounted for by a single common latent variable. The findings support the validity of ASPD as a unidimensional diagnostic construct.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28108863 View in PubMed
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Genetic and family and community environmental effects on drug abuse in adolescence: a Swedish national twin and sibling study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106984
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Feb 1;171(2):209-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2014
Author
Kenneth S Kendler
Hermine H Maes
Kristina Sundquist
Henrik Ohlsson
Jan Sundquist
Source
Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Feb 1;171(2):209-17
Date
Feb-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Family Health
Female
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings - psychology
Social Environment
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins - genetics - psychology
Abstract
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse by twin sibling modeling. The authors followed up with epidemiological analyses to identify shared environmental influences on drug abuse.
Drug abuse was defined using public medical, legal, or pharmacy records. Twin and sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, or municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. The authors predicted concordance for drug abuse by years of co-residence until the older sibling turned 21 and risk for future drug abuse in adolescents living with parental figures as a function of family-level socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation.
The best twin sibling fit model predicted substantial heritability for drug abuse in males (55%) and females (73%), with environmental factors shared by siblings operating only in males and accounting for 23% of the variance in liability. For each year of living in the same household, the probability of sibling concordance for drug abuse increased 2%-5%. When not residing in the same household, concordance was predicted from residence in the same small residential area or municipality. Risk for drug abuse was predicted both by family socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. Controlling for family socioeconomic status, each year of living in a high social deprivation neighborhood increased the risk for drug abuse by 2%.
Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse is highly heritable. A substantial proportion of the shared environmental effect on drug abuse comes from community-wide rather than household-level influences. Genetic effects demonstrated in twin studies have led to molecular analyses to elucidate biological pathways. In a parallel manner, environmental effects can be followed up by epidemiological studies to clarify social mechanisms.
Notes
Comment In: Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Feb 1;171(2):140-124500456
PubMed ID
24077613 View in PubMed
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