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Active aging - resilience and external support as modifiers of the disablement outcome: AGNES cohort study protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299192
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-02-2018
Author
Taina Rantanen
Milla Saajanaho
Laura Karavirta
Sini Siltanen
Merja Rantakokko
Anne Viljanen
Timo Rantalainen
Katja Pynnönen
Anu Karvonen
Inna Lisko
Lotta Palmberg
Johanna Eronen
Eeva-Maija Palonen
Timo Hinrichs
Markku Kauppinen
Katja Kokko
Erja Portegijs
Author Affiliation
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Univerisity of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (viv 149), 40014, Jyväskylä, Finland. taina.rantanen@jyu.fi.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2018 05 02; 18(1):565
Date
05-02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - psychology
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Exercise
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Health Literacy
Humans
Male
Resilience, Psychological
Social Support
Abstract
Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing. We will examine cohort effects on functional phenotypes underlying active aging and disability.
For this population-based study, we plan to recruit 1000 participants aged 75, 80 or 85 years living in central Finland, by drawing personal details from the population register. Participants are interviewed on active aging, wellbeing, disability, environmental and social support, mobility, health behavior and health literacy. Physical activity and heart rate are monitored for 7 days with wearable sensors. Functional tests include hearing, vision, muscle strength, reaction time, exercise tolerance, mobility, and cognitive performance. Clinical examination by a nurse and physician includes an electrocardiogram, tests of blood pressure, orthostatic regulation, arterial stiffness, and lung function, as well as a review of chronic and acute conditions and prescribed medications. C-reactive protein, small blood count, cholesterol and vitamin D are analyzed from blood samples. Associations of factors potentially underlying active aging and wellbeing will be studied using multivariate methods. Cohort effects will be studied by comparing test results of physical and cognitive functioning with results of a cohort examined in 1989-90.
The current study will renew research on positive gerontology through the novel approach to active aging and by suggesting new biomarkers of resilience and active aging. Therefore, high interdisciplinary impact is expected. This cross-sectional study will not provide knowledge on temporal order of events or causality, but an innovative cross-sectional dataset provides opportunities for emergence of novel creative hypotheses and theories.
PubMed ID
29716566 View in PubMed
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Age and sex differences in genetic and environmental factors for self-rated health: a twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71966
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2001
Author
P. Svedberg
P. Lichtenstein
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Pia.Svedberg@mep.ki.se
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2001 May;56(3):S171-8
Date
May-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Age Factors
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Attitude to Health
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Mortality
Population Surveillance
Predictive value of tests
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Characteristics
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Self-rated health has been shown to be a predictor for future health status and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-group and sex differences in genetic and environmental sources of variation for self-rated health. METHODS: A sample of twins from the Swedish Twin Registry participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview with assessment of self-rated health. Structural equation model analyses on 1,243 complete twin pairs provided estimates of genetic and environmental components of variance. RESULTS: Individual differences primarily reflected individual specific environmental influences at all ages. The increase in total variance across age groups was primarily due to genetic influences in the age groups 45--74 years and greater environmental influences in the oldest age group (>74). No significant sex differences were found in variance components. DISCUSSION: Genetic variance in the two middle age groups (45--74) could reflect genetic susceptibility to age-dependent illnesses not yet expressed in the youngest group. The findings suggest that it might be more fruitful to explore the origins of individual differences for self-rated health in the context of an individual's age and birth cohort rather than in the context of sex.
PubMed ID
11316842 View in PubMed
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Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need in older adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266937
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Johanna Eronen
Mikaela B von Bonsdorff
Timo Törmäkangas
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Source
Prev Med. 2014 Oct;67:106-11
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Environment Design
Exercise
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Health status
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Questionnaires
Walking
Abstract
To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
PubMed ID
25045839 View in PubMed
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Body fat and mobility are explained by common genetic and environmental influences in older women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157662
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
Alfredo Ortega-Alonso
Sarianna Sipilä
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. alfredo.ortega@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Jul;16(7):1616-21
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adiposity - genetics
Age Factors
Aged
Aging - genetics
Electric Impedance
Environment
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Locomotion - genetics
Middle Aged
Mobility Limitation
Models, Genetic
Obesity - genetics - physiopathology
Physical Endurance - genetics
Risk factors
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Walking
Abstract
In older adults, mobility limitations often coexist with overweight or obesity, suggesting that similar factors may underlie both traits. This study examined the extent to which genetic and environmental influences explain the association between adiposity and mobility in older women. Body fat percentage (bioimpedance test), walking speed over 10 m, and distance walked in a 6-min test were evaluated in 92 monozygotic (MZ) and 104 dizygotic (DZ) pairs of twin sisters reared together, aged 63-76 years. Genetic and environmental influences on each trait were estimated using age-adjusted multivariate genetic modeling. The analyses showed that the means (and s.d.) for body fat percentage, walking speed, and walking endurance were 33.2+/-7.3%, 1.7+/-0.3 m/s and 529.7+/-75.4 m, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between adiposity and walking speed was -0.32 and between adiposity and endurance it was -0.33. Genetic influences explained 80% of the association between adiposity and speed, and 65% of adiposity and walking endurance. Cross-trait genetic influences accounted for 12% of the variability in adiposity, 56% in walking speed, and 34% in endurance. Trait-specific genetic influences were also detected for adiposity (54%) and walking endurance (13%), but not speed. In conclusion, among community-living older women, an inverse association was found between adiposity and mobility that was mostly due to the effect of shared genes. This result suggests that the identification of genetic variants for body fat metabolism may also provide understanding of the development of mobility limitations in older women.
PubMed ID
18421266 View in PubMed
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Both the environment and genes are important for concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature197411
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Aug;108(8):719-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2000
Author
L. Björkman
M. Vahter
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Aug;108(8):719-22
Date
Aug-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Markers - blood
Cadmium - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Lead - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Sweden - epidemiology
Twin Studies as Topic
Abstract
Concentrations of cadmium and lead in blood (BCd and BPb, respectively) are traditionally used as biomarkers of environmental exposure. We estimated the influence of genetic factors on these markers in a cohort of 61 monozygotic and 103 dizygotic twin pairs (mean age = 68 years, range = 49-86). BCd and BPb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Variations in both BCd and BPb were influenced by not only environmental but also genetic factors. Interestingly, the genetic influence was considerably greater for nonsmoking women (h(2) = 65% for BCd and 58% for BPb) than for nonsmoking men (13 and 0%, respectively). The shared familial environmental (c(2)) influence for BPb was 37% for men but only 3% for women. The association between BCd and BPb could be attributed entirely to environmental factors of mutual importance for levels of the two metals. Thus, blood metal concentrations in women reflect not only exposure, as previously believed, but to a considerable extent hereditary factors possibly related to uptake and storage. Further steps should focus on identification of these genetic factors and evaluation of whether women are more susceptible to exposure to toxic metals than men.
Notes
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PubMed ID
10964791 View in PubMed
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Can personality explain genetic influences on life events?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64398
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1997
Author
K J Saudino
N L Pedersen
P. Lichtenstein
G E McClearn
R. Plomin
Author Affiliation
Center for Developmental and Health Genetics, Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Source
J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997 Jan;72(1):196-206
Date
Jan-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environment
Female
Humans
Life Change Events
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Multivariate Analysis
Personality - genetics
Phenotype
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sex Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - psychology
Abstract
Previous research in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) has found genetic influences on life events (R. Plomin, P. Lichtenstein, N.L. Pedersen, G.E. McClearn, & J.R. Nesselroade, 1990). The present study extends this finding by examining sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to life events and by examining personality as a mediator of genetic influences on life events in SATSA. Analyses were based on 320 twin pairs, including identical and fraternal twins reared together and apart (mean age = 58.6 years). Controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events were revealed significant genetic variance for women. There was no significant genetic variance for either sex for uncontrollable events. Multivariate analyses of personality (as indexed by Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience) and life events suggest that all of the genetic variance on controllable, desirable, and undesirable life events for women is common to personality. Thus, in this sample of older adult women, genetic influences on life events appear to be entirely mediated by personality.
PubMed ID
9008381 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood adoption: long-term effects in adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33597
Source
Psychiatry. 1998;61(3):191-205
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
M A Smyer
M. Gatz
N L Simi
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167-3807, USA. smyer@bc.edu
Source
Psychiatry. 1998;61(3):191-205
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adoption - psychology
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Health status
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Matched-Pair Analysis
Middle Aged
Personal Satisfaction
Personality
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Twins - psychology
Abstract
Clinicians and researchers have characterized early life experiences as permanent and stable influences on the personality and subsequent life experiences of an individual. Recent conceptualizations have suggested that personal and environmental factors influencing development are not deterministic. Multiple pathways into adulthood are possible. Adoption is one potential early life stressor that may illustrate the usefulness of such conceptualizations for assessing long-term effects in adulthood. Previous studies of adoption have characterized the effects of adoption into adolescence and young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the long-term impact of adoption. The participants were taken from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. From the original sample, we identified a subsample of 60 pairs of twins who were separated and reared apart, with one member being raised by a biological parent or parents and the other by an adoptive parent or parents with no biological relationship. A series of univariate and multivariate analyses were undertaken to assess the elements associated with being reared in either an adoptive home or the home of biological parent(s). The results suggest few significant effects of adoption on the adult adjustment of adoptees. In particular, the results reflect the important mediating role of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting that the stress of adoption itself is mediated by the type of rearing environment provided by the adoption process.
PubMed ID
9823029 View in PubMed
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Dementia and occupational exposure to magnetic fields.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64227
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Feb;24(1):46-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
M. Feychting
N L Pedersen
P. Svedberg
B. Floderus
M. Gatz
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998 Feb;24(1):46-53
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Alzheimer Disease - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Dementia, Vascular - epidemiology - etiology
Electromagnetic fields - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupations
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present report was to assess whether occupational magnetic field exposure is a risk factor for dementia, in particular for Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: Case-control analyses were applied to 77 dementia cases, 55 of whom had Alzheimer's disease, ascertained from the population-based Swedish twin register. Two reference groups were derived, with 228 and 238 persons, respectively. Occupations were linked to a job-exposure matrix based on magnetic field measurements. Primary occupation, last occupation before reference date, and the occupation with the highest magnetic field exposure during the subject's lifetime were evaluated. RESULTS: For primary occupation, all relative risk estimates were close to unity. For last occupation, at the exposure level > or = 0.2 microT, a relative risk was found for dementia estimated at 3.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-8.6] and 3.8 (95% CI 1.4-10.2) for reference groups 1 and 2, respectively. The relative risk for Alzheimer's disease was estimated at 2.4 (95% CI 0.8-6.9) and 2.7 (95% CI 0.9-7.8), respectively. For the occupation with the highest magnetic field exposure, the relative risk estimates were close to unity for reference group 1 and slightly elevated for reference group 2. The relative risk estimates were greater for the subjects who were younger at onset (
PubMed ID
9562400 View in PubMed
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Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
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Dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy and fetal growth-results from the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118477
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):374-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Talita Duarte-Salles
Hans von Stedingk
Berit Granum
Kristine B Gützkow
Per Rydberg
Margareta Törnqvist
Michelle A Mendez
Gunnar Brunborg
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):374-9
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrylamide - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Cohort Studies
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Hemoglobins - chemistry
Humans
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Abstract
Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans.
We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes.
Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide- and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively).
Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.
Notes
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Cites: Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Apr;20(3):269-7818855107
Cites: Int J Cancer. 2009 May 15;124(10):2384-9019142870
Cites: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4998-500612166997
PubMed ID
23204292 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary benzo(a)pyrene intake during pregnancy and birth weight: associations modified by vitamin C intakes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107027
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:217-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Talita Duarte-Salles
Michelle A Mendez
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: duartesallest@fellows.iarc.fr.
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:217-23
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ascorbic Acid - pharmacology
Benzo(a)pyrene - administration & dosage - analysis - toxicity
Birth Weight - drug effects
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Food - classification
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System - chemically induced
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Microphthalmos - chemically induced
Multivariate Analysis
Mutagenicity Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Parity
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - toxicity
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Abstract
Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain.
To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients.
The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P
PubMed ID
24071023 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108262
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:398-407
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Ida H Caspersen
Helle K Knutsen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Helen E Kvalem
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. ida.henriette.caspersen@fhi.no
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:398-407
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Burden
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Dioxins - administration & dosage - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Female
Fish Products - adverse effects - analysis
Food Contamination
Humans
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - administration & dosage - blood
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.
PubMed ID
23911340 View in PubMed
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Do Associations Between Perceived Environmental and Individual Characteristics and Walking Limitations Depend on Lower Extremity Performance Level?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291084
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Ritva Sakari
Merja Rantakokko
Erja Portegijs
Susanne Iwarsson
Sarianna Sipilä
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
1 University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
Source
J Aging Health. 2017 Jun; 29(4):640-656
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross-Sectional Studies
Disability Evaluation
Environment
Female
Geriatric Assessment - methods
Humans
Independent living
Interviews as Topic
Lower Extremity - physiopathology
Male
Mobility Limitation
Perception
Physical Fitness - physiology
Sweden
Task Performance and Analysis
Walking - physiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze whether the associations between perceived environmental and individual characteristics and perceived walking limitations in older people differ between those with intact and those with poorer lower extremity performance.
Persons aged 75 to 90 ( N = 834) participated in interviews and performance tests in their homes. Standard questionnaires were used to obtain walking difficulties; environmental barriers to and, facilitators of, mobility; and perceived individual hindrances to outdoor mobility. Lower extremity performance was tested using Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB).
Among those with poorer lower extremity performance, the likelihood for advanced walking limitations was, in particular, related to perceived poor safety in the environment, and among those with intact performance to perceived social issues, such as lack of company, as well as to long distances.
The environmental correlates of walking limitations seem to depend on the level of lower extremity performance.
PubMed ID
27056910 View in PubMed
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Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134772
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Roy M Nilsen
Per Magnus
Jan Alexander
Margareta Haugen
Author Affiliation
Divisions of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Diet, Mediterranean
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Status
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - etiology
Premature Birth - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21543541 View in PubMed
Less detail

The effect of genetic factors for longevity: a comparison of identical and fraternal twins in the Swedish Twin Registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64158
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998 Nov;53(6):M441-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1998
Author
B. Ljungquist
S. Berg
J. Lanke
G E McClearn
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Gerontology, University College of Health Sciences, Jönköping, Sweden. birgit.ljungquist@habo.mail.telia.com
Source
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998 Nov;53(6):M441-6
Date
Nov-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Comparative Study
Environment
Female
Humans
Longevity - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Mortality
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The relative importance of genetic influences on longevity was studied on data from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. METHODS: A sample of 3,656 identical and 6,849 like-sexed fraternal twin pairs was studied regarding mortality rates and within-pair similarity for age at death. Genetic and environmental contributions to variation in longevity, expressed by integrated mortality rates, were estimated from a subsample of 1,734 twin pairs reared together and 130 twin pairs reared apart from the cohorts born 1886 to 1900. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficients suggested that the genetic effect was small, and, for males, perhaps absent. Among pairs in which both twins died relatively young and among pairs in which both twins lived until very old age, the variance in age at death seemed to have no genetic component. Model fitting procedures based on twins reared apart and twins reared together indicated that most of the variance in longevity was explained by environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: Over the total age range examined, a maximum of around one third of the variance in longevity is attributable to genetic factors, and almost all of the remaining variance is due to nonshared, individual specific environmental factors. The evidence that genetic factors play a minor role depending upon age at death merits further examination.
PubMed ID
9823748 View in PubMed
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Environmental and heritable factors in the etiology of oral diseases--a population-based study of Swedish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature62756
Source
J Dent Res. 2005 Sep;84(9):800-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2005
Author
L A Mucci
L. Björkman
C W Douglass
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. lmucci@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
J Dent Res. 2005 Sep;84(9):800-5
Date
Sep-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Diseases in Twins
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Inheritance Patterns
Interviews
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Statistical
Mouth, Edentulous - etiology - genetics
Periodontal Diseases - etiology - genetics
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk assessment
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
A population-based twin study is a useful design for quantification of the effects of genes and environmental factors in disease etiology. We used data from 10,000 Swedish twin pairs to quantify genetic and environmental contributions to tooth loss and periodontal health. Oral health information was obtained from telephone interviews. Structural equation models measured the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors contributed to 14% of variation in tooth loss among women, and 39% among men. Non-shared environmental factors accounted for one-quarter of risk; environmental factors shared by twins comprised the remainder. Heritability estimates of periodontal disease were 39% and 33% for women and men, respectively, while non-shared environmental factors accounted for the remaining variation. Heritability for both conditions varied as a function of age and smoking status. Analysis of data from this large, population-based study demonstrates a moderate role of genetic factors in oral diseases, and suggests potential gene-environment interactions.
PubMed ID
16109987 View in PubMed
Less detail

Environmental barriers, person-environment fit and mortality among community-dwelling very old people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265500
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Timo Törmäkangas
Taina Rantanen
Maria Haak
Susanne Iwarsson
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility
Environment
Female
Frail Elderly
Housing for the Elderly
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Mortality - trends
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Environmental barriers are associated with disability-related outcomes in older people but little is known of the effect of environmental barriers on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured barriers in the outdoor, entrance and indoor environments are associated with mortality among community-dwelling 80- to 89-year-old single-living people.
This longitudinal study is based on a sample of 397 people who were single-living in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were interviewed during 2002-2003, and 393 were followed up for mortality until May 15, 2012.Environmental barriers and functional limitations were assessed with the Housing Enabler instrument, which is intended for objective assessments of Person-Environment (P-E) fit problems in housing and the immediate outdoor environment. Mortality data were gathered from the public national register. Cox regression models were used for the analyses.
A total of 264 (67%) participants died during follow-up. Functional limitations increased mortality risk. Among the specific environmental barriers that generate the most P-E fit problems, lack of handrails in stairs at entrances was associated with the highest mortality risk (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), whereas the total number of environmental barriers at entrances and outdoors was not associated with mortality. A higher number of environmental barriers indoors showed a slight protective effect against mortality even after adjustment for functional limitations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00).
Specific environmental problems may increase mortality risk among very-old single-living people. However, the association may be confounded by individuals' health status which is difficult to fully control for. Further studies are called for.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23981906 View in PubMed
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Exploration of biomarkers for total fish intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98999
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Margaretha Haugen
Yngvar Thomassen
Dag G Ellingsen
Trond A Ydersbond
Tor-Arne Hagve
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-04030 Oslo, Norway. anne.lise.brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arsenic - administration & dosage - blood
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Cohort Studies
Diet Records
Erythrocytes - chemistry
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - analysis
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Mercury - administration & dosage - blood
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Seafood - analysis
Selenium - administration & dosage - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
Notes
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
PubMed ID
19490733 View in PubMed
Less detail

Extra-intestinal manifestations associated with irritable bowel syndrome: a twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature13969
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 May;16(5):975-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2002
Author
P. Svedberg
S. Johansson
M-A Wallander
B. Hamelin
N L Pedersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Pia.Svedberg@mep.ki.se
Source
Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 May;16(5):975-83
Date
May-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Colonic Diseases, Functional - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Comorbidity
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic
Twins, Monozygotic
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of genetic and environmental factors in irritable bowel syndrome. Various extra-intestinal manifestations are more prevalent in cases than in controls. Genetic effects may be important in the liability to develop functional bowel disorders. AIMS: To evaluate the associations of irritable bowel syndrome with several disorders co-morbid with the condition, using both a case-control design and a co-twin control design. METHODS: A sample of 850 Swedish twin pairs, aged 18-85 years, was contacted for a telephone interview. Through a diagnostic algorithm, 72 unrelated cases of irritable bowel syndrome and 216 age- and gender-matched controls were identified. Fifty-eight twin pairs discordant for irritable bowel syndrome were evaluated in co-twin analyses. RESULTS: Renal problems (odds ratio (OR)=3.3; confidence interval (CI), 1.3-8.2), obesity (OR=2.6; CI, 1.0-6.4), underweight in the past (OR=2.4; CI, 1.1-6.4), gluten intolerance (OR=9.0; CI, 1.4-60.1), rheumatoid arthritis (OR=3.2; CI, 1.1-9.4) and poor self-rated health (OR=1.8; CI, 1.0-3.2) were significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome. In the co-twin analyses, the only factors maintaining significance were renal and recurrent urinary tract problems. CONCLUSIONS: The association between irritable bowel syndrome and renal and urinary tract problems does not reflect a genetic or familial mediation. Eating disorders in childhood represent a familial-environmental influence on irritable bowel syndrome, whereas the association with rheumatoid arthritis and perhaps gluten intolerance probably reflects genetic mediation.
PubMed ID
11966507 View in PubMed
Less detail

Familial influence and childhood trauma in female alcoholism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260576
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Feb;42(2):381-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Å. Magnusson
C. Lundholm
M. Göransson
W. Copeland
M. Heilig
N L Pedersen
Source
Psychol Med. 2012 Feb;42(2):381-9
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Alcoholism - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Child
Child Abuse - psychology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To assess the role of genetic and environmental factors in female alcoholism using a large population-based twin sample, taking into account possible differences between early and late onset disease subtype.
Twins aged 20-47 years from the Swedish Twin Registry (n=24 119) answered questions to establish lifetime alcohol use disorders. Subjects with alcoholism were classified for subtype. Structural equation modeling was used to quantify the proportion of phenotypic variance due to genetic and environmental factors and test whether heritability in women differed from that in men. The association between childhood trauma and alcoholism was then examined in females, controlling for background familial factors.
Lifetime prevalence of alcohol dependence was 4.9% in women and 8.6% in men. Overall, heritability for alcohol dependence was 55%, and did not differ significantly between men and women, although women had a significantly greater heritability for late onset (type I). Childhood physical trauma and sexual abuse had a stronger association with early onset compared to late onset alcoholism [odds ratio (OR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-3.88 and OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.38-3.79 respectively]. Co-twin analysis indicated that familial factors largely accounted for the influence of physical trauma whereas the association with childhood sexual abuse reflected both familial and specific effects.
Heritability of alcoholism in women is similar to that in men. Early onset alcoholism is strongly association with childhood trauma, which seems to be both a marker of familial background factors and a specific individual risk factor per se.
Notes
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