Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing. We will examine cohort effects on functional phenotypes underlying active aging and disability.
For this population-based study, we plan to recruit 1000 participants aged 75, 80 or 85 years living in central Finland, by drawing personal details from the population register. Participants are interviewed on active aging, wellbeing, disability, environmental and social support, mobility, health behavior and health literacy. Physical activity and heart rate are monitored for 7 days with wearable sensors. Functional tests include hearing, vision, muscle strength, reaction time, exercise tolerance, mobility, and cognitive performance. Clinical examination by a nurse and physician includes an electrocardiogram, tests of blood pressure, orthostatic regulation, arterial stiffness, and lung function, as well as a review of chronic and acute conditions and prescribed medications. C-reactive protein, small blood count, cholesterol and vitamin D are analyzed from blood samples. Associations of factors potentially underlying active aging and wellbeing will be studied using multivariate methods. Cohort effects will be studied by comparing test results of physical and cognitive functioning with results of a cohort examined in 1989-90.
The current study will renew research on positive gerontology through the novel approach to active aging and by suggesting new biomarkers of resilience and active aging. Therefore, high interdisciplinary impact is expected. This cross-sectional study will not provide knowledge on temporal order of events or causality, but an innovative cross-sectional dataset provides opportunities for emergence of novel creative hypotheses and theories.
To profile participants based on reported outdoor physical activity barriers using a data-driven approach, describe the profiles and study their association with unmet physical activity need.
Cross-sectional analyses of 848 community-dwelling men and women aged 75-90 living in Central Finland in 2012. Barriers to outdoor physical activity and unmet physical activity need were enquired with a questionnaire. The latent profiles were identified by profiling participants into latent groups using a mixture modeling technique on the multivariate set of indicators of outdoor physical activity barriers. A path model was used to study the associations of the profiles with unmet physical activity need.
Five barrier profiles were identified. Profile A was characterized with minor barriers, profile B with weather barriers, profile C with health and weather barriers, profile D with barriers concerning insecurity, health and weather; and profile E with mobility and health barriers. The participants in the profiles differed in the proportion of individual and environmental barriers. The risk for unmet physical activity need was highest among people whose severe mobility difficulties restricted their outdoor physical activity.
Outdoor physical activity barriers reflect the imbalance in person-environment fit among older people, manifested as unmet physical activity need.
The lack of effective school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children has caused a call for longer duration of interventions and better reporting on design and evaluation methodology. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of the intervention, the design of the effectiveness study, and the test-retest reliability of the main outcome measures in the HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) study.
The HEIA intervention programme was developed based on literature reviews, a social ecological framework, and focus groups. The intervention aimed to increase total physical activity (PA) and consumption of fruit and vegetables and to decrease screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intervention programme consisted of a classroom component, including dietary behaviour lessons, computer tailoring, fruit/vegetable and PA breaks, and posters, and an environmental component including active transport campaigns, equipment, suggestions for easy improvements of schoolyards, inspirational courses for teachers (all with regards to PA), and fact sheets to parents. The effect of the intervention programme is evaluated in a cluster randomised controlled trial design (intervention = 12 schools, control = 25 schools) including process evaluation. Main outcomes include anthropometry, PA, screen time, and consumption of fruit, vegetables, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A 2-week test- retest study was conducted among 114 pupils. Determinants of the behaviours were assessed. Similar data were collected from parents. Children's PA was measured objectively by accelerometers.
The HEIA study represents a theoretically informed randomised trial comprising a comprehensive set of multilevel intervention components with a thorough evaluation using reliable outcome measures. The study will contribute to a better understanding of determinants of healthy weight development among young people and how such determinants can be modified.
The aim of this study was to examine modifiable biological, psychological, behavioral and social-environmental correlates of physical activity among 1129 Norwegian 11-year-old children within a cross-sectional sample from the HEalth In Adolescents study. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometer, and weight and height were measured objectively. Age- and gender-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define body mass index. Social-environmental variables were self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical regression (linear mixed models) revealed that normal weight children scored higher on percentage daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [% daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] than overweight/obese children (P
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score =9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p
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