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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
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Altered fine motor function at school age in Inuit children exposed to PCBs, methylmercury, and lead.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275653
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-26-2016
who participated in this study. We thank R. Sun, L. Roy, J. Varin, B. Tuttle, A. Pov, J. Gagnon, and N. Dodge for their valuable contributions to data collection and database management. This study was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute of Environmental
  1 document  
Author
Olivier Boucher
Gina Muckle
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Date
Aug-26-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
371758
Abstract
Motor deficits have frequently been reported in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in adults. However, whether exposure to neurotoxic contaminants from environmental sources early in life is associated with neuromotor impairments has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead to motor function in school-age Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet.
In a prospective study in Nunavik, children (mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a battery of fine motor tasks, namely the Stanford-Binet Copying subtest (N=262), the Santa Ana Form Board, and the Finger Tapping Test (N=215). The relation of mercury (Hg; as an index of MeHg exposure), PCB congener 153 (PCB153), and lead concentrations in cord and current blood samples to task performance was examined using linear regression analyses.
After adjustment for potential confounders and control for the other contaminants, higher current PCB concentrations were associated with poorer Santa Ana Form Board and Finger Tapping performance. Results were virtually identical when PCB153 was replaced by other PCB congeners. Higher current Hg levels were independently associated with poorer Finger Tapping performance.
This is the first prospective longitudinal study in children to provide evidence of neuromotor impairments associated with postnatal exposure to seafood contaminants from environmental sources. Fine motor speed appears particularly sensitive to the effects of postnatal PCB exposure, which is unusually high in this population. Results with postnatal MeHg are concordant with previous cross-sectional studies with children and adults.
PubMed ID
27575364 View in PubMed
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An environmentally-relevant mixture of organochlorines and its vehicle control, dimethylsulfoxide, induce ultrastructural alterations in porcine oocytes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75392
Source
Mol Reprod Dev. 2006 Jan;73(1):83-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2006
Author
Céline Campagna
Janice L Bailey
Marc-André Sirard
Pierre Ayotte
Poul Maddox-Hyttel
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche en Biologie de la Reproduction, Département des Sciences animales, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
Mol Reprod Dev. 2006 Jan;73(1):83-91
Date
Jan-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Organochlorine chemicals accumulate in the environment, particularly in the Arctic, and constitute potential developmental hazards to wildlife and human health. Although some of their harmful effects are recognized, their mechanisms of action within the target cells need to be better understood. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that an environmentally-relevant organochlorine mixture alters oocyte ultrastructure in the porcine model. Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), partially cultured (18 hr) COCs without treatment or exposed to the organochlorine mixture or its vehicle (0.1% dimethysulfoxide; DMSO) during culture were processed for light and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The organochlorines induced major ultrastructural changes in the COCs: decreased density of the lipid droplets, increased smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) volume and increased interactions among SER, mitochondria, lipid droplets and vesicles. We suggest that these ultrastructural changes facilitate energy formation necessary to produce metabolizing enzymes. Other ultrastructural changes may reflect some degree of organochlorine toxicity: fewer gap junctions and decreased electron density of the cortical granules. Unexpectedly, the DMSO control treatment also induced similar ultrastructural changes, but to a lesser degree than the organochlorine mixture. This study is the first to demonstrate the effect of environmental contaminants on mammalian oocyte ultrastructure.
PubMed ID
16206133 View in PubMed
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An examination of traditional foods and cigarette smoking as cadmium sources among the nine First Nations of Eeyou Istchee, Northern Quebec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104372
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 May 28;16(6):1422-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-28-2014
Author
Nadia A Charania
Leonard J S Tsuji
Ian D Martin
Eric N Liberda
Suzanne Coté
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Evert Nieboer
Author Affiliation
Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Process Impacts. 2014 May 28;16(6):1422-33
Date
May-28-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cadmium - blood
Child
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Smoking - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd), a nonessential toxic metal present in the environment, accumulates in the organs of herbivorous mammals which typically are consumed by Aboriginal populations. The relative contribution of this potential exposure source to concentrations of blood Cd was investigated in 1429 participants (age >7 years) residing in the nine Cree First Nations communities of Eeyou Istchee, northern Quebec, Canada. Analysis of variance identified significant Cd concentration differences between communities, sex, and age groups, although these were complicated by significant 2-way interactions. The percentage of participants with Cd concentrations within the adopted health-based guideline categories of 'acceptable', 'concern' and 'action' pertaining to kidney damage was 56.2%, 38.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Partial correlations (controlling for age as a continuous variable) did not show a significant association between consumption of traditional foods and Cd concentrations (r = 0.014, df = 105, p = 0.883). A significant and positive partial correlation (r = 0.390, df = 105, p
PubMed ID
24781002 View in PubMed
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Assessment of pre- and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: lessons from the Inuit Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4473
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Pierre Ayotte
Gina Muckle
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Eric Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Centre, Québec, Québec, Canada. pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1253-8
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biological Markers - analysis
Breast Feeding
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Epidemiologic Studies
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Forecasting
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Milk, human - chemistry
Models, Theoretical
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are food-chain contaminants that have been shown to induce adverse developmental effects in humans. In the course of an epidemiologic study established to investigate neurodevelopmental deficits induced by environmental PCB exposure in the Inuit population of northern Québec (Nunavik, Canada), we compared three biomarkers of prenatal exposure and models to predict PCB plasma concentration at 6 months postpartum. Concentrations of 14 PCB congeners were measured by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection in lipids extracted from maternal plasma, cord plasma, breast milk (collected at approximately 1 month postpartum), and 6-month-old infant plasma samples. Similar congener profiles were observed in all biologic samples, and PCB-153, the most abundant and persistent PCB congener, was strongly correlated with other frequently detected PCB congeners in all biologic media. When expressed on a lipid basis, maternal plasma, cord plasma, and milk concentrations of this congener were strongly intercorrelated, indicating that PCB concentration in any of these biologic media is a good indicator of prenatal exposure to PCBs. A multivariate model that included maternal PCB-153 plasma lipid concentration, breast-feeding duration, and the sum of two skin-fold thicknesses (an index of infant body fat mass) explained 72% of PCB-153 plasma concentration variance at 6 months postpartum (p
PubMed ID
12842782 View in PubMed
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Associations between plasma persistent organic pollutant levels and blood pressure in Inuit adults from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108571
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:282-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Organochlorine (OC) pesticides Blood pressure Inuit Nunavik Background: Recent evidence suggests that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increases the risk of hypertension in environmentally exposed populations. High POP
  1 document  
Author
Beatriz Valera
Pierre Ayotte
Paul Poirier
Eric Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Axe santé publique et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec, Canada. beatriz.valera@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:282-9
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
631157
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Arctic Regions
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Diet
Dioxins - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - blood
Female
Fishes
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Hypertension - chemically induced - epidemiology
Inuits
Lindane - blood
Male
Mercury - blood
Middle Aged
Pesticides - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Quebec - epidemiology
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increases the risk of hypertension in environmentally exposed populations. High POP levels have been detected in Arctic populations and the exposure is related to high consumption of fish and marine mammals, which represent the traditional diet of these populations.
We examined the associations between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and hypertension among Inuit from Nunavik (Quebec, Canada).
A complete set of data was obtained for 315 Inuit=18years who participated in the "Santé Québec" health survey that was conducted in the 14 villages of Nunavik in 1992. Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 OC pesticides or their metabolites were measured in plasma samples using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a standardized protocol and information regarding anti-hypertensive medication was obtained through questionnaires. The associations between log-transformed POPs and hypertension (systolic BP=140mmHg, diastolic BP=90mmHg or anti-hypertensive medication) were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions.
Total PCBs as well as the sum of non-dioxin-like PCBs were significantly associated with higher risk of hypertension. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension increased with higher plasma concentrations of congeners 101, 105, 138 and 187. Models adjusted for BP risk factors became significant after including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and further adjustment for lead and mercury did not change the results. Regarding OC pesticides, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was associated with increased risk of hypertension while inverse associations were observed with p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and oxychlordane.
Some PCB congeners were associated with higher risk of hypertension in this highly exposed population. Most associations became significant after including n-3 PUFAs in the models. However, the analyses of OC pesticides revealed divergent results, which need to be confirmed in further cohort and experimental studies.
PubMed ID
23872387 View in PubMed
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Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258359
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Publication Type
Article
; child behavior; environmental contaminants; externalizing behaviors; attention problems; Teacher Report Form 1. Introduction Smoking is a major public health issue among Canadian aboriginal communities (Elton- Marshall et al., 2011), with a higher prevalence relative to non-aboriginal Canadian and U.S
  1 document  
Author
Caroline Desrosiers
Olivier Boucher
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada; Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
63846
Keywords
Attention - drug effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - psychology
Child
Drug Interactions
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Inuits - psychology
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood - blood - psychology
Male
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - blood - psychology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - psychology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Qu?bec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored.
Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview.
After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants.
This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23916943 View in PubMed
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Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116489
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2013
Author
Wen Qi Gan
J Mark FitzGerald
Chris Carlsten
Mohsen Sadatsafavi
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA. wgan@nshs.edu
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Date
Apr-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - mortality
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
PubMed ID
23392442 View in PubMed
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Asthma and allergic rhinitis increase respiratory symptoms in cold weather among young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258346
Source
Respir Med. 2014 Jan;108(1):63-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Henna Hyrkäs
Maritta S Jaakkola
Tina M Ikäheimo
Timo T Hugg
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland; Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90029 Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Respir Med. 2014 Jan;108(1):63-70
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Chest Pain - etiology
Cohort Studies
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Cough - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The occurrence of cold temperature-related symptoms has not been investigated previously in young adults, although cold weather may provoke severe symptoms leading to activity limitations, and those with pre-existing respiratory conditions may form a susceptible group. We tested the hypothesis that young adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis experience cold-related respiratory symptoms more commonly than young adults in general.
A population-based study of 1623 subjects 20-27 years old was conducted with a questionnaire inquiring about cold weather-related respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and rhinitis, and lifestyle and environmental exposures.
Current asthma increased the risk of all cold weather-related symptoms (shortness of breath adjusted PR 4.53, 95% confidence interval 2.93-6.99, wheezing 10.70, 5.38-21.29, phlegm production 2.51, 1.37-4.62, cough 3.41, 1.97-5.87 and chest pain 2.53, 0.82-7.79). Allergic rhinitis had additional effect especially on shortness of breath (7.16, 5.30-9.67) and wheezing (13.05, 7.75-22.00), some on phlegm production (3.69, 2.49-5.47), but marginal effect on cough and chest pain.
Our study shows that already in young adulthood those with asthma, and especially those with coexisting allergic rhinitis, experience substantially more cold temperature-related respiratory symptoms than healthy young adults. Hence, young adults with a respiratory disease form a susceptible group that needs special care and guidance for coping with cold weather.
PubMed ID
24239316 View in PubMed
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Cancer risk associated with household exposure to chloroform.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature190667
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Apr 12;65(7):489-502
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-12-2002
Author
Benoît Lévesque
Pierre Ayotte
Robert Tardif
Liliane Ferron
Suzanne Gingras
Emmanuelle Schlouch
Guy Gingras
Patrick Levallois
Eric Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada. benoit.levesque@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Apr 12;65(7):489-502
Date
Apr-12-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Baths - adverse effects
Chloroform - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Skin Absorption
Volatilization
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Water supply
Abstract
Chloroform (CHCl3) the trihalomethane most prevalent in drinking water, is a proven animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. Consequently, standards have been issued by health authorities to limit its concentration in drinking water. These limits are based solely on ingestion, without taking into account inhalation and skin contact. Exposure to CHCl3 was assessed for 18 men (age: mean 38 years; range 23-51) following a 10-min shower in their respective residences located in the Quebec City region (Canada). CHCl3 concentration was measured in alveolar air samples collected before, immediately after, and 15 min and 30 min following the shower. Indoor air and water concentrations were determined concomitantly. Mean CHCl3 concentrations in the air of the shower stall and in water were respectively 147 microg/m3 (SD = 56.2 microg/m3) and 20.1 microg/L (SD = 9.0 microg/L). Water concentrations were comparable to those documented in a large proportion of distribution networks in Canada. The mean increase in alveolar air CHCl3 concentration (deltaCHCIALV) at the end of the shower was 33 microg/m3 (SD = 14.7 microg/m3). A multiple-regression analysis revealed that deltaCHCl3ALV values were only associated with chloroform concentration in air of the shower stall. DeltaCHCl3ALV were described using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. This model was then used to estimate concentrations of CHCl3 metabolites bound to liver and kidney macromolecules following a shower, and also according to exposure scenarios that integrate drinking-water ingestion and air inhalation. The concentration predicted in the liver following a worst-case exposure scenario was 0.41 microg CHCl3 equivalents/kg of tissue, some 6,000 times lower than the lowest concentration that did not increase the incidence of hepatic tumors in laboratory animals. Data indicate that for this range of exposure the safety margin appears therefore considerable with respect to the potential carcinogenic effect of household exposure to CHCl3.
PubMed ID
11939707 View in PubMed
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Changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of death from coronary heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142555
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Lillian Tamburic
Hugh W Davies
Paul A Demers
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Dibutyl Phthalate
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Residential proximity to road traffic is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. It is unknown, however, whether changes in residential proximity to traffic could alter the risk of CHD mortality.
We used a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period to explore the association between changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of CHD mortality. The cohort comprised all residents aged 45-85 years who resided in metropolitan Vancouver during the exposure period and without known CHD at baseline (n = 450,283). Residential proximity to traffic was estimated using a geographic information system. CHD deaths during the follow-up period were identified using provincial death registration database. The data were analyzed using logistic regression.
Compared with the subjects consistently living away from road traffic (>150 m from a highway or >50 m from a major road) during the 9-year study period, those consistently living close to traffic (
PubMed ID
20585255 View in PubMed
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Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodeling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185551
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Andrew Churg
Michael Brauer
Maria del Carmen Avila-Casado
Teresa I Fortoul
Joanne L Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. achurg@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Airway Obstruction - etiology - pathology
Autopsy
British Columbia
Cities
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Mexico
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Alveoli - pathology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - etiology
Smoking
Urban Population
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with decreased pulmonary function and the development of chronic airflow obstruction. To investigate the possible role of PM-induced abnormalities in the small airways in these functional changes, we examined histologic sections from the lungs of 20 women from Mexico City, a high PM locale. All subjects were lifelong residents of Mexico City, were never-smokers, never had occupational dust exposure, and never used biomass fuel for cooking. Twenty never-smoking, non-dust-exposed subjects from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a low PM region, were used as a control. By light microscopy, abnormal small airways with fibrotic walls and excess muscle, many containing visible dust, were present in the Mexico City lungs. Formal grading analysis confirmed the presence of significantly greater amounts of fibrous tissue and muscle in the walls of the airways in the Mexico City compared with the Vancouver lungs. Electron microscopic particle burden measurements on four cases from Mexico City showed that carbonaceous aggregates of ultrafine particles, aggregates likely to be combustion products, were present in the airway mucosa. We conclude that PM penetrates into and is retained in the walls of small airways, and that, even in nonsmokers, long-term exposure to high levels of ambient particulate pollutants is associated with small airway remodeling. This process may produce chronic airflow obstruction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12727599 View in PubMed
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Cohort profile: the maternal-infant research on environmental chemicals research platform.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113014
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;27(4):415-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
William D Fraser
Mandy Fisher
Karelyn Davis
Chun Lei Liang
Nicole Lupien
Stéphanie Bastien
Maria P Velez
Peter von Dadelszen
Denise G Hemmings
Jingwei Wang
Michael Helewa
Shayne Taback
Mathew Sermer
Warren Foster
Greg Ross
Paul Fredette
Graeme Smith
Mark Walker
Roberta Shear
Linda Dodds
Adrienne S Ettinger
Jean-Philippe Weber
Monique D'Amour
Melissa Legrand
Premkumari Kumarathasan
Renaud Vincent
Zhong-Cheng Luo
Robert W Platt
Grant Mitchell
Nick Hidiroglou
Kevin Cockell
Maya Villeneuve
Dorothea F K Rawn
Robert Dabeka
Xu-Liang Cao
Adam Becalski
Nimal Ratnayake
Genevieve Bondy
Xiaolei Jin
Zhongwen Wang
Sheryl Tittlemier
Pierre Julien
Denise Avard
Hope Weiler
Alain Leblanc
Gina Muckle
Michel Boivin
Ginette Dionne
Pierre Ayotte
Bruce Lanphear
Jean R Séguin
Dave Saint-Amour
Eric Dewailly
Patricia Monnier
Gideon Koren
Emmanuel Ouellet
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa. tye.arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013 Jul;27(4):415-25
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Biological Markers
Canada
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant Welfare
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study was established to obtain Canadian biomonitoring data for pregnant women and their infants, and to examine potential adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to priority environmental chemicals on pregnancy and infant health.
Women were recruited during the first trimester from 10 sites across Canada and were followed through delivery. Questionnaires were administered during pregnancy and post-delivery to collect information on demographics, occupation, life style, medical history, environmental exposures and diet. Information on the pregnancy and the infant was abstracted from medical charts. Maternal blood, urine, hair and breast milk, as well as cord blood and infant meconium, were collected and analysed for an extensive list of environmental biomarkers and nutrients. Additional biospecimens were stored in the study's Biobank. The MIREC Research Platform encompasses the main cohort study, the Biobank and follow-up studies.
Of the 8716 women approached at early prenatal clinics, 5108 were eligible and 2001 agreed to participate (39%). MIREC participants tended to smoke less (5.9% vs. 10.5%), be older (mean 32.2 vs. 29.4 years) and have a higher education (62.3% vs. 35.1% with a university degree) than women giving birth in Canada.
The MIREC Study, while smaller in number of participants than several of the international cohort studies, has one of the most comprehensive datasets on prenatal exposure to multiple environmental chemicals. The biomonitoring data and biological specimen bank will make this research platform a significant resource for examining potential adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals.
PubMed ID
23772943 View in PubMed
Less detail

A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157243
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Michael Brauer
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Mieke Koehoorn
Paul Demers
Catherine Karr
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z3 Canada. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Birth weight
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Evidence suggests that air pollution exposure adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have examined individual-level intraurban exposure contrasts.
We evaluated the impacts of air pollution on small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, low full-term birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth using spatiotemporal exposure metrics.
With linked administrative data, we identified 70,249 singleton births (1999-2002) with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, education) and maternal residential history in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We estimated residential exposures by month of pregnancy using nearest and inverse-distance weighting (IDW) of study area monitors [carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter
Notes
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):A519
PubMed ID
18470315 View in PubMed
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Cold spells and ischaemic sudden cardiac death: effect modification by prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease and cardioprotective medication.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295654
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 01 20; 7:41060
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-20-2017
Author
Niilo R I Ryti
Elina M S Mäkikyrö
Harri Antikainen
M Juhani Junttila
Eeva Hookana
Tiina M Ikäheimo
Marja-Leena Kortelainen
Heikki V Huikuri
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FI-90014, Finland.
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 01 20; 7:41060
Date
01-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiotonic Agents - therapeutic use
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Death, Sudden, Cardiac - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy
Pregnancy
Risk factors
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death. The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged =35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of home-specific weather data. Based on conditional logistic regression, an increased risk of ischaemic SCD associated with a cold spell preceding death (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06-2.09). Cases without a prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease seemed more susceptible to the effects of cold spells (OR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.13-2.56) than cases who had been diagnosed during lifetime (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 0.61-2.10). The use of aspirin, ß-blockers, and/or nitrates, independently and in combinations decreased the risk of ischaemic SCD during cold spells. The findings open up new lines of research in mitigating the adverse health effects of weather.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28106161 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison between different traffic-related particle indicators: elemental carbon (EC), PM2.5 mass, and absorbance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15270
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Josef Cyrys
Joachim Heinrich
Gerard Hoek
Kees Meliefste
Marie Lewné
Ulrike Gehring
Tom Bellander
Paul Fischer
Patricia van Vliet
Michael Brauer
H-Erich Wichmann
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. cyrys@gsf.de
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Carbon - chemistry
Comparative Study
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Particle Size
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Here we compare PM(2.5) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) mass and filter absorbance measurements with elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in parallel at the same site as well as collocated PM(2.5) and PM(10) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) mass and absorbance measurements. The data were collected within the Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA) study in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden. The study was designed to assess the health impact of spatial contrasts in long-term average concentrations. The measurement sites were distributed between background and traffic locations. Annual EC and PM(2.5) absorbance measurements were at traffic sites on average 43-84% and 26-76% higher, respectively, compared to urban background sites. The contrast for PM(2.5) mass measurements was lower (8-35%). The smaller contrast observed for PM(2.5) mass in comparison with PM(2.5) absorbance and EC documents that PM(2.5) mass underestimates exposure contrasts related to motorized traffic emissions. The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was high, documenting that most of the spatial variation of PM(10) was because of PM(2.5). The measurement of PM(2.5) absorbance was highly correlated with EC measurements and suggests that absorbance can be used as a simple, inexpensive and non-destructive method to estimate motorized traffic-related particulate air pollution. The EC/absorbance relation differed between countries and site type (background/traffic), supporting the need for site-specific calibrations of the simple absorbance method. While the ratio between PM(2.5) and PM(10) mass ranged from 0.54 to 0.68, the ratio of PM(2.5) absorbance and PM(10) absorbance was 0.96-0.97, indicating that PM(2.5) absorbance captures nearly all of the particle absorbance.
PubMed ID
12679793 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49183
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):65-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Matthew P Longnecker
Mary S Wolff
Beth C Gladen
John W Brock
Philippe Grandjean
Joseph L Jacobson
Susan A Korrick
Walter J Rogan
Nynke Weisglas-Kuperus
Irva Hertz-Picciotto
Pierre Ayotte
Paul Stewart
Gerhard Winneke
M Judith Charles
Sandra W Jacobson
Eric Dewailly
E Rudy Boersma
Larisa M Altshul
Birger Heinzow
James J Pagano
Allan A Jensen
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA. longnecker@niehs.nih.gov
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jan;111(1):65-70
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromatography, Gas - methods
Comparative Study
Environmental pollutants - blood
Europe
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Milk, Human - chemistry - drug effects
Nervous System - drug effects - embryology
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Quebec
Sensitivity and specificity
United States
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Interpretation of human data regarding low-level, early-life PCB exposure and subsequent neurodevelopment is problematic because levels of exposure were not similarly quantified across studies. We expressed the exposure levels from 10 studies of PCB and neurodevelopment in a uniform manner using a combination of data from original investigators, laboratory reanalyses, calculations based on published data, and expert opinion. The mainstay of our comparison was the median level of PCB 153 in maternal pregnancy serum. The median concentration of PCB 153 in the 10 studies ranged from 30 to 450 ng/g serum lipid, and the median of the 10 medians was 110 ng/g. We found that (a)) the distribution of PCB 153 exposure in most studies overlapped substantially, (b)) exposure levels in the Faroe Islands study were about 3-4-fold higher than in most other studies, and (c)) the exposure levels in the two recent U.S. studies were about one-third of those in the four earlier U.S. studies or recent Dutch, German, and northern Qu?bec studies. Our results will facilitate a direct comparison of the findings on PCBs and neurodevelopment when they are published for all 10 studies.
PubMed ID
12515680 View in PubMed
Less detail

Consumption of tomato products is associated with lower blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature119193
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jan;51:404-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Doris Gagné
Julie Lauzière
Rosanne Blanchet
Carole Vézina
Emilie Vaissière
Pierre Ayotte
Huguette Turgeon O'Brien
Author Affiliation
Groupe d'études en nutrition publique, Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec (Québec), Canada.
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jan;51:404-10
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child, Preschool
Diet
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant
Inuits
Lycopersicon esculentum
Male
Mercury - blood
Regression Analysis
Seafood
Seals, Earless
Abstract
Some evidence suggests that various diet components and nutrients, including vegetables, fruit and food-derived antioxidants, could mitigate contaminant exposure and/or adverse health effects of contaminants. To examine the effect of the consumption of tomato products on blood mercury levels in Inuit preschool children, 155 Inuit children (25.0±9.1months) were recruited from 2006-2008 in Nunavik childcare centers (northern Québec, Canada). Food frequency questionnaires were completed at home and at the childcare center, and total blood mercury concentration was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Multivariate regression analysis was performed after multiple imputation. The median blood concentration of mercury was 9.5nmol/L. Age, duration of breastfeeding, annual consumption frequency of seal meat, and monthly consumption frequency of tomato products were significant predictors of blood mercury levels, whereas annual consumption frequencies of beluga muktuk, walrus, Arctic char, and caribou meat were not. Each time a participant consumed tomato products during the month before the interview was associated with a 4.6% lower blood mercury level (p=0.0005). All other significant predictors in the model were positively associated with blood mercury levels. Further studies should explore interactions between consumption of healthy store-bought foods available in Arctic regions and contaminant exposure.
PubMed ID
23127601 View in PubMed
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Cord blood lymphocyte functions in newborns from a remote maritime population exposed to organochlorines and methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191730
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Jan 25;65(2):165-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-25-2002
Author
Marthe Belles-Isles
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Jean-Philippe Weber
Raynald Roy
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en rhumatologie-immunologie, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec-CHUL, Ste-Foy, Canada.
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Jan 25;65(2):165-82
Date
Jan-25-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry - immunology
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Killer Cells, Natural - immunology
Lead - blood
Lymphocyte Count
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Mercury - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Quebec
Abstract
The consumption of fish and sea mammals can be an important source of exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) and heavy metals in populations relying on seafood for subsistence. Exposure to these substances, especially during the prenatal period, has been shown to induce immunotoxic effects in mammals. Immunological status was assessed in 48 newborns from a remote maritime population living on the Lower and Mid North Shore of the St. Lawrence River (subsistence fishing group) and 60 newborns from the coastal urban center of Sept-Iles (reference group). Women were recruited upon arrival at Sept-Iles regional hospital to give birth. Cord blood samples were collected for organochlorine and heavy metal analyses and to isolate lymphocytes for immunological assays (proportions and functional responses of the main cellular subsets T, B, and NK (natural killer) cells. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury were respectively three- and twofold higher, significantly greater, in the subsistence fishing group than in the reference group. Compared to the reference group, the subsistence fishing group showed significant decreases in the proportion of the naive helper T-cell subset CD4+CD45RA, T-cell proliferation following an in vitro mitogenic stimulation, and plasma immunoglobulin M (IgM) level, while plasma IgC level was increased. NK cytolytic activities were similar in both groups. The proportion of CD4+CD45RA cells was inversely correlated to mercury and PCBs, while T-cell clonal expansion was negatively associated with PCBs and p,p'-DDE. Mercury was inversely correlated to plasma IgM. Data show that subtle functional alterations of the developing human immune system may result from in utero exposure to OCs and mercury. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine the relevance of these alterations in predicting detrimental health effects in the developing child.
PubMed ID
11820504 View in PubMed
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Coronary stenosis as a modifier of the effect of cold spells on the risk of sudden cardiac death: a case-crossover study in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294270
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 05; 8(8):e020865
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-05-2018
Author
Niilo R I Ryti
M Juhani Junttila
Harri Antikainen
Marja-Leena Kortelainen
Heikki V Huikuri
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 05; 8(8):e020865
Date
Aug-05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
To test the a priori hypothesis that the association between cold spells and ischaemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) is modified by the severity of coronary stenosis.
The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged =35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of weather data. Cold spell was statistically defined for each home address as unusually cold weather pertinent to the location and time of year. We estimated the occurrence of cold spells during the hazard period (7 days preceding death) and reference periods (the same calendar days over 51 years) in a case-crossover setting applying conditional logistic regression, controlling for temporal trends and stratifying by severity of coronary stenosis.
The association between cold spells and ischaemic SCD was stronger among patients with 75%-95% stenosis (OR 2.03; 95%?CI 1.31 to 3.17), and weaker to non-existent among patients with
Notes
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PubMed ID
30082348 View in PubMed
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