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Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116489
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2013
Author
Wen Qi Gan
J Mark FitzGerald
Chris Carlsten
Mohsen Sadatsafavi
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA. wgan@nshs.edu
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Date
Apr-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - mortality
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
PubMed ID
23392442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Asthma and allergic rhinitis increase respiratory symptoms in cold weather among young adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258346
Source
Respir Med. 2014 Jan;108(1):63-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Henna Hyrkäs
Maritta S Jaakkola
Tina M Ikäheimo
Timo T Hugg
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland; Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, FI-90029 Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Respir Med. 2014 Jan;108(1):63-70
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Chest Pain - etiology
Cohort Studies
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Cough - etiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The occurrence of cold temperature-related symptoms has not been investigated previously in young adults, although cold weather may provoke severe symptoms leading to activity limitations, and those with pre-existing respiratory conditions may form a susceptible group. We tested the hypothesis that young adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis experience cold-related respiratory symptoms more commonly than young adults in general.
A population-based study of 1623 subjects 20-27 years old was conducted with a questionnaire inquiring about cold weather-related respiratory symptoms, doctor-diagnosed asthma and rhinitis, and lifestyle and environmental exposures.
Current asthma increased the risk of all cold weather-related symptoms (shortness of breath adjusted PR 4.53, 95% confidence interval 2.93-6.99, wheezing 10.70, 5.38-21.29, phlegm production 2.51, 1.37-4.62, cough 3.41, 1.97-5.87 and chest pain 2.53, 0.82-7.79). Allergic rhinitis had additional effect especially on shortness of breath (7.16, 5.30-9.67) and wheezing (13.05, 7.75-22.00), some on phlegm production (3.69, 2.49-5.47), but marginal effect on cough and chest pain.
Our study shows that already in young adulthood those with asthma, and especially those with coexisting allergic rhinitis, experience substantially more cold temperature-related respiratory symptoms than healthy young adults. Hence, young adults with a respiratory disease form a susceptible group that needs special care and guidance for coping with cold weather.
PubMed ID
24239316 View in PubMed
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Changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of death from coronary heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142555
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Lillian Tamburic
Hugh W Davies
Paul A Demers
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Dibutyl Phthalate
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Residential proximity to road traffic is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. It is unknown, however, whether changes in residential proximity to traffic could alter the risk of CHD mortality.
We used a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period to explore the association between changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of CHD mortality. The cohort comprised all residents aged 45-85 years who resided in metropolitan Vancouver during the exposure period and without known CHD at baseline (n = 450,283). Residential proximity to traffic was estimated using a geographic information system. CHD deaths during the follow-up period were identified using provincial death registration database. The data were analyzed using logistic regression.
Compared with the subjects consistently living away from road traffic (>150 m from a highway or >50 m from a major road) during the 9-year study period, those consistently living close to traffic (
PubMed ID
20585255 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodeling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185551
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Andrew Churg
Michael Brauer
Maria del Carmen Avila-Casado
Teresa I Fortoul
Joanne L Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. achurg@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Airway Obstruction - etiology - pathology
Autopsy
British Columbia
Cities
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Mexico
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Alveoli - pathology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - etiology
Smoking
Urban Population
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with decreased pulmonary function and the development of chronic airflow obstruction. To investigate the possible role of PM-induced abnormalities in the small airways in these functional changes, we examined histologic sections from the lungs of 20 women from Mexico City, a high PM locale. All subjects were lifelong residents of Mexico City, were never-smokers, never had occupational dust exposure, and never used biomass fuel for cooking. Twenty never-smoking, non-dust-exposed subjects from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a low PM region, were used as a control. By light microscopy, abnormal small airways with fibrotic walls and excess muscle, many containing visible dust, were present in the Mexico City lungs. Formal grading analysis confirmed the presence of significantly greater amounts of fibrous tissue and muscle in the walls of the airways in the Mexico City compared with the Vancouver lungs. Electron microscopic particle burden measurements on four cases from Mexico City showed that carbonaceous aggregates of ultrafine particles, aggregates likely to be combustion products, were present in the airway mucosa. We conclude that PM penetrates into and is retained in the walls of small airways, and that, even in nonsmokers, long-term exposure to high levels of ambient particulate pollutants is associated with small airway remodeling. This process may produce chronic airflow obstruction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12727599 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157243
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Michael Brauer
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Mieke Koehoorn
Paul Demers
Catherine Karr
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z3 Canada. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Birth weight
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Evidence suggests that air pollution exposure adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have examined individual-level intraurban exposure contrasts.
We evaluated the impacts of air pollution on small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, low full-term birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth using spatiotemporal exposure metrics.
With linked administrative data, we identified 70,249 singleton births (1999-2002) with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, education) and maternal residential history in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We estimated residential exposures by month of pregnancy using nearest and inverse-distance weighting (IDW) of study area monitors [carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter
Notes
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):A519
PubMed ID
18470315 View in PubMed
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Cold spells and ischaemic sudden cardiac death: effect modification by prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease and cardioprotective medication.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295654
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 01 20; 7:41060
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-20-2017
Author
Niilo R I Ryti
Elina M S Mäkikyrö
Harri Antikainen
M Juhani Junttila
Eeva Hookana
Tiina M Ikäheimo
Marja-Leena Kortelainen
Heikki V Huikuri
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FI-90014, Finland.
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 01 20; 7:41060
Date
01-20-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiotonic Agents - therapeutic use
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Death, Sudden, Cardiac - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - complications - diagnosis - drug therapy
Pregnancy
Risk factors
Abstract
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death. The current paradigm in SCD requires the presence of an abnormal myocardial substrate and an internal or external transient factor that triggers cardiac arrest. Based on prior mechanistic evidence, we hypothesized that an unusually cold weather event (a cold spell) could act as an external factor triggering SCD. We tested potential effect modification of prior diagnoses and select pharmacological agents disrupting pathological pathways between cold exposure and death. The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged =35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of home-specific weather data. Based on conditional logistic regression, an increased risk of ischaemic SCD associated with a cold spell preceding death (OR 1.49; 95% CI: 1.06-2.09). Cases without a prior diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease seemed more susceptible to the effects of cold spells (OR 1.70; 95% CI: 1.13-2.56) than cases who had been diagnosed during lifetime (OR 1.14; 95% CI: 0.61-2.10). The use of aspirin, ß-blockers, and/or nitrates, independently and in combinations decreased the risk of ischaemic SCD during cold spells. The findings open up new lines of research in mitigating the adverse health effects of weather.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28106161 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison between different traffic-related particle indicators: elemental carbon (EC), PM2.5 mass, and absorbance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15270
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Josef Cyrys
Joachim Heinrich
Gerard Hoek
Kees Meliefste
Marie Lewné
Ulrike Gehring
Tom Bellander
Paul Fischer
Patricia van Vliet
Michael Brauer
H-Erich Wichmann
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. cyrys@gsf.de
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Carbon - chemistry
Comparative Study
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Particle Size
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Here we compare PM(2.5) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) mass and filter absorbance measurements with elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in parallel at the same site as well as collocated PM(2.5) and PM(10) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) mass and absorbance measurements. The data were collected within the Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA) study in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden. The study was designed to assess the health impact of spatial contrasts in long-term average concentrations. The measurement sites were distributed between background and traffic locations. Annual EC and PM(2.5) absorbance measurements were at traffic sites on average 43-84% and 26-76% higher, respectively, compared to urban background sites. The contrast for PM(2.5) mass measurements was lower (8-35%). The smaller contrast observed for PM(2.5) mass in comparison with PM(2.5) absorbance and EC documents that PM(2.5) mass underestimates exposure contrasts related to motorized traffic emissions. The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was high, documenting that most of the spatial variation of PM(10) was because of PM(2.5). The measurement of PM(2.5) absorbance was highly correlated with EC measurements and suggests that absorbance can be used as a simple, inexpensive and non-destructive method to estimate motorized traffic-related particulate air pollution. The EC/absorbance relation differed between countries and site type (background/traffic), supporting the need for site-specific calibrations of the simple absorbance method. While the ratio between PM(2.5) and PM(10) mass ranged from 0.54 to 0.68, the ratio of PM(2.5) absorbance and PM(10) absorbance was 0.96-0.97, indicating that PM(2.5) absorbance captures nearly all of the particle absorbance.
PubMed ID
12679793 View in PubMed
Less detail

Coronary stenosis as a modifier of the effect of cold spells on the risk of sudden cardiac death: a case-crossover study in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294270
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 05; 8(8):e020865
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-05-2018
Author
Niilo R I Ryti
M Juhani Junttila
Harri Antikainen
Marja-Leena Kortelainen
Heikki V Huikuri
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 05; 8(8):e020865
Date
Aug-05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
To test the a priori hypothesis that the association between cold spells and ischaemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) is modified by the severity of coronary stenosis.
The home coordinates of 2572 autopsy-verified cases of ischaemic SCD aged =35 in the Province of Oulu, Finland, were linked to 51 years of weather data. Cold spell was statistically defined for each home address as unusually cold weather pertinent to the location and time of year. We estimated the occurrence of cold spells during the hazard period (7 days preceding death) and reference periods (the same calendar days over 51 years) in a case-crossover setting applying conditional logistic regression, controlling for temporal trends and stratifying by severity of coronary stenosis.
The association between cold spells and ischaemic SCD was stronger among patients with 75%-95% stenosis (OR 2.03; 95%?CI 1.31 to 3.17), and weaker to non-existent among patients with
Notes
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PubMed ID
30082348 View in PubMed
Less detail

Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153946
Source
Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):1196-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Mieke Koehoorn
Catherine J Karr
Paul A Demers
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, 5804 Fairview Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. mieke.koehoorn@ubc.ca
Source
Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):1196-203
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Breast Feeding
British Columbia - epidemiology
Bronchiolitis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The goal was to investigate the epidemiological features of incident bronchiolitis by using a population-based infant cohort.
Outpatient and inpatient health records were used to identify incident bronchiolitis cases among 93,058 singleton infants born in the Georgia Air Basin between 1999 and 2002. Additional health-related databases were linked to provide data on sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and birth outcome measures.
From 1999 to 2002, bronchiolitis accounted for 12,474 incident health care encounters (inpatient or outpatient contacts) during the first year of life (134.2 cases per 1000 person-years). A total of 1588 hospitalized bronchiolitis cases were identified (17.1 cases per 1000 person-years). Adjusted Cox proportional-hazard analyses for both case definitions indicated an increased risk of incident bronchiolitis in the first year of life (follow-up period: 2-12 months) for boys, infants of First Nations status, infants with older siblings, and infants living in neighborhoods with smaller proportions of maternal postsecondary education. The risk also was elevated for infants born to young mothers (
PubMed ID
19047234 View in PubMed
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Does work as a nurse increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157244
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2008 May;50(5):590-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Amira A Simcox
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2008 May;50(5):590-2
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Nurses - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupations - classification - statistics & numerical data
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology - etiology
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
We conducted a population-based study to assess whether work as a nurse during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age.
The study population was selected from The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study of 2568 newborns (response 94%) and included 128 (5.0%) newborns of nurses and 559 newborns of office workers (21.8%) as a reference group.
The risk of low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio = 1.02; 95% confidence interval = 0.32-3.22) and preterm delivery (0.81; 0.32-2.05) did not differ between newborns of nurses and office workers, but the risk of small-for-gestational-age was substantially higher among newborns of nurses (1.99; 1.10-3.59). This corresponds to a population attributable fraction of 2.5%.
The results indicate that working as a nurse during pregnancy could reduce fetal growth.
PubMed ID
18469629 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effect of early life exposure to air pollution on development of childhood asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145670
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Nina Annika Clark
Paul A Demers
Catherine J Karr
Mieke Koehoorn
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-90
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Asthma - chemically induced
British Columbia
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Nitrogen Oxides - adverse effects
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Time Factors
United States
Abstract
There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested case-control study.
We assessed all children born in southwestern British Columbia in 1999 and 2000 (n = 37,401) for incidence of asthma diagnosis up to 34 years of age using outpatient and hospitalization records. Asthma cases were age- and sex-matched to five randomly chosen controls from the eligible cohort. We estimated each individual's exposure to ambient air pollution for the gestational period and first year of life using high-resolution pollution surfaces derived from regulatory monitoring data as well as land use regression models adjusted for temporal variation. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate effects of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):A8020123625
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):A283-420601332Camatini, Marina [removed]; Bolzacchini, Ezio [removed]
PubMed ID
20123607 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15365
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28 Suppl 2:71-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
2002
Author
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Maritta S Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Program, The Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden. Jouni.Jaakkola@nhv.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002;28 Suppl 2:71-83
Date
2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology
Child
Confidence Intervals
Female
Humans
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prognosis
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - physiopathology
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
This review synthesizes current knowledge of the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the respiratory health of children. A Medline database search was conducted for 1966 through October 2000. Limited evidence was found that exposure in pregnancy influences fetal growth, increases the risk of preterm delivery, and predicts the development of asthma and reduced lung function later in life. Both occupational and home environments contribute to the exposure of pregnant women and thus indirectly to adverse effects on children. There is strong and consistent evidence that exposure in childhood causes chronic respiratory symptoms (eg, cough, phlegm, and wheezing) and induces asthma. Limited evidence supports the role of childhood exposure in the poor overall control of established disease. Postnatal exposure is likely to have a small adverse impact on lung function growth. Prenatal and postnatal exposures have an important impact on children's respiratory health. These effects are preventable if pregnant women and children are protected from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
PubMed ID
12058805 View in PubMed
Less detail

Environmental tobacco smoke and adult-onset asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182574
Source
Am J Public Health. 2003 Dec;93(12):2055-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2003
Author
Maritta S Jaakkola
Ritva Piipari
Niina Jaakkola
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. M.Jaakkola@bham.ac.uk
Source
Am J Public Health. 2003 Dec;93(12):2055-60
Date
Dec-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age of Onset
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Workplace
Abstract
The authors assessed the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the development of asthma in adults.
In the Pirkanmaa district of South Finland, all 21- to 63-year-old adults with new cases of asthma diagnosed during a 2.5-year period (n = 521 case patients, out of 441 000 inhabitants) and a random sample of control subjects from the source population (932 control subjects) participated in a population-based incident case-control study.
Risk of asthma was related to workplace ETS exposure (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26, 3.72) and home exposure (OR = 4.77; 95% CI = 1.29, 17.7) in the past year. Cumulative ETS exposure over a lifetime at work and at home increased the risk.
This study indicates for the first time that both cumulative lifetime and recent ETS exposures increase the risk of adult-onset asthma.
Notes
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PubMed ID
14652334 View in PubMed
Less detail

Estimating long-term average particulate air pollution concentrations: application of traffic indicators and geographic information systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15283
Source
Epidemiology. 2003 Mar;14(2):228-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Michael Brauer
Gerard Hoek
Patricia van Vliet
Kees Meliefste
Paul Fischer
Ulrike Gehring
Joachim Heinrich
Josef Cyrys
Tom Bellander
Marie Lewne
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
Utrecht University, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Group, Utrecht, the Netherlands. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2003 Mar;14(2):228-39
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Geography
Germany
Humans
Netherlands
Particle Size
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
BACKGROUND: As part of a multicenter study relating traffic-related air pollution with incidence of asthma in three birth cohort studies (TRAPCA), we used a measurement and modelling procedure to estimate long-term average exposure to traffic-related particulate air pollution in communities throughout the Netherlands; in Munich, Germany; and in Stockholm County, Sweden. METHODS: In each of the three locations, 40-42 measurement sites were selected to represent rural, urban background and urban traffic locations. At each site and fine particles and filter absorbance (a marker for diesel exhaust particles) were measured for four 2-week periods distributed over approximately 1-year periods between February 1999 and July 2000. We used these measurements to calculate annual average concentrations after adjustment for temporal variation. Traffic-related variables (eg, population density and traffic intensity) were collected using Geographic Information Systems and used in regression models predicting annual average concentrations. From these models we estimated ambient air concentrations at the home addresses of the cohort members. RESULTS: Regression models using traffic-related variables explained 73%, 56% and 50% of the variability in annual average fine particle concentrations for the Netherlands, Munich and Stockholm County, respectively. For filter absorbance, the regression models explained 81%, 67% and 66% of the variability in the annual average concentrations. Cross-validation to estimate the model prediction errors indicated root mean squared errors of 1.1-1.6 microg/m for PM(2.5) and 0.22-0.31 *10(-5) m for absorbance.CONCLUSIONS: A substantial fraction of the variability in annual average concentrations for all locations was explained by traffic-related variables. This approach can be used to estimate individual exposures for epidemiologic studies and offers advantages over alternative techniques relying on surrogate variables or traditional approaches that utilize ambient monitoring data alone.
PubMed ID
12606891 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191533
Source
AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2002 Jan-Feb;63(1):11-21
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kay Teschke
Yat Chow
Michael Brauer
Ed Chessor
Bob Hirtle
Susan M Kennedy
Moira Chan Yeung
Helen Dimich Ward
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2002 Jan-Feb;63(1):11-21
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetic Acid - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - prevention & control
British Columbia
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Equipment Design - statistics & numerical data
Equipment Safety - statistics & numerical data
Glutaral - analysis
Health Facility Environment - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indicators and Reagents - analysis
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Photochemistry - instrumentation
Radiography - instrumentation
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Ventilation - methods
X-Ray Film
Abstract
Radiographers process X-ray films using developer and fixer solutions that contain chemicals known to cause or exacerbate asthma. In a study in British Columbia, Canada, radiographers' personal exposures to glutaraldehyde (a constituent of the developer chemistry), acetic acid (a constituent of the fixer chemistry), and sulfur dioxide (a byproduct of sulfites, present in both developer and fixer solutions) were measured. Average full-shift exposures to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid, and sulfur dioxide were 0.0009 mg/m3, 0.09 mg/m3, and 0.08 mg/m3, respectively, all more than one order of magnitude lower than current occupational exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation of the processing machines and use of silver recovery units lowered exposures, whereas the number of films processed per machine and the time spent near the machines increased exposures. Personnel in clinic facilities had higher exposures than those in hospitals. Private clinics were less likely to have local exhaust ventilation and silver recovery units. Their radiographers spent more time in the processor areas and processed more films per machine. Although exposures were low compared with exposure standards, there are good reasons to continue practices to minimize or eliminate exposures: glutaraldehyde and hydroquinone (present in the developer) are sensitizers; the levels at which health effects occur are not yet clearly established, but appear to be lower than current standards; and health effects resulting from the mixture of chemicals are not understood. Developments in digital imaging technology are making available options that do not involve wet-processing of photographic film and therefore could eliminate the use of developer and fixer chemicals altogether.
PubMed ID
11843420 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure to ambient and nonambient components of particulate matter: a comparison of health effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175309
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 May;16(3):396-405
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Stefanie T Ebelt
William E Wilson
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 May;16(3):396-405
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Blood Pressure - drug effects
British Columbia
Electrocardiography
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiration - drug effects
Abstract
Numerous epidemiologic studies report associations between outdoor concentrations of particles and adverse health effects. Because personal exposure to particles is frequently dominated by exposure to nonambient particles (those originating from indoor sources), we present an approach to evaluate the relative impacts of ambient and nonambient exposures.
We developed separate estimates of exposures to ambient and nonambient particles of different size ranges (PM2.5, PM10-2.5 and PM10) based on time-activity data and the use of particle sulfate measurements as a tracer for indoor infiltration of ambient particles. To illustrate the application of these estimates, associations between cardiopulmonary health outcomes and the estimated exposures were compared with associations computed using measurements of personal exposures and outdoor concentrations for a repeated-measures panel study of 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease conducted in the summer of 1998 in Vancouver.
Total personal fine particle exposures were dominated by exposures to nonambient particles, which were not correlated with ambient fine particle exposures or ambient concentrations. Although total and nonambient particle exposures were not associated with any of the health outcomes, ambient exposures (and to a lesser extent ambient concentrations) were associated with decreased lung function, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased supraventricular ectopic heartbeats. Measures of heart rate variability showed less consistent relationships among the various exposure metrics.
These results demonstrate the usefulness of separating total personal particle exposures into their ambient and nonambient components. The results support previous epidemiologic findings using ambient concentrations by demonstrating an association between health outcomes and ambient (outdoor origin) particle exposures but not with nonambient (indoor origin) particle exposures.
PubMed ID
15824557 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure to organic solvents and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature161668
Source
Hum Reprod. 2007 Oct;22(10):2751-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Parvez Ahmed
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
Source
Hum Reprod. 2007 Oct;22(10):2751-7
Date
Oct-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Obstetric Labor, Premature - chemically induced
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Solvents - adverse effects
Abstract
Organic solvents are among the most common exposures in the workplace. Our objective was to elaborate the relationship between prenatal occupational solvent exposure and fetal growth as well as duration of pregnancy, and to quantify the impact of occupational organic solvent exposure.
We conducted a population-based study of 1670 singleton newborns of women who participated in The Finnish Prenatal Environment and Health Study after their delivery (response rate 94%) and who were working during pregnancy (65%). Exposure information was based on questions about exposure to solvents at work before and during pregnancy. The health outcomes, based on information from a questionnaire and the Finnish Medical Birth Registry, were low birth weight (
PubMed ID
17725989 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fine-Scale Exposure to Allergenic Pollen in the Urban Environment: Evaluation of Land Use Regression Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285889
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 May;124(5):619-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2016
Author
Jan Hjort
Timo T Hugg
Harri Antikainen
Jarmo Rusanen
Mikhail Sofiev
Jaakko Kukkonen
Maritta S Jaakkola
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 May;124(5):619-26
Date
May-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Allergens - analysis
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Finland
Models, Statistical
Particulate Matter - analysis
Pollen
Seasons
Abstract
Despite the recent developments in physically and chemically based analysis of atmospheric particles, no models exist for resolving the spatial variability of pollen concentration at urban scale.
We developed a land use regression (LUR) approach for predicting spatial fine-scale allergenic pollen concentrations in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, and evaluated the performance of the models against available empirical data.
We used grass pollen data monitored at 16 sites in an urban area during the peak pollen season and geospatial environmental data. The main statistical method was generalized linear model (GLM).
GLM-based LURs explained 79% of the spatial variation in the grass pollen data based on all samples, and 47% of the variation when samples from two sites with very high concentrations were excluded. In model evaluation, prediction errors ranged from 6% to 26% of the observed range of grass pollen concentrations. Our findings support the use of geospatial data-based statistical models to predict the spatial variation of allergenic grass pollen concentrations at intra-urban scales. A remote sensing-based vegetation index was the strongest predictor of pollen concentrations for exposure assessments at local scales.
The LUR approach provides new opportunities to estimate the relations between environmental determinants and allergenic pollen concentration in human-modified environments at fine spatial scales. This approach could potentially be applied to estimate retrospectively pollen concentrations to be used for long-term exposure assessments.
Hjort J, Hugg TT, Antikainen H, Rusanen J, Sofiev M, Kukkonen J, Jaakkola MS, Jaakkola JJ. 2016. Fine-scale exposure to allergenic pollen in the urban environment: evaluation of land use regression approach. Environ Health Perspect 124:619-626; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509761.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26452296 View in PubMed
Less detail

Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146295
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1752-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Julian D Marshall
Michael Brauer
Lawrence D Frank
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. julian@umn.edu
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1752-9
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia
Environment Design
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban health
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Walking
Abstract
The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure.
We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density.
All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income.
Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20049128 View in PubMed
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The Holistic Effects of Climate Change on the Culture, Well-Being, and Health of the Saami, the Only Indigenous People in the European Union.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295558
Source
Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018 Oct 22; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Oct-22-2018
Author
Jouni J K Jaakkola
Suvi Juntunen
Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi
Author Affiliation
Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, University of Oulu, P. O. Box 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland. jouni.jaakkola@oulu.fi.
Source
Curr Environ Health Rep. 2018 Oct 22; :
Date
Oct-22-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Abstract
(1) To develop a framework for understanding the holistic effects of climate change on the Saami people; (2) to summarize the scientific evidence about the primary, secondary, and tertiary effects of climate change on Saami culture and Sápmi region; and (3) to identify gaps in the knowledge of the effects of climate change on health and well-being of the Saami.
The Saami health is on average similar, or slightly better compared to the health of other populations in the same area. Warming climate has already influenced Saami reindeer culture. Mental health and suicide risk partly linked to changing physical and social environments are major concerns. The lifestyle, diet, and morbidity of the Saami are changing to resemble the majority populations posing threats for the health of the Saami and making them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Climate change is a threat for the cultural way of life of Saami. Possibilities for Saami to adapt to climate change are limited.
PubMed ID
30350264 View in PubMed
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