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Associations of ambient air pollution with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalization and mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116489
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2013
Author
Wen Qi Gan
J Mark FitzGerald
Chris Carlsten
Mohsen Sadatsafavi
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Great Neck, NY 11021, USA. wgan@nshs.edu
Source
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Apr 1;187(7):721-7
Date
Apr-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - epidemiology - mortality
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient air pollution has been suggested as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is a lack of longitudinal studies to support this assertion.
To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to elevated traffic-related air pollution and woodsmoke pollution with the risk of COPD hospitalization and mortality.
This population-based cohort study included a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period. All residents aged 45-85 years who resided in Metropolitan Vancouver, Canada, during the exposure period and did not have known COPD at baseline were included in this study (n = 467,994). Residential exposures to traffic-related air pollutants (black carbon, particulate matter
PubMed ID
23392442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of death from coronary heart disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142555
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Lillian Tamburic
Hugh W Davies
Paul A Demers
Mieke Koehoorn
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Sep;21(5):642-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - etiology - mortality
Dibutyl Phthalate
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Vehicles - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Residential proximity to road traffic is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. It is unknown, however, whether changes in residential proximity to traffic could alter the risk of CHD mortality.
We used a population-based cohort study with a 5-year exposure period and a 4-year follow-up period to explore the association between changes in residential proximity to road traffic and the risk of CHD mortality. The cohort comprised all residents aged 45-85 years who resided in metropolitan Vancouver during the exposure period and without known CHD at baseline (n = 450,283). Residential proximity to traffic was estimated using a geographic information system. CHD deaths during the follow-up period were identified using provincial death registration database. The data were analyzed using logistic regression.
Compared with the subjects consistently living away from road traffic (>150 m from a highway or >50 m from a major road) during the 9-year study period, those consistently living close to traffic (
PubMed ID
20585255 View in PubMed
Less detail

Chronic exposure to high levels of particulate air pollution and small airway remodeling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185551
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
Andrew Churg
Michael Brauer
Maria del Carmen Avila-Casado
Teresa I Fortoul
Joanne L Wright
Author Affiliation
Department of Pathology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. achurg@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):714-8
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Airway Obstruction - etiology - pathology
Autopsy
British Columbia
Cities
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Mexico
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Alveoli - pathology
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive - etiology
Smoking
Urban Population
Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that chronic exposure to high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with decreased pulmonary function and the development of chronic airflow obstruction. To investigate the possible role of PM-induced abnormalities in the small airways in these functional changes, we examined histologic sections from the lungs of 20 women from Mexico City, a high PM locale. All subjects were lifelong residents of Mexico City, were never-smokers, never had occupational dust exposure, and never used biomass fuel for cooking. Twenty never-smoking, non-dust-exposed subjects from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, a low PM region, were used as a control. By light microscopy, abnormal small airways with fibrotic walls and excess muscle, many containing visible dust, were present in the Mexico City lungs. Formal grading analysis confirmed the presence of significantly greater amounts of fibrous tissue and muscle in the walls of the airways in the Mexico City compared with the Vancouver lungs. Electron microscopic particle burden measurements on four cases from Mexico City showed that carbonaceous aggregates of ultrafine particles, aggregates likely to be combustion products, were present in the airway mucosa. We conclude that PM penetrates into and is retained in the walls of small airways, and that, even in nonsmokers, long-term exposure to high levels of ambient particulate pollutants is associated with small airway remodeling. This process may produce chronic airflow obstruction.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12727599 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of traffic-related air pollution impacts on birth outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157243
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Michael Brauer
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Mieke Koehoorn
Paul Demers
Catherine Karr
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver BC V6T1Z3 Canada. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2008 May;116(5):680-6
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Birth weight
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Vehicle Emissions - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
Evidence suggests that air pollution exposure adversely affects pregnancy outcomes. Few studies have examined individual-level intraurban exposure contrasts.
We evaluated the impacts of air pollution on small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight, low full-term birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth using spatiotemporal exposure metrics.
With linked administrative data, we identified 70,249 singleton births (1999-2002) with complete covariate data (sex, ethnicity, parity, birth month and year, income, education) and maternal residential history in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. We estimated residential exposures by month of pregnancy using nearest and inverse-distance weighting (IDW) of study area monitors [carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter
Notes
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):A519
PubMed ID
18470315 View in PubMed
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Comparison between different traffic-related particle indicators: elemental carbon (EC), PM2.5 mass, and absorbance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15270
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Josef Cyrys
Joachim Heinrich
Gerard Hoek
Kees Meliefste
Marie Lewné
Ulrike Gehring
Tom Bellander
Paul Fischer
Patricia van Vliet
Michael Brauer
H-Erich Wichmann
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany. cyrys@gsf.de
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2003 Mar;13(2):134-43
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Carbon - chemistry
Comparative Study
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Particle Size
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Here we compare PM(2.5) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm) mass and filter absorbance measurements with elemental carbon (EC) concentrations measured in parallel at the same site as well as collocated PM(2.5) and PM(10) (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm) mass and absorbance measurements. The data were collected within the Traffic-Related Air Pollution on Childhood Asthma (TRAPCA) study in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden. The study was designed to assess the health impact of spatial contrasts in long-term average concentrations. The measurement sites were distributed between background and traffic locations. Annual EC and PM(2.5) absorbance measurements were at traffic sites on average 43-84% and 26-76% higher, respectively, compared to urban background sites. The contrast for PM(2.5) mass measurements was lower (8-35%). The smaller contrast observed for PM(2.5) mass in comparison with PM(2.5) absorbance and EC documents that PM(2.5) mass underestimates exposure contrasts related to motorized traffic emissions. The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was high, documenting that most of the spatial variation of PM(10) was because of PM(2.5). The measurement of PM(2.5) absorbance was highly correlated with EC measurements and suggests that absorbance can be used as a simple, inexpensive and non-destructive method to estimate motorized traffic-related particulate air pollution. The EC/absorbance relation differed between countries and site type (background/traffic), supporting the need for site-specific calibrations of the simple absorbance method. While the ratio between PM(2.5) and PM(10) mass ranged from 0.54 to 0.68, the ratio of PM(2.5) absorbance and PM(10) absorbance was 0.96-0.97, indicating that PM(2.5) absorbance captures nearly all of the particle absorbance.
PubMed ID
12679793 View in PubMed
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Descriptive epidemiological features of bronchiolitis in a population-based cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153946
Source
Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):1196-203
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Mieke Koehoorn
Catherine J Karr
Paul A Demers
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, University of British Columbia, 5804 Fairview Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. mieke.koehoorn@ubc.ca
Source
Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):1196-203
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Breast Feeding
British Columbia - epidemiology
Bronchiolitis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Prognosis
Proportional Hazards Models
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The goal was to investigate the epidemiological features of incident bronchiolitis by using a population-based infant cohort.
Outpatient and inpatient health records were used to identify incident bronchiolitis cases among 93,058 singleton infants born in the Georgia Air Basin between 1999 and 2002. Additional health-related databases were linked to provide data on sociodemographic variables, maternal characteristics, and birth outcome measures.
From 1999 to 2002, bronchiolitis accounted for 12,474 incident health care encounters (inpatient or outpatient contacts) during the first year of life (134.2 cases per 1000 person-years). A total of 1588 hospitalized bronchiolitis cases were identified (17.1 cases per 1000 person-years). Adjusted Cox proportional-hazard analyses for both case definitions indicated an increased risk of incident bronchiolitis in the first year of life (follow-up period: 2-12 months) for boys, infants of First Nations status, infants with older siblings, and infants living in neighborhoods with smaller proportions of maternal postsecondary education. The risk also was elevated for infants born to young mothers (
PubMed ID
19047234 View in PubMed
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Effect of early life exposure to air pollution on development of childhood asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145670
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Nina Annika Clark
Paul A Demers
Catherine J Karr
Mieke Koehoorn
Cornel Lencar
Lillian Tamburic
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):284-90
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Asthma - chemically induced
British Columbia
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Nitrogen Oxides - adverse effects
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Time Factors
United States
Abstract
There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested case-control study.
We assessed all children born in southwestern British Columbia in 1999 and 2000 (n = 37,401) for incidence of asthma diagnosis up to 34 years of age using outpatient and hospitalization records. Asthma cases were age- and sex-matched to five randomly chosen controls from the eligible cohort. We estimated each individual's exposure to ambient air pollution for the gestational period and first year of life using high-resolution pollution surfaces derived from regulatory monitoring data as well as land use regression models adjusted for temporal variation. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate effects of carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Feb;118(2):A8020123625
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):A283-420601332Camatini, Marina [removed]; Bolzacchini, Ezio [removed]
PubMed ID
20123607 View in PubMed
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Estimating long-term average particulate air pollution concentrations: application of traffic indicators and geographic information systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15283
Source
Epidemiology. 2003 Mar;14(2):228-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Michael Brauer
Gerard Hoek
Patricia van Vliet
Kees Meliefste
Paul Fischer
Ulrike Gehring
Joachim Heinrich
Josef Cyrys
Tom Bellander
Marie Lewne
Bert Brunekreef
Author Affiliation
Utrecht University, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Environmental and Occupational Health Group, Utrecht, the Netherlands. brauer@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2003 Mar;14(2):228-39
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Geography
Germany
Humans
Netherlands
Particle Size
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
BACKGROUND: As part of a multicenter study relating traffic-related air pollution with incidence of asthma in three birth cohort studies (TRAPCA), we used a measurement and modelling procedure to estimate long-term average exposure to traffic-related particulate air pollution in communities throughout the Netherlands; in Munich, Germany; and in Stockholm County, Sweden. METHODS: In each of the three locations, 40-42 measurement sites were selected to represent rural, urban background and urban traffic locations. At each site and fine particles and filter absorbance (a marker for diesel exhaust particles) were measured for four 2-week periods distributed over approximately 1-year periods between February 1999 and July 2000. We used these measurements to calculate annual average concentrations after adjustment for temporal variation. Traffic-related variables (eg, population density and traffic intensity) were collected using Geographic Information Systems and used in regression models predicting annual average concentrations. From these models we estimated ambient air concentrations at the home addresses of the cohort members. RESULTS: Regression models using traffic-related variables explained 73%, 56% and 50% of the variability in annual average fine particle concentrations for the Netherlands, Munich and Stockholm County, respectively. For filter absorbance, the regression models explained 81%, 67% and 66% of the variability in the annual average concentrations. Cross-validation to estimate the model prediction errors indicated root mean squared errors of 1.1-1.6 microg/m for PM(2.5) and 0.22-0.31 *10(-5) m for absorbance.CONCLUSIONS: A substantial fraction of the variability in annual average concentrations for all locations was explained by traffic-related variables. This approach can be used to estimate individual exposures for epidemiologic studies and offers advantages over alternative techniques relying on surrogate variables or traditional approaches that utilize ambient monitoring data alone.
PubMed ID
12606891 View in PubMed
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Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature191533
Source
AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2002 Jan-Feb;63(1):11-21
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kay Teschke
Yat Chow
Michael Brauer
Ed Chessor
Bob Hirtle
Susan M Kennedy
Moira Chan Yeung
Helen Dimich Ward
Author Affiliation
School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2002 Jan-Feb;63(1):11-21
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetic Acid - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - prevention & control
British Columbia
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Equipment Design - statistics & numerical data
Equipment Safety - statistics & numerical data
Glutaral - analysis
Health Facility Environment - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Indicators and Reagents - analysis
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Photochemistry - instrumentation
Radiography - instrumentation
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Ventilation - methods
X-Ray Film
Abstract
Radiographers process X-ray films using developer and fixer solutions that contain chemicals known to cause or exacerbate asthma. In a study in British Columbia, Canada, radiographers' personal exposures to glutaraldehyde (a constituent of the developer chemistry), acetic acid (a constituent of the fixer chemistry), and sulfur dioxide (a byproduct of sulfites, present in both developer and fixer solutions) were measured. Average full-shift exposures to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid, and sulfur dioxide were 0.0009 mg/m3, 0.09 mg/m3, and 0.08 mg/m3, respectively, all more than one order of magnitude lower than current occupational exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation of the processing machines and use of silver recovery units lowered exposures, whereas the number of films processed per machine and the time spent near the machines increased exposures. Personnel in clinic facilities had higher exposures than those in hospitals. Private clinics were less likely to have local exhaust ventilation and silver recovery units. Their radiographers spent more time in the processor areas and processed more films per machine. Although exposures were low compared with exposure standards, there are good reasons to continue practices to minimize or eliminate exposures: glutaraldehyde and hydroquinone (present in the developer) are sensitizers; the levels at which health effects occur are not yet clearly established, but appear to be lower than current standards; and health effects resulting from the mixture of chemicals are not understood. Developments in digital imaging technology are making available options that do not involve wet-processing of photographic film and therefore could eliminate the use of developer and fixer chemicals altogether.
PubMed ID
11843420 View in PubMed
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Exposure to ambient and nonambient components of particulate matter: a comparison of health effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175309
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 May;16(3):396-405
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Stefanie T Ebelt
William E Wilson
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Source
Epidemiology. 2005 May;16(3):396-405
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Blood Pressure - drug effects
British Columbia
Electrocardiography
Heart Rate - drug effects
Humans
Middle Aged
Particle Size
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Respiration - drug effects
Abstract
Numerous epidemiologic studies report associations between outdoor concentrations of particles and adverse health effects. Because personal exposure to particles is frequently dominated by exposure to nonambient particles (those originating from indoor sources), we present an approach to evaluate the relative impacts of ambient and nonambient exposures.
We developed separate estimates of exposures to ambient and nonambient particles of different size ranges (PM2.5, PM10-2.5 and PM10) based on time-activity data and the use of particle sulfate measurements as a tracer for indoor infiltration of ambient particles. To illustrate the application of these estimates, associations between cardiopulmonary health outcomes and the estimated exposures were compared with associations computed using measurements of personal exposures and outdoor concentrations for a repeated-measures panel study of 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease conducted in the summer of 1998 in Vancouver.
Total personal fine particle exposures were dominated by exposures to nonambient particles, which were not correlated with ambient fine particle exposures or ambient concentrations. Although total and nonambient particle exposures were not associated with any of the health outcomes, ambient exposures (and to a lesser extent ambient concentrations) were associated with decreased lung function, decreased systolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and increased supraventricular ectopic heartbeats. Measures of heart rate variability showed less consistent relationships among the various exposure metrics.
These results demonstrate the usefulness of separating total personal particle exposures into their ambient and nonambient components. The results support previous epidemiologic findings using ambient concentrations by demonstrating an association between health outcomes and ambient (outdoor origin) particle exposures but not with nonambient (indoor origin) particle exposures.
PubMed ID
15824557 View in PubMed
Less detail

Healthy neighborhoods: walkability and air pollution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146295
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1752-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Julian D Marshall
Michael Brauer
Lawrence D Frank
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA. julian@umn.edu
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):1752-9
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects
British Columbia
Environment Design
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Regression Analysis
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Urban health
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Walking
Abstract
The built environment may influence health in part through the promotion of physical activity and exposure to pollution. To date, no studies have explored interactions between neighborhood walkability and air pollution exposure.
We estimated concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), a marker for direct vehicle emissions), and ozone (O(3)) and a neighborhood walkability score, for 49,702 (89% of total) postal codes in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. NO concentrations were estimated from a land-use regression model, O(3) was estimated from ambient monitoring data; walkability was calculated based on geographic attributes such as land-use mix, street connectivity, and residential density.
All three attributes exhibit an urban-rural gradient, with high walkability and NO concentrations, and low O(3) concentrations, near the city center. Lower-income areas tend to have higher NO concentrations and walkability and lower O(3) concentrations. Higher-income areas tend to have lower pollution (NO and O(3)). "Sweet-spot" neighborhoods (low pollution, high walkability) are generally located near but not at the city center and are almost exclusively higher income.
Increased concentration of activities in urban settings yields both health costs and benefits. Our research identifies neighborhoods that do especially well (and especially poorly) for walkability and air pollution exposure. Work is needed to ensure that the poor do not bear an undue burden of urban air pollution and that neighborhoods designed for walking, bicycling, or mass transit do not adversely affect resident's exposure to air pollution. Analyses presented here could be replicated in other cities and tracked over time to better understand interactions among neighborhood walkability, air pollution exposure, and income level.
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Nov;117(11):A50520049109
PubMed ID
20049128 View in PubMed
Less detail

The impact of daily mobility on exposure to traffic-related air pollution and health effect estimates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142520
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jan-Feb;21(1):42-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eleanor Setton
Julian D Marshall
Michael Brauer
Kathryn R Lundquist
Perry Hystad
Peter Keller
Denise Cloutier-Fisher
Author Affiliation
Geography Department, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. elsetton@uvic.ca
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2011 Jan-Feb;21(1):42-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Bias (epidemiology)
British Columbia
California
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Residence Characteristics
Time Factors
Urban health
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Epidemiological studies of traffic-related air pollution typically estimate exposures at residential locations only; however, if study subjects spend time away from home, exposure measurement error, and therefore bias, may be introduced into epidemiological analyses. For two study areas (Vancouver, British Columbia, and Southern California), we use paired residence- and mobility-based estimates of individual exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide, and apply error theory to calculate bias for scenarios when mobility is not considered. In Vancouver, the mean bias was 0.84 (range: 0.79-0.89; SD: 0.01), indicating potential bias of an effect estimate toward the null by ~16% when using residence-based exposure estimates. Bias was more strongly negative (mean: 0.70, range: 0.63-0.77, SD: 0.02) when the underlying pollution estimates had higher spatial variation (land-use regression versus monitor interpolation). In Southern California, bias was seen to become more strongly negative with increasing time and distance spent away from home (e.g., 0.99 for 0-2?h spent at least 10?km away, 0.66 for = 10?h spent at least 40?km away). Our results suggest that ignoring daily mobility patterns can contribute to bias toward the null hypothesis in epidemiological studies using individual-level exposure estimates.
PubMed ID
20588325 View in PubMed
Less detail

Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159958
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;18(5):503-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2008
Author
Prabjit Barn
Timothy Larson
Melanie Noullett
Susan Kennedy
Ray Copes
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;18(5):503-11
Date
Sep-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - prevention & control
British Columbia
Environmental Exposure - analysis - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Filtration - instrumentation - methods
Fires
Glucose - analogs & derivatives
Housing
Humans
Linear Models
Particulate Matter - analysis
Seasons
Smoke - analysis
Abstract
Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P
PubMed ID
18059421 View in PubMed
Less detail

Intercity transferability of land use regression models for estimating ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157833
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009 Jan;19(1):107-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Karla Poplawski
Timothy Gould
Eleanor Setton
Ryan Allen
Jason Su
Timothy Larson
Sarah Henderson
Michael Brauer
Perry Hystad
Christy Lightowlers
Peter Keller
Marty Cohen
Carlos Silva
Mike Buzzelli
Author Affiliation
Spatial Sciences Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. poplawski@alumni.uvic.ca
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009 Jan;19(1):107-17
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Canada - epidemiology
Cities - epidemiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods - statistics & numerical data
Epidemiological Monitoring
Geography
Humans
Models, Biological
Models, Statistical
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Regression Analysis
United States - epidemiology
Urban health
Abstract
Land use regression (LUR) is a method for predicting the spatial distribution of traffic-related air pollution. To facilitate risk and exposure assessment, and the design of future monitoring networks and sampling campaigns, we sought to determine the extent to which LUR can be used to predict spatial patterns in air pollution in the absence of dedicated measurements. We evaluate the transferability of one LUR model to two other geographically comparable areas with similar climates and pollution types. The source model, developed in 2003 to estimate ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) concentrations in Vancouver (BC, Canada) was applied to Victoria (BC, Canada) and Seattle (WA, USA). Model estimates were compared with measurements made with Ogawa passive samplers in both cities. As part of this study, 42 locations were sampled in Victoria for a 2-week period in June 2006. Data obtained for Seattle were collected for a different project at 26 locations in March 2005. We used simple linear regression to evaluate the fit of the source model under three scenarios: (1) using the same variables and coefficients as the source model; (2) using the same variables as the source model, but calculating new coefficients for local calibration; and (3) developing site-specific equations with new variables and coefficients. In Scenario 1, we found that the source model had a better fit in Victoria (R(2)=0.51) than in Seattle (R(2)=0.33). Scenario 2 produced improved R(2)-values in both cities (Victoria=0.58, Seattle=0.65), with further improvement achieved under Scenario 3 (Victoria=0.61, Seattle=0.72). Although it is possible to transfer LUR models between geographically similar cities, success may depend on the between-city consistency of the input data. Modest field sampling campaigns for location-specific model calibration can help to produce transfer models that are equally as predictive as their sources.
PubMed ID
18398445 View in PubMed
Less detail

Long-term residential exposure to air pollution and lung cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113862
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Sep;24(5):762-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Perry Hystad
Paul A Demers
Kenneth C Johnson
Richard M Carpiano
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. phystad@gmail.com
Source
Epidemiology. 2013 Sep;24(5):762-72
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Biological
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Ozone - adverse effects
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Time Factors
Abstract
There is accumulating evidence that air pollution causes lung cancer. Still, questions remain about exposure misclassification, the components of air pollution responsible, and the histological subtypes of lung cancer that might be produced.
We investigated lung cancer incidence in relation to long-term exposure to three ambient air pollutants and proximity to major roads, using a Canadian population-based case-control study. We compared 2,390 incident, histologically confirmed lung cancer cases with 3,507 population controls in eight Canadian provinces from 1994 to 1997. We developed spatiotemporal models for the whole country to estimate annual residential exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) over a 20-year exposure period. We carried out a subanalysis in urban centers, using exposures derived from fixed-site air pollution monitors, and also examined traffic proximity measures. Hierarchical logistic regression models incorporated a comprehensive set of individual and geographic covariates.
The increase in lung cancer incidence (expressed as fully adjusted odds ratios [ORs]) was 1.29 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.76) with a ten-unit increase in PM2.5 (µg/m), 1.11 (1.00-1.24) with a ten-unit increase in NO2 (ppb), and 1.09 (0.85-1.39) with a ten-unit increase in O3 (ppb). The urban monitor-based subanalyses generally supported the national results, with larger associations for NO2 (OR = 1.34; 1.07-1.69) per 10 ppb increase. No dose-response trends were observed, and no clear relationships were found for specific histological cancer subtypes. There was the suggestion of increased risk among those living within 100 m of highways, but not among those living near major roads.
Lung cancer incidence in this Canadian study was increased most strongly with NO2 and PM2.5 exposure. Further investigation is needed into possible effects of O3 on development of lung cancer.
Notes
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2014 Jan;25(1):15924296934
Comment In: Epidemiology. 2014 Jan;25(1):159-6024296935
PubMed ID
23676262 View in PubMed
Less detail

Modeling population exposure to community noise and air pollution in a large metropolitan area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125057
Source
Environ Res. 2012 Jul;116:11-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Wen Qi Gan
Kathleen McLean
Michael Brauer
Sarah A Chiarello
Hugh W Davies
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2012 Jul;116:11-6
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
British Columbia
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Cities
Computer simulation
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects
Urban Population
Urbanization
Abstract
Epidemiologic studies have shown that both air pollution and community noise are associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Because road traffic is a major contributor to these environmental pollutants in metropolitan areas, it is plausible that the observed associations may be confounded by coexistent pollutants. As part of a large population-based cohort study to address this concern, we used a noise prediction model to assess annual average community noise levels from transportation sources in metropolitan Vancouver, Canada. The modeled annual average noise level was 64 (inter quartile range 60-68) dB(A) for the region. This model was evaluated by comparing modeled annual daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(day)) with measured 5-min daytime A-weighted equivalent continuous noise levels (L(eq,day,5 min)) at 103 selected roadside sites in the study region. On average, L(day) was 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-7.9) dB(A) higher than, but highly correlated (r=0.62; 95% CI, 0.48-0.72) with, L(eq,day,5 min). These results suggest that our model-based noise exposure assessment could approximately reflect actual noise exposure in the study region. Overall, modeled noise levels were not strongly correlated with land use regression estimates of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter =2.5 µm (PM(2.5)), NO(2) and NO; the highest correlation was with black carbon (r=0.48), whereas the lowest correlation was with PM(2.5) (r=0.18). There was no consistent effect of traffic proximity on the correlations between community noise levels and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations. These results, consistent with previous studies, suggest that it is possible to assess potential adverse cardiovascular effects from long-term exposures to community noise and traffic-related air pollution in prospective epidemiologic studies.
PubMed ID
22520824 View in PubMed
Less detail

Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and individual lung cancer risk: evaluating long-term exposure measures and mediating mechanisms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106487
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Nov;97:95-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Perry Hystad
Richard M Carpiano
Paul A Demers
Kenneth C Johnson
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3. Electronic address: phystad@gmail.com.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2013 Nov;97:95-103
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - psychology
Social Class
Time Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with numerous chronic diseases, yet little information exists on its association with lung cancer incidence. This outcome presents two key empirical challenges: a long latency period that requires study participants' residential histories and long-term neighbourhood characteristics; and adequate data on many risk factors to test hypothesized mediating pathways between neighbourhood SES and lung cancer incidence. Analysing data on urban participants of a large Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study, we investigate three issues pertaining to these challenges. First, we examine whether there is an association between long-term neighbourhood SES, derived from 20 years of residential histories and five national censuses, and lung cancer incidence. Second, we determine how this long-term neighbourhood SES association changes when using neighbourhood SES measures based on different latency periods or at time of study entry. Third, we estimate the extent to which long-term neighbourhood SES is mediated by a range of individual-level smoking behaviours, other health behaviours, and environmental and occupational exposures. Results of hierarchical logistic regression models indicate significantly higher odds of lung cancer cases residing in the most compared to the least deprived quintile of the long-term neighbourhood SES index (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13-1.89) after adjustment for individual SES. This association remained significant (OR: 1.38; 1.01-1.88) after adjusting for smoking behaviour and other known and suspected lung cancer risk factors. Important differences were observed between long-term and study entry neighbourhood SES measures, with the latter attenuating effect estimates by over 50 percent. Smoking behaviour was the strongest partial mediating pathway of the long-term neighbourhood SES effect. This research is the first to examine the effects of long-term neighbourhood SES on lung cancer risk and more research is needed to further identify specific, modifiable pathways by which neighbourhood context may influence lung cancer risk.
PubMed ID
24161094 View in PubMed
Less detail

A new exposure metric for traffic-related air pollution? An analysis of determinants of hopanes in settled indoor house dust.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112930
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:48
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Hind Sbihi
Jeffrey R Brook
Ryan W Allen
Jason H Curran
Sharon Dell
Piush Mandhane
James A Scott
Malcolm R Sears
Padmaja Subbarao
Timothy K Takaro
Stuart E Turvey
Amanda J Wheeler
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3. hind.sbihi@ubc.ca
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12:48
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Canada
Cities
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Regression Analysis
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Triterpenes - analysis
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) can adversely impact health but epidemiologic studies are limited in their abilities to assess long-term exposures and incorporate variability in indoor pollutant infiltration.
In order to examine settled house dust levels of hopanes, engine lubricating oil byproducts found in vehicle exhaust, as a novel TRAP exposure measure, dust samples were collected from 171 homes in five Canadian cities and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To evaluate source contributions, the relative abundance of the highest concentration hopane monomer in house dust was compared to that in outdoor air. Geographic variables related to TRAP emissions and outdoor NO2 concentrations from city-specific TRAP land use regression (LUR) models were calculated at each georeferenced residence location and assessed as predictors of variability in dust hopanes.
Hopanes relative abundance in house dust and ambient air were significantly correlated (Pearson's r=0.48, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
23782977 View in PubMed
Less detail

Population health effects of air quality changes due to forest fires in British Columbia in 2003: estimates from physician-visit billing data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169737
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Mar-Apr;97(2):105-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
David Moore
Ray Copes
Robert Fisk
Ruth Joy
Keith Chan
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
Dept of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Mar-Apr;97(2):105-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - economics
British Columbia - epidemiology
Cardiovascular diseases
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Fires - economics
Humans
Mental disorders
Office Visits - utilization
Particle Size
Respiration Disorders - economics - epidemiology - etiology
Seasons
Trees
Abstract
Major forest fires near populated areas during 2003 exacted a huge economic toll on communities in British Columbia. We designed a study to examine associations between PM2.5 and PM10 levels and physician visits in two affected communities.
Measurements of 24-hour averages of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) obtained from the monitoring network of the BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection were used to define weeks where forest fires resulted in increases in ambient PM. Weekly rates of physician visits for respiratory (ICD-9 codes 460-519), cardiovascular (390-459) and mental illnesses (290-319) obtained through the Medical Services Plan of BC, were compared for 2003 and aggregates of the 10 previous years.
Both the Kelowna and Kamloops regions experienced five weeks of elevated 24-hour average PM levels, although maximum levels in Kelowna were greater. In the Kelowna region, increases in physician visits for respiratory diseases of between 46 and 78% above 10-year mean rates were observed for three weeks during the forest fire period. Similar effects were not observed in Kamloops. Effects on visits for cardiovascular diseases or mental disorders were not seen in either community.
Forest fire smoke was associated with an excess of respiratory complaints in Kelowna area residents. The lack of a similar effect in Kamloops is likely due to the population being exposed to lower levels of PM. The absence of apparent cardiovascular health effects may be due to selective effects of forest fire smoke on respiratory tract disease.
PubMed ID
16619995 View in PubMed
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Predicting personal exposure of pregnant women to traffic-related air pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature158312
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2008 May 20;395(1):11-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-20-2008
Author
Elizabeth Nethery
Kay Teschke
Michael Brauer
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. enethery@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2008 May 20;395(1):11-22
Date
May-20-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
British Columbia
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Models, Statistical
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
As epidemiological studies report associations between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes, it is important to understand determinants of exposures among pregnant women. We measured (48-h, personal exposure) and modeled (using outdoor ambient monitors and a traffic-based land-use regression model) NO, NO(2), fine particle mass and absorbance in 62 non-smoking pregnant women in Vancouver, Canada on 1-3 occasions during pregnancy (total N=127). We developed predictive models for personal measurements using modeled ambient concentrations and individual determinants of exposure. Geometric mean exposures of personal samples were relatively low (GM (GSD) NO=37 ppb (2.0); NO(2)=17 ppb (1.6); 'soot', as filter absorbance=0.8 10(-5) m(-1) (1.5); PM(2.2)=10 microg m(-3) (1.6)). Having a gas stove (vs. electric stove) in the home was associated with exposure increases of 89% (NO), 44% (NO(2)), 20% (absorbance) and 35% (fine PM). Interpolated concentrations from outdoor fixed-site monitors were associated with all personal exposures except NO(2). Land-use regression model estimates of outdoor air pollution were associated with personal NO and NO(2) only. The effects of outdoor air pollution on personal samples were consistent, with and without adjustment for other individual determinants (e.g. gas stove). These findings improve our understanding of sources of exposure to air pollutants among pregnant women and support the use of outdoor concentration estimates as proxies for exposure in epidemiologic studies.
PubMed ID
18334266 View in PubMed
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