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Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6761
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
C D Sandau
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
J. Duffe
R J Norstrom
Author Affiliation
Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Hydroxylation
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
In this study, we identified the main hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds and we determined their relative concentrations in whole blood from 13 male and 17 female Inuit from northern Quebec, Canada, and from a pooled whole blood sample from southern Quebec. We also determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Total OH-PCB concentrations were variable among the Inuit samples, ranging over 2 orders of magnitude (0.117-11.6 ng/g whole blood wet weight). These concentrations were equal to and up to 70 times those found for the southern Quebec pooled whole blood sample. Geometric mean concentrations of total OH-PCBs were 1.73 and 1.01 ng/g whole blood for Inuit men and women, respectively, and 0.161 ng/g whole blood for the southern population pool. There are limited data available for comparison, but the levels of OH-PCBs in Inuit are higher than those previously reported in the literature for other populations. There was a significant correlation (p
PubMed ID
10903613 View in PubMed
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Antioxidant intake and allergic disease in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120524
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1491-500
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
H. Rosenlund
J. Magnusson
I. Kull
N. Håkansson
A. Wolk
G. Pershagen
M. Wickman
A. Bergström
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Helen.Rosenlund@ki.se
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1491-500
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antioxidants - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Ascorbic Acid - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Magnesium - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Male
Questionnaires
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
alpha-Tocopherol - administration & dosage - pharmacology
beta Carotene - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Abstract
Antioxidant intake may reduce the risk of allergic disease by protecting against oxidative tissue damage. Major sources of antioxidants in the Western world are fruits, vegetables (vitamin C, ß-carotene, a-tocopherol), meat and milk (selenium, magnesium, zinc). Children may exclude or eat less of some fruits and vegetables due to cross-reactivity between pollen and these foods, complicating assessment of causal relationships.
To investigate the association between dietary antioxidant intake and allergic disease, taking potential reverse causation into account.
Data on 2442 8-year-old children from the Swedish birth cohort study BAMSE were analysed. Children with completed parental questionnaires on exposures and health, including a food-frequency questionnaire and who provided a blood sample were included. Associations between antioxidant intake during the past year and current allergic disease were analysed using logistic regression.
An inverse association was observed between intake of ß-carotene and rhinitis (OR(adj), highest vs. lowest quartile, 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93). Magnesium intake was inversely related to asthma (OR(adj), 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-1.00) and atopic sensitisation (OR(adj), 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-1.00). Following exclusion of children who avoided certain fruits, vegetables or milk due to allergic symptoms (n = 285), the inverse association remained between magnesium intake and asthma (OR(adj), 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.98), whereas all other associations became non-significant.
Diet modifications due to allergy may affect the antioxidant intake and needs to be considered when investigating the relationship between diet and allergic disease. Magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect on childhood asthma.
Notes
Comment In: Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Oct;42(10):1420-222994339
PubMed ID
22994346 View in PubMed
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Associations of long- and short-term air pollution exposure with markers of inflammation and coagulation in a population sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature149080
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):747-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
S. Panasevich
K. Leander
M. Rosenlund
P. Ljungman
T. Bellander
U. de Faire
G. Pershagen
F. Nyberg
Author Affiliation
Unit of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nobels väg 13, Box 210 Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. Sviatlana.Panasevich@ki.se
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2009 Nov;66(11):747-53
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Coagulation - drug effects
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Fibrinogen - metabolism
Humans
Inflammation - blood - chemically induced - complications
Inflammation Mediators - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - blood - etiology
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 - blood
Sweden
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Exposure to elevated levels of ambient air pollutants can lead to adverse cardiovascular effects. Potential mechanisms include systemic inflammation and perturbation of the coagulation balance.
To investigate long- and short-term effects of air pollution exposure on serum levels of inflammatory (IL-6, TNF-alpha and CRP) and coagulation (fibrinogen and PAI-1) markers relevant for cardiovascular pathology.
The study group consisted of a population sample of 1028 men and 508 women aged 45-70 years from Stockholm. Long-term air pollution exposure was assessed using spatial modelling of traffic-related NO(2) and heating-related SO(2) emissions at each subject's residential addresses over retrospective periods of 1, 5 and 30 years. Short-term exposure was assessed as averages of rooftop measurements over 12-120 h before blood sampling.
Long-term exposures to both traffic-NO(2) and heating-SO(2) emissions showed consistent associations with IL-6 levels. 30-year average traffic-NO(2) exposure was associated with a 64.5% (95% CI 6.7% to 153.8%) increase in serum IL-6 per 28.8 microg/m(3) (corresponding to the difference between the 5th and 95th percentile exposure value), and 30-year exposure to heating-SO(2) with a 67.6% (95% CI 7.1% to 162.2%) increase per 39.4 microg/m(3) (5th-95th percentile value difference). The association appeared stronger in non-smokers, physically active people and hypertensive subjects. We observed positive non-significant associations of inflammatory markers with NO(2) and PM(10) during 24 h before blood sampling. Short-term exposure to O(3) was associated with increased, and SO(2) with decreased, fibrinogen levels.
Our results suggest that exposure to moderate levels of air pollution may influence serum levels of inflammatory markers.
PubMed ID
19687019 View in PubMed
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Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants-a prospective birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15309
Source
Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):478-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
I. Kull
M. Wickman
G. Lilja
S L Nordvall
G. Pershagen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Arch Dis Child. 2002 Dec;87(6):478-81
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - prevention & control
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Dermatitis, Atopic - prevention & control
Female
Food Hypersensitivity - prevention & control
Humans
Infant
Male
Odds Ratio
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiration Disorders - prevention & control
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - prevention & control
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
AIMS: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. METHODS: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. RESULTS: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, OR(adj) = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders-asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen-were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (OR(adj) = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease-that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease.
PubMed ID
12456543 View in PubMed
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Building characteristics, indoor air quality and recurrent wheezing in very young children (BAMSE).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15200
Source
Indoor Air. 2004 Feb;14(1):34-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
G. Emenius
M. Svartengren
J. Korsgaard
L. Nordvall
G. Pershagen
M. Wickman
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Norrbacka, 3rd Floor, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. gunnel.emenius@smd.sll.se
Source
Indoor Air. 2004 Feb;14(1):34-42
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Case-Control Studies
Child, Preschool
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Humidity
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Sounds
Sick Building Syndrome - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Ventilation
Abstract
This study was conducted to examine the impact of building characteristics and indoor air quality on recurrent wheezing in infants. We followed a birth cohort (BAMSE) comprising 4089 children, born in predefined areas of Stockholm, during their first 2 years of life. Information on exposures was obtained from parental questionnaires when the children were 2 months and on symptoms and diseases when the children were 1 and 2 years old. Children with recurrent wheezing, and two age-matched controls per case, were identified and enrolled in a nested case-control study. The homes were investigated and ventilation rate, humidity, temperature and NO2 measured. We found that living in an apartment erected after 1939, or in a private home with crawl space/concrete slab foundation were associated with an increased risk of recurrent wheezing, odds ratio (OR) 2.5 (1.3-4.8) and 2.5 (1.1-5.4), respectively. The same was true for living in homes with absolute indoor humidity >5.8 g/kg, OR 1.7 (1.0-2.9) and in homes where windowpane condensation was consistently reported over several years, OR 2.2 (1.1-4.5). However, air change rate and type of ventilation system did not seem to affect the risk. In conclusion, relatively new apartment buildings, single-family homes with crawl space/concrete slab foundation, elevated indoor humidity, and reported wintertime windowpane condensation were associated with recurrent wheezing in infants. Thus, improvements of the building quality may have potential to prevent infant wheezing.
PubMed ID
14756844 View in PubMed
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Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229175
Source
Am J Public Health. 1990 May;80(5):594-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1990
Author
B. Lévesque
E. Dewailly
R. Lavoie
D. Prud'Homme
S. Allaire
Author Affiliation
Département de santé communautaire, Centre hospitalier de l'Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1990 May;80(5):594-8
Date
May-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Adult
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - metabolism
Carboxyhemoglobin - analysis
Hockey
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Smoking
Abstract
We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and smoking status. Environmental concentrations varied from 1.6 to 131.5 parts per million (ppm). We examined the absorption/exposure relationship using a simple linear regression model. In low CO exposure levels, physical exercise lowered the alveolar CO concentration. However, we noted that for each 10 ppm of CO in the ambient air, the players had adsorbed enough CO to raise their carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels by 1 percent. This relationship was true both for smokers and non-smokers. We suggest that an average environmental concentration of 20 ppm of CO for the duration of a hockey game (90 minutes) should be reference limit not to be exceeded in indoor skating rinks.
Notes
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Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1972 Nov;77(5):669-764117097
PubMed ID
2327538 View in PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 enzyme activity and DNA adducts in placenta of women environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3494
Source
Environ Res. 1999 May;80(4):369-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
J. Lagueux
D. Pereg
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
G G Poirier
Author Affiliation
Health and Environment Unit, CHUQ, CHUL Research Center and Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Québec, G1V 4G2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 1999 May;80(4):369-82
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Biological Markers - analysis
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - metabolism
DNA - genetics - metabolism
DNA Adducts - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Enzyme Induction - drug effects
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - adverse effects - blood
Inuits
Placenta - drug effects - metabolism
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Pregnancy - blood
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Abstract
Organochlorine compounds bioaccumulate in fishing and hunting products included in the daily diet of many coastal populations. Prenatal and perinatal exposure to large doses of PCBs and PCDFs was shown to be deleterious on fetal and neonatal development, but information is scarce regarding possible effects of chronic low-dose exposure. This study investigates biomarkers of early effects in newborns from women exposed to organochlorines through the consumption of species from marine food chains, in two remote coastal regions of the province of Quebec (Canada). A CYP1A1-dependent enzyme activity (EROD) and DNA adducts were measured in placenta samples obtained from 30 women living on the Lower-North-Shore of the St. Lawrence River and 22 Inuit women from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec). These biomarkers were also assessed in 30 women from a Quebec urban center (Sept-Iles) as a reference group. Prenatal organochlorine exposure was determined by measuring these compounds in umbilical cord plasma. The amount of bulky polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-related DNA adducts was significantly greater in the Lower-North-Shore group than in the reference group. Placental EROD activity and the amount of less bulky (OC-related) DNA adducts were significantly higher in the Nunavik group than in the reference group. For both biomarkers, smoking was found to be an important confounding factor. Organochlorine exposure was significantly associated with EROD activity and DNA adduct levels when stratifying for smoking. This study confirms that CYP1A1 enzyme induction and DNA adducts in placental tissue constitute useful biomarkers of early effects induced by environmental exposure to organochlorines.
PubMed ID
10330311 View in PubMed
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Dampness in buildings and health. Nordic interdisciplinary review of the scientific evidence on associations between exposure to "dampness" in buildings and health effects (NORDDAMP).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15484
Source
Indoor Air. 2001 Jun;11(2):72-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2001
Author
C G Bornehag
G. Blomquist
F. Gyntelberg
B. Järvholm
P. Malmberg
L. Nordvall
A. Nielsen
G. Pershagen
J. Sundell
Author Affiliation
National Testing and Research Institute, Karlstad, Sweden.
Source
Indoor Air. 2001 Jun;11(2):72-86
Date
Jun-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Animals
Asthma - etiology
Environmental Exposure
Fatigue - etiology
Fungi
Headache - etiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity - etiology
Mites
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology
Risk assessment
Water
Abstract
Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy. The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks are in the range of OR 1.4-2.2. There also seems to be an association between "dampness" and other symptoms such as tiredness, headache and airways infections. It is concluded that the evidence for a causal association between "dampness" and health effects is strong. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Several definitions of dampness have been used in the studies, but all seems to be associated with health problems. Sensitisation to mites may be one but obviously not the only mechanism. Even if the mechanisms are unknown, there is sufficient evidence to take preventive measures against dampness in buildings.
Notes
Comment In: Indoor Air. 2001 Jun;11(2):7111394013
PubMed ID
11394014 View in PubMed
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Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99174
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Aug 20;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2010
Author
S G Donaldson
J. Van Oostdam
C. Tikhonov
M. Feeley
B. Armstrong
P. Ayotte
O. Boucher
W. Bowers
L. Chan
F. Dallaire
R. Dallaire
E. Dewailly
J. Edwards
G M Egeland
J. Fontaine
C. Furgal
T. Leech
E. Loring
G. Muckle
T. Nancarrow
D. Pereg
P. Plusquellec
M. Potyrala
O. Receveur
R G Shearer
Author Affiliation
Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, HECSB, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9; Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Aug 20;
Date
Aug-20-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk management decision that will be the most beneficial in Arctic communities.
PubMed ID
20728918 View in PubMed
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Environmental health effects in the East Baltic Region--assessment and prevention. Stockholm 27-29 April 1997.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206684
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 1997 Dec;5(4):219-20
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
Dec-1997
Author
G. Pershagen
V. Bencko
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Cent Eur J Public Health. 1997 Dec;5(4):219-20
Date
Dec-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Keywords
Environmental health
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Europe, Eastern
Health Policy
Health Priorities
Humans
Risk assessment
Scandinavia
PubMed ID
9457425 View in PubMed
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Environmental risk factors for allergy and socioeconomic status in a birth cohort (BAMSE).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31449
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002 Jun;13(3):182-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
E. Lannerö
I. Kull
M. Wickman
G. Pershagen
S L Nordvall
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Sweden. Eva.Lannero@kbh.ki.se
Source
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2002 Jun;13(3):182-7
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Domestic
Cats
Child
Cohort Studies
Dogs
Environment
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Associations between parental educational level and possible risk factors for atopic disease during the first months of life were explored in a cohort of 4089 neonate children born 1994-96 in Stockholm, Sweden. Reports concerning a number of life style factors during pregnancy and after the baby was born were obtained by questionnaire. There was a strong negative association between duration of education and maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental smoking after the baby was born and keeping of cat and dog (p-trend
PubMed ID
12144640 View in PubMed
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Environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction among never-smokers in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47683
Source
Epidemiology. 2001 Sep;12(5):558-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2001
Author
M. Rosenlund
N. Berglind
A. Gustavsson
C. Reuterwall
J. Hallqvist
F. Nyberg
G. Pershagen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Norrbacka 3rd floor, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Epidemiology. 2001 Sep;12(5):558-64
Date
Sep-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Diet
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
An increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) related to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure has previously been reported, but several aspects of the association are still uncertain. We studied the MI risk associated with ETS exposure among 334 nonfatal never-smoking MI cases and 677 population controls, 45-70 years of age, in Stockholm County. A postal questionnaire with a telephone follow-up provided information on ETS exposure and other potential risk factors for MI. After adjustment for age, gender, hospital catchment area, body mass index, socioeconomic status, job strain, hypertension, diet, and diabetes mellitus, the odds ratio for MI was 1.58 (95% confidence interval = 0.97-2.56) for an average daily exposure of 20 cigarettes or more from the spouse. Combined exposure from spouse and work showed an increasing odds ratio for MI, up to 1.55 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-2.34) in the highest category of weighted duration, that is, more than 90 "hour-years" of exposure (1 "hour-year" = 365 hours, or 1 hour per day for 1 year). In addition, more recent exposure appeared to convey a higher risk. Our data confirm an increased risk of MI from exposure to ETS and suggest that intensity of spousal exposure, combined exposure from spouse and work, and time since last exposure are important.
PubMed ID
11505176 View in PubMed
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Ethical and strategic considerations under conditions of intense community concern.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233384
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1988 Mar-Apr;43(2):101
Publication Type
Article
Author
G. Pershagen
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1988 Mar-Apr;43(2):101
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Bioethics
Health education
Humans
Nuclear Reactors
Radioactive Pollutants - toxicity
Sweden
Ukraine
PubMed ID
3377543 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the health risk associated with exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196697
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Oct 27;61(4):225-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-27-2000
Author
B. Lévesque
P. Ayotte
R. Tardif
G. Charest-Tardif
E. Dewailly
D. Prud'Homme
G. Gingras
S. Allaire
R. Lavoie
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada. blevesque@cspq.qc.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Oct 27;61(4):225-43
Date
Oct-27-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Child
Chloroform - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Lung - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Quebec
Risk assessment
Skin Absorption
Swimming
Swimming Pools - standards
Abstract
The exposure of swimmers to chloroform (CHCl3) was investigated in indoor swimming pools of the Quebec City region along with the associated carcinogenic risk. Six training sessions involving 52 competition swimmers (11 to 20 yr old) were conducted in 3 different pools, while 12 adult leisure swimmers attended 5 sessions, each held in a different pool. For each session, water and ambient air CHCl3 concentrations were measured and CHCl3 levels in alveolar air samples (CHCl3 ALV) collected from swimmers prior to entering the swimming pool premises and after 15, 35, and 60 min of swimming. Mean water concentrations varied from 18 microg/L to 80 microg/L, while those in air ranged from 78 microg/m3 to 329 microg/m3. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that CHCl3 ALV values in competition swimmers were strongly correlated to ambient air and water levels, and to a lesser degree to the intensity of training. Only ambient air concentration was positively correlated to CHCl3 ALV in the leisure group. Concentrations of CHCl3 metabolites bound to hepatic and renal macromolecules, estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, were 1.6 and 1.9 times higher for the competition swimmers than for the leisure swimmers, respectively. The highest hepatic concentration predicted in competition swimmers, 0.22 microg CHCl3 equivalents/kg of tissue, was at least 10,000 times lower than the smallest no observed effect level for liver tumors in animals. Data indicate that the safety margin is therefore very large, for competitive swimmers as well as for leisure swimmers.
PubMed ID
11071317 View in PubMed
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Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4827
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):69-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-26-2001
Author
P. Bjerregaard
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
T. Pars
L. Ferron
G. Mulvad
Author Affiliation
Section for Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. p.bjerrgaard@dadlnet.dk
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):69-81
Date
Jan-26-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Food Habits - ethnology
Greenland
Health Surveys
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Inuits
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Pesticide Residues - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood - adverse effects - analysis
Sex Distribution
Abstract
High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 16 pesticides, including 5 toxaphene congeners, were recorded in a random population survey of 408 adult indigenous Greenlanders. In a two-stage design, the survey response rate was 66%, and 90% of those randomly selected for blood testing participated. This was equivalent to an overall response rate of 59%. The median plasma concentration of the sum of PCB congeners was 13.3 microg/L; the lipid-adjusted value was 2109 microg/kg. The PCB concentration was twice as high as among the Inuit of Nunavik, Canada, 25 times higher than in a control group from southern Canada, and several times higher than the values found in European studies. Concentrations were similarly elevated for all PCB congeners and pesticides. The PCB congener pattern was similar to previous observations from the eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland. Concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals. Concentrations of PCB adjusted for the consumption of marine food increased until approximately 40 yr of age, which is equivalent to the birth cohorts of the early 1950s. The age pattern indicates that bioaccumulation of PCB started in the 1950s, which is a likely date for the introduction of the compounds into the Arctic environment.
PubMed ID
11209822 View in PubMed
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Exposure of remote maritime populations to coplanar PCBs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219152
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jan;102 Suppl 1:205-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1994
Author
E. Dewailly
J J Ryan
C. Laliberté
S. Bruneau
J P Weber
S. Gingras
G. Carrier
Author Affiliation
Community Health Department, CHUL, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jan;102 Suppl 1:205-9
Date
Jan-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Benzofurans - analysis - blood
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Inuits
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Quebec
Seafood
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - analysis - blood
Abstract
Two remote maritime populations were evaluated for their biological exposure to organochlorines in 1989-1990. Because of their high intake of seafood, these two populations have high biological levels. One hundred nine breast milk samples from Inuit women from Arctic Québec were analyzed to determine levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho, mono-ortho, and di-ortho congeners. Total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEqs) for PCBs were 3.5 times higher in Inuit milk samples than in 96 Caucasian milk samples. Among the 185 fishermen from the Lower North Shore of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River, we evaluated 10 highly exposed fishermen for their coplanar PCB blood levels. Total TEqs were 900 ng/kg for highly exposed individuals with 36 ng/kg for controls. In these two nonoccupationally exposed populations, coplanar PCBs make a larger contribution to the TEq than PCDDs and PCDFs. However, the mono-ortho penta CB No. 118 is the major contributor for the total toxicity.
Notes
Cites: J Pediatr. 1990 Jan;116(1):38-452104928
Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 1990;21(1):51-882124811
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):75-1341514106
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1991 Oct;47(4):491-81786431
Cites: Food Addit Contam. 1991 May-Jun;8(3):351-611778271
PubMed ID
8187710 View in PubMed
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Exposure of the Inuit population of Nunavik (Arctic Quebec) to lead and mercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3471
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(4):350-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
S. Bruneau
G. Lebel
P. Levallois
J P Weber
Author Affiliation
Unité de Recherche en Santé Publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(4):350-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Diet - adverse effects
Diet Surveys
Ducks
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Geese
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Lead - blood
Lead Poisoning - blood - ethnology
Life Style
Male
Mercury - blood
Mercury Poisoning - blood - ethnology
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Seafood - analysis
Seals, Earless
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Whales
Abstract
The authors conducted a survey during 1992 to evaluate blood levels of lead and mercury in Inuit adults of Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). Blood samples obtained from 492 participants (209 males and 283 females; mean age = 35 yr) were analyzed for lead and total mercury; mean (geometric) concentrations were 0.42 micromol/l (range = 0.04-2.28 micromol/l) and 79.6 nmol/l (range = 4-560 nmol/l), respectively. Concentrations of omega-3 fatty acid in plasma phospholipids--a biomarker of marine food consumption--were correlated with mercury (r = .56, p
PubMed ID
11572279 View in PubMed
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Higher relative, but lower absolute risks of myocardial infarction in women than in men: analysis of some major risk factors in the SHEEP study. The SHEEP Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature47958
Source
J Intern Med. 1999 Aug;246(2):161-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1999
Author
C. Reuterwall
J. Hallqvist
A. Ahlbom
U. De Faire
F. Diderichsen
C. Hogstedt
G. Pershagen
T. Theorell
B. Wiman
A. Wolk
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Working Life, Department of Occupational Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Sweden. christina.reuterwall@imm.ki.se
Source
J Intern Med. 1999 Aug;246(2):161-74
Date
Aug-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body constitution
Case-Control Studies
Diabetes Complications
Exertion
Female
Humans
Hyperlipidemia - complications
Hypertension - complications
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology
Obesity - complications
Odds Ratio
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men. DESIGN: SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program) is a population-based case-referent study of causes of MI (first event) in Swedish women and men aged 45-70 years. During the period 1992-94, 2246 cases of MI were identified; 34% of the cases were women and 27% of the cases were fatal. One referent per case was chosen randomly from the Stockholm County population after stratification for the case's sex and age. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risks associated with risk factors of primary interest (diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, overweight, physical inactivity, smoking and job strain). RESULTS: The relative risk estimates ranged from 1.5 to 4.4 in women and from 1.3 to 2.9 in men (results for nonfatal cases and their referents). None of the 95% confidence intervals included 1.0. The relative risks were higher in the women than in the men (101-180%). The absolute risks, however, were all lower in the women than in the men. Estimates of Rothman's synergy index for gender ranged from 1.0 (hypertension) to 1.8 (current smoking). CONCLUSIONS: The indications of some effect modification due to sex (stronger risks in men for certain exposures) invoke the question of possible mechanisms.
Notes
Comment In: J Intern Med. 2000 Jan;247(1):15610702035
PubMed ID
10447785 View in PubMed
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High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229977
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Nov;43(5):641-646
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1989
Author
E. Dewailly
A. Nantel
J P Weber
F. Meyer
Author Affiliation
Community Health Department, CHUL, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Nov;43(5):641-646
Date
Nov-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Humans
Inuits
Male
Milk, Human - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Quebec
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 874.
PubMed ID
2508801 View in PubMed
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