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Association between perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid stimulating hormone among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107424
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Yan Wang
Anne P Starling
Line S Haug
Merete Eggesbo
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Gregory Travlos
Debra King
Jane A Hoppin
Walter J Rogan
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Durham, NC, USA. wangy13@niehs.nih.gov.
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alkanes - blood
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Immunoassay
Linear Models
Norway
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Thyrotropin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of highly persistent chemicals that are widespread contaminants in wildlife and humans. Exposure to PFAS affects thyroid homeostasis in experimental animals and possibly in humans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of PFASs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) among pregnant women.
A total of 903 pregnant women who enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 2003 to 2004 were studied. Concentrations of thirteen PFASs and TSH were measured in plasma samples collected around the 18th week of gestation. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between PFASs and TSH.
Among the thirteen PFASs, seven were detected in more than 60% of samples and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had the highest concentrations (median, 12.8 ng/mL; inter-quartile range [IQR], 10.1 -16.5 ng/mL). The median TSH concentration was 3.5 (IQR, 2.4 - 4.8) µIU/mL. Pregnant women with higher PFOS had higher TSH levels. After adjustment, with each 1 ng/mL increase in PFOS concentration, there was a 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%, 1.6%) rise in TSH. The odds ratio of having an abnormally high TSH, however, was not increased, and other PFASs were unrelated to TSH.
Our results suggest an association between PFOS and TSH in pregnant women that is small and may be of no clinical significance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24010716 View in PubMed
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Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in neonates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134309
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Merete Eggesbø
Cathrine Thomsen
Jens V Jørgensen
Georg Becher
Jon Øyvind Odland
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. merete.eggesbo@fhi.no
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Milk, human - chemistry
Norway - epidemiology
Thyrotropin - blood - drug effects
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been in widespread use in a vast array of consumer products since the 1970s. The metabolites of some BFRs show a structural similarity to thyroid hormones and experimental animal studies have confirmed that they may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. A major concern has been whether intrauterine exposure to BFRs may disturb thyroid homeostasis since the fetal brain is particularly susceptible to alterations in thyroid hormones. However, few reports on newborns have been published to date.
To evaluate the association between BFRs and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
We studied six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in milk samples from 239 women who were part of the "Norwegian Human Milk Study" (HUMIS), 2003-2006. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were measured in a subset of the women (193 and 46 milk samples, respectively). The milk was sampled at a median of 33 days after delivery. TSH was measured in babies three days after delivery as part of the routine national screening program for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Additional information was obtained through the Medical Birth Registry and questionnaires to the mothers.
The PBDE concentrations in human milk in Norway were comparable to concentrations reported from other European countries and Asia, but not the US and Canada where levels are approximately one order of higher magnitude. We observed no statistically significant associations between BDE-47, 99, 153, 154, 209 and HBCD in human milk and TSH in models adjusted for possible confounders and other environmental toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
We did not observe an association between TSH and exposure to HBCD and PBDEs within the exposure levels observed.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21601188 View in PubMed
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Brominated flame retardants in archived serum samples from Norway: a study on temporal trends and the role of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31584
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2002
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Elsa Lundanes
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@folkehelsa.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Date
Apr-1-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body Burden
Bromine Compounds - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The temporal trends and influence of age and gender on levels of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in human serum have been assessed by analyzing archived samples from Norway. Serum from 40 to 50 year old men collected at six time periods during 1977 to 1999 and from eight groups of differing age and gender sampled in 1998 were pooled into six and eight samples, respectively. The BFRs were isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the serum lipids decomposed bytreatmentwith concentrated sulfuric acid directly on the polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE column, prior to elution of the BFRs. Following diazomethane derivatization, the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture mass spectrometry. Eight BFRs were quantified in the serum samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A). The serum concentrations of all the BFRs, increased during the entire period with the exception of TriBP, and the sum of the six polybrominated diphenyl ethers increased from 0.44 ng/g lipids in 1977 to 3.3 ng/g lipids in 1999. The BFR concentrations in the serum from the different age groups were relatively similar, except for the age group 0-4 years, which had 1.6-3.5 times higher serum concentrations. Women older than 25 years had lower serum concentrations of BFRs compared to the corresponding group of men. No trend related to age or gender, nor time during the period 1977 to 1999 was observed for TriBP. The present study indicates an ongoing increase in human exposure to BFRs, and the current body burden appears to be independent of age, except for infants (0-4 years old), who seem to experience elevated exposure.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 May 1;36(9):188A-192A12026967
PubMed ID
11999045 View in PubMed
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Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139175
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2010
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Line S Haug
Hein Stigum
May Frøshaug
Sharon L Broadwell
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@fhi.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Date
Dec-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - metabolism
Breast Feeding
Caprylates - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Female
Fluorocarbons - metabolism
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated - metabolism
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Milk, Human - metabolism
Mothers
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Abstract
At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p
Notes
Erratum In: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Apr 1;45(7):3192
PubMed ID
21090747 View in PubMed
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Characterisation of human exposure pathways to perfluorinated compounds--comparing exposure estimates with biomarkers of exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136887
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Line S Haug
Sandra Huber
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. line.smastuen.haug@fhi.no
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis - blood - metabolism
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Air Pollution, Indoor - statistics & numerical data
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis - blood - metabolism
Caprylates - analysis - blood - metabolism
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis - blood - metabolism
Humans
Infant
Milk, Human - metabolism
Norway
Abstract
Commercially used per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely detected in humans, but the sources of human exposure are not fully characterized. The objectives of this study were to assess the relative importance of different exposure pathways of PFCs in a group of Norwegians and compare estimated intakes with internal doses obtained through biomonitoring. Individual PFC intakes from multiple exposure sources for a study group of 41 Norwegian women were estimated using measured PFC concentrations in indoor air and house dust as well as information from food frequency questionnaires and PFC concentrations in Norwegian food. Food was generally the major exposure source, representing 67-84% of the median total intake for PFOA and 88-99% for PFOS using different dust ingestion rates and biotransformation factors of 'precursor' compounds. However, on an individual basis, the indoor environment accounted for up to around 50% of the total intake for several women. Significant positive associations between concentrations of PFCs in house dust and the corresponding serum concentrations underline the importance of indoor environment as an exposure pathway for PFCs. For breast-fed infants, breast milk was calculated to be the single most important source to PFCs by far. The estimated intakes were confirmed by comparing serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS calculated using PK models, with the corresponding concentrations measured in serum. Even though food in general is the major source of exposure for PFCs, the indoor environment may be an important contributor to human exposure. This study provides valuable knowledge for risk assessment of PFCs and control strategies.
PubMed ID
21334069 View in PubMed
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Concentrations of brominated and phosphorous flame retardants in Finnish house dust and insights into children's exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299567
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 May; 223:99-107
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2019
Author
Panu Rantakokko
Eva Kumar
Joris Braber
Taya Huang
Hannu Kiviranta
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Environmental Health Unit, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: panu.rantakokko@thl.fi.
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 May; 223:99-107
Date
May-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Finland
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Halogenation
Humans
Organophosphates
Organophosphorus Compounds
Phosphorus
Abstract
Brominated and phosphorous flame retardants (BFRs, PFRs) are added to household and consumer products to reduce their flammability. Some FRs are persistent in the environment and may have adverse health effects. As exposure indoors contributes significantly to total exposure, we wanted to estimate the exposure of children (3 years of age) through dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. We measured 17 BFRs and 10 PFRs in indoor dust, predicted their respective concentrations in the indoor air and assessed children's exposure. Among the BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) had highest median level in the dust (411?ng/g) followed by decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE, 119?ng/g) and bis-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, 106?ng/g). Among the PFRs, trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBOEP) had the highest concentration (11100?ng/g) followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, 1870?ng/g) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, 773?ng/g). FR concentration in air predicted from dust concentrations were within the interquartile range of experimental data for 10/13 of BFRs and 4/8 of PFRs compared. Dust ingestion was the major route of exposure (75-99%) for higher molecular weight BFRs, TBOEP and phenyl based PFRs (73-77%). Inhalation was important for volatile BFRs like pentabromobenzene (PBB 71%) and pentabromotoluene (PBT 52%) and dermal exposure for volatile chlorinated PFRs (TCEP 84%, TCIPP 77%). Margins of Exposure (MoE) were calculated as the ratio of total exposure to oral Reference Dose (RfD). MoEs were lowest for TCEP (220), TBOEP (240) and TCIPP (830), and > 1000 for all other FRs. These MoEs imply no risk for Finnish children by the studied FRs.
PubMed ID
30771653 View in PubMed
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Concentrations of selected chemicals in indoor air from Norwegian homes and schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300015
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-15-2019
Author
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Enrique Cequier
Rune Becher
Anette Kocbach Bølling
Anders R Borgen
Martin Schlabach
Norbert Schmidbauer
Georg Becher
Per Schwarze
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 222, Skøyen, N-0213 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amrit.sakhi@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Date
Jul-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway
Paraffin - analysis
Phthalic Acids
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Both building materials and consumer products have been identified as possible sources for potentially hazardous substances like phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor air. Thus, indoor air has been suggested to contribute significantly to human exposure to these chemicals. There is lack of data on the occurrence of several of the aforementioned chemicals in indoor air. Therefore, indoor air (gas and particulate phase) was collected from 48 households and 6 classrooms in two counties in Norway. In both the households and schools, median levels of low molecular weight phthalates (785?ng/m3), OPFRs (55?ng/m3) and SCCPs (128?ng/m3) were up to 1000 times higher than the levels of PCBs (829?pg/m3) and PBDEs (167?pg/m3). Median concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) and SCCPs were 3-6 times higher in households compared to schools. The levels of OPFRs, PCBs and PBDEs were similar in households and schools. In univariate analysis, the indoor concentrations of different environmental chemicals were significantly affected by location of households (OPFRs), airing of living room (some PCBs and PBDEs), presence of upholstered chair/couch (OPFRs), pet animal hold (some PBDEs) and presence of electrical heaters (selected PCBs and PBDEs). Significant correlations were also detected for the total size of households with OPFRs, frequency of vacuuming the living room with selected PCBs and PBDEs, frequency of washing the living room with selected PCBs and the total number of TVs in the households with selected phthalates and SCCPs. Finally, intake estimates indicated that indoor air contributed more or equally to low molecular weight phthalates and SCCPs exposure compared to food consumption, whereas the contribution from indoor air was smaller than the dietary intake for the other groups of chemicals.
PubMed ID
31003082 View in PubMed
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Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
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Exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in Norwegian mothers and their children: Diurnal variability in concentrations of their biomarkers and associations with food consumption.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature293526
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 15; 590-591:655-662
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-15-2017
Author
Enrique Cequier
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Line Småstuen Haug
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: enrique.cequier@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 15; 590-591:655-662
Date
Jul-15-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Biomarkers - urine
Child
Circadian Rhythm
Dietary Exposure - analysis
Female
Fruit
Humans
Mothers
Norway
Organophosphorus Compounds - analysis
Pesticides - analysis
Phosphates - urine
Abstract
Several studies have suggested that exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is detrimental for health, and in particular for children where moderate doses may have a negative impact on the neurodevelopment. This study surveys levels of the 6 non-specific urinary metabolites (dialkyl phosphates (DAPs)) of OP pesticides in Norwegian mothers (n=48) and their children (n=54), and examines the diurnal variation in concentrations as well as associations with consumption of specific food products. The highest median concentration measured in urine was found for dimethyl thiophosphate (5.3 and 5.5ng/mLSG; specific gravity corrected) for both children and mothers, respectively, followed by diethyl phosphate (3.8 and 5.3ng/mLSG, respectively). The intra-class correlation coefficients of DAPs among mothers were moderate (0.49-0.68), and consumption of fruit explained between 8% and 55% of the variations in the mothers' and their children's urinary DAP concentrations.
PubMed ID
28284640 View in PubMed
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Investigation on per- and polyfluorinated compounds in paired samples of house dust and indoor air from Norwegian homes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136069
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):7991-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2011
Author
Line S Haug
Sandra Huber
Martin Schlabach
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health , P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. line.smastuen.haug@fhi.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 1;45(19):7991-8
Date
Oct-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Family Characteristics
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Humans
Norway
Statistics, nonparametric
Time Factors
Abstract
Per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been found to be ubiquitously distributed in human populations, however the sources of human exposure are not fully characterized. A wide range of PFCs were determined in paired samples of indoor air and dust from 41 Norwegian households. Up to 18 ionic and 9 neutral PFCs were detected. The concentrations found are comparable to or lower than what has previously been reported in North America, Europe, and Asia. The highest median concentrations in dust were observed for perfluorohexanoic acid (28 ng/g), perfluorononanoic acid (23 ng/g), perfluorododecanoic acid (19 ng/g), and perfluorooctanoic acid (18 ng/g). However, perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) were also frequently detected. Fluortelomer alcohols were the most prominent compounds found in indoor air, with median concentrations for 8:2 fluortelomer alcohol, 10:2 fluortelomer alcohol, and 6:2 fluortelomer alcohol of 5173, 2822, and 933 pg/m(3) air, respectively. All perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/FOSEs) were detected in more than 40% of the air samples. For the first time, significant positive correlations (p
PubMed ID
21417377 View in PubMed
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Levels in food and beverages and daily intake of perfluorinated compounds in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96477
Source
Chemosphere. 2010 Jul 2;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2-2010
Author
Line Småstuen Haug
Samira Salihovic
Ingrid Ericson Jogsten
Cathrine Thomsen
Bert van Bavel
Gunilla Lindström
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Chemosphere. 2010 Jul 2;
Date
Jul-2-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been determined in 21 samples of selected food and beverages such as meat, fish, bread, vegetables, milk, drinking water and tea from the Norwegian marked. Up to 12 different PFCs were detected in the samples. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were found in concentrations similar to or lower than what has been observed in other studies world-wide. Differences in the relative proportion of PFOA and PFOS between samples of animal origin and samples of non-animal origin were observed and support findings that PFOS has a higher bioaccumulation potential in animals than PFOA. Based on these 21 measurements and consumption data for the general Norwegian population, a rough estimate of the total dietary intake of PFCs was found to be around 100ngd(-1). PFOA and PFOS contributed to about 50% of the total intake. When dividing the population in gender and age groups, estimated intakes were decreasing with increasing age and were higher in males than females. The estimated intakes of PFOS and PFOA in the present study are lower than what has been reported in studies from Spain, Germany, United Kingdom, Canada and Japan. This study illustrates that by improving the analytical methods for determination of PFC in food samples, a broad range of compounds can be detected, which is important when assessing dietary exposure.
PubMed ID
20599247 View in PubMed
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Levels, variability and determinants of environmental phenols in pairs of Norwegian mothers and children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297509
Source
Environ Int. 2018 05; 114:242-251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2018
Author
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Eleni Papadopoulou
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Division of Infection Control, Environment and Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amritkaur.sakhi@fhi.no.
Source
Environ Int. 2018 05; 114:242-251
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Child
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Humans
Mothers
Norway
Phenols - urine
Abstract
Exposure to environmental phenols including parabens, bisphenols (BPs), oxybenzone/benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and triclosan (TCS) is ubiquitous. Due to evidence of their estrogenic activity, they have been considered as chemicals of concern. The exposure of the Norwegian population to these compounds is presently unknown.
To measure urinary levels of twelve different environmental phenols including four emerging bisphenols: S, F, B and AF (abbreviated as BPS, BPF, BPB and BPAF, respectively) in a healthy Norwegian population. We have calculated short-term variability, estimated daily intakes and investigated important determinants of exposure.
Urine samples were collected from mothers (n?=?48) and their children (n?=?56) during spring/summer 2012 in two counties in Norway.
Six environmental phenols namely methyl, ethyl and propyl paraben, BPA, BP-3 and TCS were detected in almost 100% of the urine samples. Among the emerging bisphenols, BPS was detected most frequently in the urine samples (42-48%) followed by BPF (4-15%). Parabens were positively and significantly correlated to each other in both mothers and children. Levels of parabens and BP-3 were higher in mothers compared to children. All mothers and children had lower estimated daily intakes (back calculated from the urinary concentrations) of parabens and BPA than the respective acceptable and tolerable daily intakes (ADIs and TDIs) established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Observed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) indicated moderate to high reliability of spot urine measurements for all the environmental phenols (ICCs: 0.70-0.97). Use of hair products, deodorants, face and hand creams were significantly associated with higher urinary levels of parabens.
Occurrence of environmental phenols in healthy Norwegian women and children is abundant. Among emerging bisphenols, there is widespread exposure to BPS. A single spot urine sample can be used for estimating short-term exposures of environmental phenols. Urinary levels of parabens were associated with use of PCPs.
PubMed ID
29524920 View in PubMed
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Occurrence of a broad range of legacy and emerging flame retardants in indoor environments in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257771
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 17;48(12):6827-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-17-2014
Author
Enrique Cequier
Alin C Ionas
Adrian Covaci
Rosa Maria Marcé
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health , P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 17;48(12):6827-35
Date
Jun-17-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air - analysis
Air Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Child
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Floors and Floorcoverings
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - analysis - chemistry
Male
Norway
Organophosphates - analysis - chemistry
Abstract
This study investigates the occurrence of 37 organohalogen and organophosphate flame retardants (FRs) from Norwegian households (n = 48) and classrooms from two primary schools (n = 6). Around 80% of the targeted FRs were detected in air and dust from the sampling sites. The comparison of settled dust with floor dust revealed no statistical differences between median concentrations of the FRs (n = 12). Decabromodiphenyl ether and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate showed the highest median floor dust concentrations in both environments. In the air samples, the highest concentrations were observed for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate. Remarkably, the emerging FR, 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane, abbreviated as TBECH or DBE-DBCH, showed the highest indoor air concentrations reported in the literature (households, 77.9 pg/m(3) and schools, 46.6 pg/m(3)). Good Spearman correlations between the FR concentrations in dust and air (0.36
PubMed ID
24846325 View in PubMed
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Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129677
Source
Epidemiology. 2012 Mar;23(2):257-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Kristina W Whitworth
Line S Haug
Donna D Baird
Georg Becher
Jane A Hoppin
Rolv Skjaerven
Cathrine Thomsen
Merete Eggesbo
Gregory Travlos
Ralph Wilson
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Durham, NC 27709, USA. whitworthkw@niehs.nih.gov
Source
Epidemiology. 2012 Mar;23(2):257-63
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - adverse effects - blood
Body Burden
Caprylates - adverse effects - blood
Case-Control Studies
Female
Fertility - drug effects
Fluorocarbons - adverse effects - blood
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Humans
Logistic Models
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Parity
Pregnancy - drug effects
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous pollutants; epidemiologic data suggest they may be associated with adverse health outcomes, including subfecundity. We examined subfecundity in relation to 2 perfluorinated compounds-perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA).
This case-control analysis included 910 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 and 2004. Around gestational week 17, women reported their time to pregnancy and provided blood samples. Cases consisted of 416 women with a time to pregnancy greater than 12 months, considered subfecund. Plasma concentrations of perfluorinated compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each pollutant quartile using logistic regression. Estimates were further stratified by parity.
The median plasma concentration of PFOS was 13.0 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] = 10.3-16.6 ng/mL) and of PFOA was 2.2 ng/mL (IQR = 1.7-3.0 ng/mL). The relative odds of subfecundity among parous women was 2.1 (95% CI = 1.2-3.8) for the highest PFOS quartile and 2.1 (1.0-4.0) for the highest PFOA quartile. Among nulliparous women, the respective relative odds were 0.7 (0.4-1.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.2).
Previous studies suggest that the body burden of perfluorinated compounds decreases during pregnancy and lactation through transfer to the fetus and to breast milk. Afterward, the body burden may increase again. Among parous women, increased body burden may be due to a long interpregnancy interval rather than the cause of a long time to pregnancy. Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22081060 View in PubMed
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Perfluorinated compounds in relation to birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125081
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun 15;175(12):1209-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2012
Author
Kristina W Whitworth
Line S Haug
Donna D Baird
Georg Becher
Jane A Hoppin
Rolv Skjaerven
Cathrine Thomsen
Merete Eggesbo
Gregory Travlos
Ralph Wilson
Lea A Cupul-Uicab
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Durham, North Carolina, USA. whitworthkw@niehs.nih.gov
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun 15;175(12):1209-16
Date
Jun-15-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - toxicity
Birth Weight - drug effects
Caprylates - blood - toxicity
Diet Surveys
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Fetal Macrosomia - chemically induced
Fluorocarbons - blood - toxicity
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Norway
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - chemically induced
Prospective Studies
Seafood
Single-Blind Method
Abstract
Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid are perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) widely distributed in the environment. Previous studies of PFCs and birth weight are equivocal. The authors examined this association in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), using data from 901 women enrolled from 2003 to 2004 and selected for a prior case-based study of PFCs and subfecundity. Maternal plasma samples were obtained around 17 weeks of gestation. Outcomes included birth weight z scores, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age. The adjusted birth weight z scores were slightly lower among infants born to mothers in the highest quartiles of PFCs compared with infants born to mothers in the lowest quartiles: for perfluorooctane sulfonate, ß = -0.18 (95% confidence interval: -0.41, 0.05) and, for perfluorooctanoic acid, ß = -0.21 (95% confidence interval: -0.45, 0.04). No clear evidence of an association with small for gestational age or large for gestational age was observed. Perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid were each associated with decreased adjusted odds of preterm birth, although the cell counts were small. Whether some of the associations suggested by these findings may be due to a noncausal pharmacokinetic mechanism remains unclear.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22517810 View in PubMed
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Perfluoroalkyl substances and lipid concentrations in plasma during pregnancy among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106340
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Jan;62:104-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
Anne P Starling
Stephanie M Engel
Kristina W Whitworth
David B Richardson
Alison M Stuebe
Julie L Daniels
Line Småstuen Haug
Merete Eggesbø
Georg Becher
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Cathrine Thomsen
Ralph E Wilson
Gregory S Travlos
Jane A Hoppin
Donna D Baird
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Jan;62:104-12
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Cholesterol - blood
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Linear Models
Lipids - blood
Mothers
Norway
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread and persistent environmental pollutants. Previous studies, primarily among non-pregnant individuals, suggest positive associations between PFAS levels and certain blood lipids. If there is a causal link between PFAS concentrations and elevated lipids during pregnancy, this may suggest a mechanism by which PFAS exposure leads to certain adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia.
This cross-sectional analysis included 891 pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study in 2003-2004. Non-fasting plasma samples were obtained at mid-pregnancy and analyzed for nineteen PFASs. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in plasma. Linear regression was used to quantify associations between each PFAS exposure and each lipid outcome. A multiple PFAS model was also fitted.
Seven PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration was associated with total cholesterol, which increased 4.2mg/dL per inter-quartile shift (95% CI=0.8, 7.7) in adjusted models. Five of the seven PFASs studied were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and all seven had elevated HDL associated with the highest quartile of exposure. Perfluoroundecanoic acid showed the strongest association with HDL: HDL increased 3.7 mg/dL per inter-quartile shift (95% CI=2.5, 4.9).
Plasma concentrations of PFASs were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and PFOS was positively associated with total cholesterol in this sample of pregnant Norwegian women. While elevated HDL is not an adverse outcome per se, elevated total cholesterol associated with PFASs during pregnancy could be of concern if causal.
PubMed ID
24189199 View in PubMed
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Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104930
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr 1;179(7):824-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2014
Author
Anne P Starling
Stephanie M Engel
David B Richardson
Donna D Baird
Line S Haug
Alison M Stuebe
Kari Klungsøyr
Quaker Harmon
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Merete Eggesbø
Jane A Hoppin
Gregory S Travlos
Ralph E Wilson
Lill I Trogstad
Per Magnus
Matthew P Longnecker
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Apr 1;179(7):824-33
Date
Apr-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Caprylates - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - blood
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Norway
Parity
Pre-Eclampsia - blood - etiology
Pregnancy
Proportional Hazards Models
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.
PubMed ID
24557813 View in PubMed
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Phthalate metabolites in Norwegian mothers and children: Levels, diurnal variation and use of personal care products.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294217
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 599-600:1984-1992
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-01-2017
Author
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amrit.sakhi@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 01; 599-600:1984-1992
Date
Dec-01-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Circadian Rhythm
Cosmetics - analysis
Diethylhexyl Phthalate
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mothers
Norway
Phthalic Acids - metabolism - urine
Abstract
Exposure to phthalates has been associated with reproductive and developmental toxicity. Data on levels of these compounds in the Norwegian population is limited. In this study, urine samples were collected from 48 mothers and their children in two counties in Norway. Eleven different phthalate metabolites originating from six commonly used phthalates in consumer products were determined. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites were significantly higher in children compared to mothers except for mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP). The mothers provided several urine samples during 24hours (h) and diurnal variation showed that the concentrations in the morning urine samples (24-8h) were significantly higher than at other time-periods for most of the phthalate metabolites. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for 24-hour time-period were in the range of 0.49-0.81. These moderate to high ICCs indicate that one spot urine sample can be used to estimate the exposure to phthalates. Since a significant effect of time of day was observed, it is still advisable to standardize the collection time point to reduce the variation. For the mothers, the use of personal care products (PCPs) were less associated with morning urine samples than early day (8-12h) and evening (16-24h) urine samples. The use of perfume and hair products were positively associated with the urinary concentrations of low molecular weight phthalates. Use of shower soap and shampoo were positively associated with urinary concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. For children, face cream use was positively associated with phthalate metabolites in the morning samples, and hand soap use was negatively associated with concentration of urinary DEHP metabolites in afternoon/evening samples. Since different PCPs were associated with the urinary phthalate metabolites in different time-periods during a day, more than one spot urine sample might be required to study associations between urinary phthalate metabolites and the use of PCPs.
PubMed ID
28558421 View in PubMed
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Placental transfer of perfluorinated compounds is selective--a Norwegian Mother and Child sub-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131101
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012 Feb;215(2):216-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Kristine Bjerve Gützkow
Line Småstuen Haug
Cathrine Thomsen
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Georg Becher
Gunnar Brunborg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Chemical Toxicology, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. kristine.bjerve.gutzkow@fhi.no
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012 Feb;215(2):216-9
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caprylates - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Mothers
Norway
Pregnancy
Registries
Umbilical Cord
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) comprise a large group of man-made fluorinated chemicals used in a number of consumer products and industrial applications. PFCs have shown to be persistent, bio-accumulative and widespread in the environment. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity as well as hormonal effects. We investigated prenatal exposure to several PFCs and detected up to seven different PFCs in 123 paired samples of human maternal and cord blood, from a subcohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The maternal and foetal levels were significantly correlated for all PFCs tested with median PFC concentrations in cord blood ranging between 30 and 79% of the maternal concentrations, demonstrating placental passage. The composition of the different PFCs varied between cord and maternal blood, with a higher proportion of shorter chained PFCs together with a higher amount of the branched isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in cord blood. Additionally, the sulfonate group seems to impede transfer efficiency. This indicates a selective placental passage of the different PFCs and hence a specific foetal exposure.
PubMed ID
21937271 View in PubMed
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100601
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010 Jul;213(4):233-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Marie Frederiksen
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Katrin Vorkamp
Marianne Thomsen
Georg Becher
Lisbeth E Knudsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oester Farimagsgade 5, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010 Jul;213(4):233-42
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dust
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - blood
Humans
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Pregnancy
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in particular the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been used in consumer products for many years to increase fire resistance. Recently, developmental neurotoxicity at very low levels has increased the concern about these compounds. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the maternal and fetal exposure to PBDEs on the basis of maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples and to study the extent of placental transfer for different PBDE congeners. The findings were also compared with previously observed PBDE levels and patterns determined in placental tissue from the same individuals, and the relationship with the external exposure from house dust from the participants' homes was explored. Samples of maternal and umbilical cord plasma from a cohort of 51 pregnant women from the Copenhagen area were collected. Paired maternal and umbilical cord plasma were analysed for BDE-28, 37, 47, 85, 99, 100, 119, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using automated SPE extraction and GC-HRMS for the tri- to hepta-BDEs and GC-LRMS (ECNI) for BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples. The sum of tri- to hexa-BDEs (SigmaPBDE) in maternal plasma varied between 640 and 51,946 pg/g lipid weight (lw) with a median level of 1765 pg/g lw. In the umbilical cord samples SigmaPBDE varied between 213 and 54,346 pg/g lw with a median of 958 pg/g lw. The levels observed in fetal and maternal plasma were highly correlated, but the placental transport of PBDE congeners was found to decrease with increasing diphenyl ether bromination. Maternal concentrations were significantly correlated (p
PubMed ID
20471317 View in PubMed
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