The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
The article contains results concerning spectral analysis of biologic materials (blood and hair) for heavy metals content. These results helped to reveal health risk factors for workers engaged into chromium ores extraction and for nearby residents.
The preservation of human health in polar and circumpolar regions depends mainly on the strategy for future development of these regions. The consequences of human intervention into northern ecology are irreversible, as in the case of greenhouse effect, industrial and atomic pollutions of polar nature, tundra devastation, destruction of northern flora and fauna, etc. The ongoing creation of large-scale industrial population centers in the North due to newcomers is to be stopped. Polar regions are to be used for biospheric reservation and tourist sanitary zones, to preserve specific flora and fauna, to provide the rhythms and customs necessary to survive in extreme climatic and geophysical conditions of high latitudes. The programme for securing man's survival in circumpolar regions should comprise several stages of practical measures to provide necessary resources and to combine international efforts. The preservation of human health should be based on the understanding of the relationship between the health status and biospheric processes and the assessment of the role of human intervention into polar ecology. A programme facilitating the preservation of human health and survival in the North and in the Antarctic should be launched.
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
The article considers the influence of geographic and climatic conditions of the Arctic on a functional condition of aviation professionals. Marked possible effects of aggressive environmental factors on the health of the personnel. Studied the dynamics of the recovery functions of the cardio-respiratory system and of the indicators of general clinical blood test in a period of adaptation to the conditions of the middle latitudes after the return of the personnel from the Arctic. Identified the main activities to preserve the health of aviation specialists, depending on the length of stay in the Arctic region and age.
Anthropogenic acute chemical exposures have become an important socioeconomic and environmental factor on the national, regional and global level. They present an actual or potential danger to vital activity and health of large population groups and normal operation of the Biosphere and natural components. Hence a problem of prevention and elimination of acute technogenic exposures hazardous for human health has expanded beyond the medical competence and grown to a major environmental issue.
Acute intestinal infections were clinically and epidemiologically studied in children residing in the towns with different quantitative and qualitative composition of ambient air pollutants and in the districts of a town, which differ in the level of technogenic ambient air pollution. Six hundred and eighty patients with different types of shigellosis and 421 patients with salmonellosis admitted to the infection hospitals of the towns of Angarsk (an intensively polluted locality) and Irkutsk (a better ecological area) were examined in 1995 to 2000. The technogenic ambient air pollution was found to exert a noticeable impact on the incidence with S. sonnei dysentery. In poor environmental areas, all the infections under study are characterized by a great burden, duration, more severe clinical symptoms, and poor laboratory changes in the presence of a decreased responsiveness.
Physical and sexual developments were determined in 285 schoolchildren aged 12 to 17 years from the town of Karabash, an area of ecological ill-being in the environmental levels of heavy metal salts. The atmospheric air pollution was in parallel monitored at route observational stations. It was found that 39% of the schoolchildren had disharmonic physical development; of them a fourth had lower body weight and decreased chest circumference with normal growth indices. The girls were observed to have a high frequency of a microsomatotype of harmonic physical development and disharmonic physical development mainly at the expense of underweight (52.9% of all the disharmonically developed girls) as compared with the boys. There was a preponderance of female adolescents with sexual retardation. In the population of Karabash girls, the mean age at menarche was 12 years and 9 months +/- 1.5 months.
This is a continuation of a series of papers devoted to studying the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in migrants from isolated highland populations of Dagestan to new ecological conditions (lowlands). This paper describes the main results of studying the relationship between levels of inbreeding, homozygosity, and physiological sensitivity. Earlier, we found that decreased resistance to changing environmental factors in migrants to lowlands from the Dagestan highlands was connected with their high level of homozygosity. The data obtained allow us to assume that missing links in this chain of events include, in addition to parameters of inbreeding level, parameters of neurophysiological sensitivity, including absolute and differential sensitivity of various analyzers sensory systems, which are from 65 to 75% genetically determined. Migrants from highland auls (villages) to lowlands exhibited a decreased rate of sensomotor reactions in response to light and sound of various intensities, as well as decreased differential color sensitivity in the long-, medium-, and short-wave ranges of the spectrum, compared to highlanders. The results suggest the selective mortality of migrants from highlands to lowlands during adaptation to new conditions. Those migrants who dies were characterized by specific gene complexes that determined the characteristic features of expression of a number of interrelated polymorphic and quantitative traits. Thus, the high levels of homozygosity and inbreeding were accompanied by a greater neurophysiological sensitivity and lower indices of body weight and height.
A genetic and epidemiological sample of 20-59-year-old males, Moscow residents (n = 3141), was surveyed. The authors obtained data on the prevalence of coronary heart disease from epidemiological criteria and genealogical data on cardiovascular diseases by the "Familial History" questionnaire in the first-degree relatives who were interviewed by using a genetic and mathematical monolocus diallelic model. It was found that out of the 10 possible variants under study a genetic and environmental variant with independent penetrance of 3 genotypes adequately describes the prevalence of coronary heart disease in the families and in the population. This suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an influence on the prevalence of coronary heart disease and that there is a possible genetic polymorphism of the disease.
In the paper there are presented data on the hygienic evaluation of the air pollution in the city of Kazan as a risk factor for the public health. The largest contribution to the air pollution in the city of Kazan was shown to be endowed by vehicles. The proportion of vehicle emissions in total emissions in the city in 2012 amounted to 71.4%. According to monitoring data the average annual concentrations of pollutant substances in 2012 exceeded the hygienic standards for benzo (a) pyrene--in 2.5 times, soot--2.2 times, nitrogen dioxide--1.8 times, formaldehyde--1.7 times. The risk of inhalation exposure is assessed as high, the greatest contribution to the risk is contributed by suspended matter PM2.5, soot and nitrogen dioxide.
State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University" of the Ministry of Health care and Social Development, Moscow, Russian Federation. The assessment of health risks from air pollution with emissions from industrial facilities, without the average annual background of air pollution does not meet sanitary legislation. However Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring issues official certificates for a limited number of areas covered by the observations of the full program on the stationary points. Questions of accounting average background air pollution in the evaluation of health risks from exposure to emissions from industrial facilities are considered.