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A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106015
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Finn Nilson
Syed Moniruzzaman
Ragnar Andersson
Author Affiliation
Division of Risk Management, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Altitude
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sunlight
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Research has shown that hip fracture risk increases with latitude; hypothetically due to reduced sunlight exposure and its effect on bone quality. Sweden, with large differences in latitude and UV radiation, is ideal to study in order to analyse the association between latitude and UV radiation on age- and sex-specific hip fracture rates among elderly.
Aggregated (2006-2008) age- and sex-specific hip fracture data was obtained for each Swedish municipality as well as the municipality's latitudinal coordinates and aggregated (2006-2008) UV radiation levels. Pearson correlations were calculated between hip fracture incidence rates, latitude and UV radiation. Independent t tests were calculated on tertile-categorized latitudinal data in order to investigate the difference in hip fracture risk between these categories.
Statistically significant correlations were seen in all groups between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation. The independent t tests showed that this correlation was mainly due to high incidence rates in high latitude municipalities.
Statistically significant correlations are seen between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation in Sweden and the northern parts of Sweden have an increased risk of hip fractures compared to the middle and southern parts. To our knowledge this is the first study using a national discharge register that shows this relationship and provides a starting point for further research to investigate why populations in northern Sweden have a higher risk of hip fractures compared to other Swedish regions.
PubMed ID
24265166 View in PubMed
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Common etiological factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior: a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258813
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Therese Ljung
Qi Chen
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The prevention of suicidal behavior is one of the most important tasks for mental health clinicians. Although a few studies have indicated an increased risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the development of more effective ways of identifying and modifying the risk is hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for this association.
To explore whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior share genetic and environmental risk factors.
Matched cohort design across different levels of family relatedness recorded from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. We identified 51?707 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (through patient and prescribed drug registers) in Sweden and their relatives by linking longitudinal population-based registers. Control participants were matched 1:5 on sex and birth year.
Any record of suicide attempt or completed suicide defined by discharge diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases.
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands) had increased risks of attempted and completed suicide, even after adjusting for comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.62 [95% CI, 3.29-3.98] and 5.91 [95% CI, 2.45-14.27], respectively). The highest familial risk was observed among first-degree relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?2.42 [95% CI, 2.36-2.49] among parents of probands with ADHD and OR?=?2.28 [95% CI, 2.17-2.40] among full siblings of probands with ADHD; completed suicide: OR?=?2.24 [95% CI, 2.06-2.43] and OR?=?2.23 [1.83-2.73], respectively), whereas the risk was considerably lower among more genetically distant relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?1.59 [95% CI, 1.47-1.73] among maternal half siblings, OR?=?1.57 [95% CI, 1.45-1.70] among paternal half siblings, and OR?=?1.39 [95% CI, 1.35-1.43] among cousins; completed suicide: OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.08-2.10], OR?=?2.02 [95% CI, 1.47-2.79], and OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). These familial aggregation patterns remained similar across sex, after excluding relatives with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and probands with suicidal behavior, and after excluding probands and relatives with severe comorbid disorders.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with an increased risk of both attempted and completed suicide. The pattern of familial risks across different levels of relatedness suggests that shared genetic factors are important for this association. This is an important first step toward identifying the underlying mechanisms for the risk of suicidal behavior in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suggests that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their family members are important targets for suicide prevention and treatment.
PubMed ID
24964928 View in PubMed
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Celiac disease risk varies between birth cohorts, generating hypotheses about causality: evidence from 36 years of population-based follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258907
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Fredinah Namatovu
Olof Sandström
Cecilia Olsson
Marie Lindkvist
Anneli Ivarsson
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Causality
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a major public health problem with estimated 1-3% prevalence in the general population. In recent years an increase in CD prevalence has been reported both in Sweden and worldwide. This study aimed at examining the annual incidence rate of biopsy-proven celiac disease among children in Sweden over a 36-year period, to assess variations by age, sex and birth cohort, and to assess the clinical impact of these changes.
The National Swedish Childhood CD Register was used to identify 9107 children aged 0-14.9 years who were diagnosed with CD during the period 1973 to 2009. From 1973 to 1990 the register covered 15% of the nation, this increased to 40% during 1991-1997; a full national coverage was obtained from 1998 onwards. Estimations for the annual incidence rate, cumulative incidence and clinical impact by age groups, calendar month and birth cohorts were made.
CD incidence is continuing to increase in the child population aged 2-14.9 years. A continued variation in CD incidence was observed in children aged 0-1.9 years, characterized by a marked decrease in most recent years. The median age at diagnosis has increased from 1.0 year in the 1970s to 6.8 years in 2009. The average number of new cases has risen from ~200 during 1973-1983 to ~600 during 2004-2009. In the birth cohorts of 2000-2002 the cumulative incidence even exceeded that of the epidemic cohorts at comparable ages. The highest cumulative incidence was observed in the birth cohorts of 1985-1995 and 2000-2002.
CD risk varies between birth cohorts, suggesting cyclic environmental and/or lifestyle risk factors in CD etiology. More research on underlying risk factors is required in order to move forward with preventive strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24693975 View in PubMed
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Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258924
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Micael Widerström
Caroline Schönning
Mikael Lilja
Marianne Lebbad
Thomas Ljung
Görel Allestam
Martin Ferm
Britta Björkholm
Anette Hansen
Jari Hiltula
Jonas Långmark
Margareta Löfdahl
Maria Omberg
Christina Reuterwall
Eva Samuelsson
Katarina Widgren
Anders Wallensten
Johan Lindh
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Cryptosporidium - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden - epidemiology
Water
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - methods
Water supply
Young Adult
Abstract
In November 2010, ˜27,000 (˜45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24655474 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in health-related quality of life and the value of different factors in predicting health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259017
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2014
Author
Charlotte Chruzander
Charlotte Ytterberg
Kristina Gottberg
Ulrika Einarsson
Lotta Widén Holmqvist
Sverker Johansson
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Date
Apr-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Population Surveillance - methods
Predictive value of tests
Quality of Life - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is negatively affected compared to that of the general population. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms have been shown to predict worse HRQL in a short-term perspective. Considering the progressive nature of MS, it is essential to include the long-term (10 years) perspective of HRQL in PwMS.
The aim of this 10-year follow-up of a population-based sample of PwMS was to explore changes in and the predictive value of personal factors, degree of MS disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment on HRQL.
Data on personal and disease-specific factors, mood, and cognitive function was collected. Data on HRQL was collected, seen as a health profile with the Sickness Impact Profile, as a health index with the EuroQol 5D and as a single global question with the EQ Visual Analog Scale.
HRQL worsened over 10 years according to the health profile (Sickness Impact Profile Total and its physical dimension) and according to the health index. The effect sizes were small. HRQL assessed with the single global question remained unchanged. Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment predicted worse HRQL.
In a 10-year perspective the HRQL with regard to its physical domain or when seen as a total health profile tends to get worse in PwMS. Yet, HRQL with regard to its psychosocial domain and with regard to PwMS' self-rated health, remains stable. There is a potential for health-care professionals to decrease the impact of modifiable factors on HRQL in PwMS by identifying those with depressive symptoms and/or cognitive impairment and initiating evidence-based treatment as well as meeting the need for environmental facilitators aiming at reducing disability.
PubMed ID
24492009 View in PubMed
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Outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and dogs in Swedish small animal hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259045
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;46(4):310-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Ulrika Grönlund Andersson
Anders Wallensten
Sara Hæggman
Christina Greko
Göran Hedin
Ingegerd Hökeberg
Fredrik Lindström
Barbro Olsson-Liljequist
Jan Smedjegård
Tomas Söderblom
Ulrika Windahl
Johan Struwe
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;46(4):310-4
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Technicians
Animals
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data - veterinary
Dog Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Dogs
Hospitals, Animal
Humans
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - isolation & purification
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Sweden - epidemiology
Zoonoses - epidemiology - microbiology
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in a dog for the first time in Sweden in 2006. Between October 2006 and May 2007, MRSA was diagnosed in 7 more dogs that had been treated in 3 different small animal hospitals, located 150-200 km apart, in different counties of Sweden. Screening of the animal hospital staff and environment in these small animal hospitals showed 20 of 152 staff to be positive for MRSA, with rates between 2% and 18% in the different hospitals, while all 128 environmental samples were negative. All MRSA isolates from dogs and staff belonged to spa type t032, were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-negative, and had indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, except for 2 isolates with closely related patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first report of multiple outbreaks of MRSA in dogs caused by the same strain within a short time frame, and appearing in a country with low prevalence of MRSA in both humans and dogs. This highlights the importance of infection control programs in animal hospitals and in animal health care. Awareness of MRSA as an occupational risk for veterinary personnel is essential.
PubMed ID
24450843 View in PubMed
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Modest familial risks for multiple sclerosis: a registry-based study of the population of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105227
Source
Brain. 2014 Mar;137(Pt 3):770-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Helga Westerlind
Ryan Ramanujam
Daniel Uvehag
Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Marcus Boman
Matteo Bottai
Paul Lichtenstein
Jan Hillert
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
Source
Brain. 2014 Mar;137(Pt 3):770-8
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Aged
Child
Diseases in Twins
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology - genetics
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology - genetics
Registries
Risk
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Data on familial recurrence rates of complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis give important hints to aetiological factors such as the importance of genes and environment. By linking national registries, we sought to avoid common limitations of clinic-based studies such as low numbers, poor representation of the population and selection bias. Through the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry and a nationwide hospital registry, a total of 28 396 patients with multiple sclerosis were identified. We used the national Multi-Generation Registry to identify first and second degree relatives as well as cousins, and the Swedish Twin Registry to identify twins of patients with multiple sclerosis. Crude and age corrected familial risks were estimated for cases and found to be in the same range as previously published figures. Matched population-based controls were used to calculate relative risks, revealing lower estimates of familial multiple sclerosis risks than previously reported, with a sibling recurrence risk (?s = 7.1; 95% confidence interval: 6.42-7.86). Surprisingly, despite a well-established lower prevalence of multiple sclerosis amongst males, the relative risks were equal among maternal and paternal relations. A previously reported increased risk in maternal relations could thus not be replicated. An observed higher transmission rate from fathers to sons compared with mothers to sons suggested a higher transmission to offspring from the less prevalent sex; therefore, presence of the so-called 'Carter effect' could not be excluded. We estimated the heritability of multiple sclerosis using 74 757 twin pairs with known zygosity, of which 315 were affected with multiple sclerosis, and added information from 2.5 million sibling pairs to increase power. The heritability was estimated to be 0.64 (0.36-0.76), whereas the shared environmental component was estimated to be 0.01 (0.00-0.18). In summary, whereas multiple sclerosis is to a great extent an inherited trait, the familial relative risks may be lower than usually reported.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24441172 View in PubMed
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Smoking cessation and the risk of cataract: a prospective cohort study of cataract extraction among men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105430
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):253-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Birgitta Ejdervik Lindblad
Niclas Håkansson
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden2School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden3Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):253-7
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cataract - epidemiology - etiology
Cataract Extraction - statistics & numerical data
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Smoking Cessation - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Smoking is a risk factor for cataract development, but the effect of smoking cessation on the risk of cataract is uncertain.
To examine the association between smoking cessation and the risk of cataract extraction.
A total of 44,371 men, participating in the Cohort of Swedish Men, aged 45 to 79 years, who in 1997 completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking habits and lifestyle factors. The men were followed up from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2009. The cohort was matched with the Swedish National Day-Surgery Register and local registers of cataract extraction in the study area.
Incident cases of age-related cataract extraction.
During 12 years of follow-up, we identified 5713 incident cases of age-related cataract extraction. Smoking intensity and cumulative dose of smoking were associated with an increased risk of cataract extraction (P for trend
PubMed ID
24385206 View in PubMed
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Total antioxidant capacity of the diet and risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort of women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105487
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):247-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Susanne Rautiainen
Birgitta Ejdervik Lindblad
Ralf Morgenstern
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):247-52
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Cataract - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cataract Extraction - statistics & numerical data
Diet
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Women's health
Abstract
To our knowledge, no previous epidemiologic study has investigated the association between all antioxidants in the diet and age-related cataract. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concept aims to measure the capacity from all antioxidants in the diet by also taking synergistic effects into account.
To investigate the association between the TAC of the diet and the incidence of age-related cataract in a population-based prospective cohort of middle-aged and elderly women.
Questionnaire-based nutrition survey within the prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort study, which included 30,607 women (aged 49-83 years) who were observed for age-related cataract incidence for a mean of 7.7 years.
The TAC of the diet was estimated using a database of foods analyzed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay.
Information on incident age-related cataract diagnosis and extraction was collected through linkage to registers in the study area.
There were 4309 incident cases of age-related cataracts during the mean 7.7 years of follow-up (234,371 person-years). The multivariable rate ratio in the highest quintile of the TAC of the diet compared with the lowest was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96; P for trend =?.03). The main contributors to dietary TAC in the study population were fruit and vegetables (44.3%), whole grains (17.0%), and coffee (15.1%).
Dietary TAC was inversely associated with the risk of age-related cataract. Future studies examining all antioxidants in the diet in relation to age-related cataract are needed to confirm or refute our findings.
PubMed ID
24370844 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does mortality risk of cigarette smoking depend on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants? Prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259341
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e95937
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Duk-Hee Lee
Lars Lind
David R Jacobs
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
P Monica Lind
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e95937
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Dioxins - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - blood
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Pesticides - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects - blood - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Tobacco - adverse effects
Abstract
Cigarette smoking is an important cause of preventable death globally, but associations between smoking and mortality vary substantially across country and calendar time. Although methodological biases have been discussed, it is biologically plausible that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides can affect this association. This study was performed to evaluate if associations of cigarette smoking with mortality were modified by serum concentrations of PCBs and OC pesticides. We evaluated cigarette smoking in 111 total deaths among 986 men and women aged 70 years in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) with mean follow-up for 7.7 years. The association between cigarette smoking and total mortality depended on serum concentration of PCBs and OC pesticides (P value for interaction = 0.02). Among participants in the highest tertile of the serum POPs summary score, former and current smokers had 3.7 (95% CI, 1.5-9.3) and 6.4 (95% CI, 2.3-17.7) times higher mortality hazard, respectively, than never smokers. In contrast, the association between cigarette smoking and total mortality among participants in the lowest tertile of the serum POPs summary score was much weaker and statistically non-significant. The strong smoking-mortality association observed among elderly people with high POPs was mainly driven by low risk of mortality among never smokers with high POPs. As smoking is increasing in many low-income and middle-income countries and POPs contamination is a continuing problem in these areas, the interactions between these two important health-related issues should be considered in future research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24828407 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sensitization to domestic mites in a cold temperate region.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36200
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Jul;148(1):58-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1993
Author
M. Wickman
S L Nordvall
G. Pershagen
J. Korsgaard
N. Johansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health and Infectious Diseases Control, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Jul;148(1):58-62
Date
Jul-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Allergens - adverse effects - diagnostic use
Animals
Antibody Specificity
Beds
Chi-Square Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Cold Climate
Dust - adverse effects
Female
Floors and Floorcoverings
Humans
Immunoglobulin E - blood
Male
Mites - immunology
Odds Ratio
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Skin Tests
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Factors favoring sensitization to house dust mites (HDM) were studied in a cold, temperate climate in northern Sweden. Sixty-five children previously found to react positively to a skin prick test (SPT) to HDM were included. The SPT to HDM was repeated, and serum IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae were determined. HDM, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus, or storage mites occurred in mattress dust samples from 23 of the 65 homes, and in 10 homes more than 100 HDM/g of mattress dust were found. Mites were more prevalent in mattress dust from the basement and ground levels than from the upper floors. Sensitization to HDM was strongly with the presence of domestic mites in mattress and floor dust. Previous longer stays in southern Sweden or Europe were also associated with present sensitization to HDM, and this was independent of occurrence of mites in the residence. The results indicate that HDM growth and potential for sensitization in cold, temperate regions is highly dependent on the microhabitat, and that sensitization to HDM should be possible to prevent in such climatic regions.
PubMed ID
8317815 View in PubMed
Less detail

Longitudinal changes in hearing ability among Swedish conscripts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36464
Source
Scand Audiol. 1993;22(2):141-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
B O Persson
A. Svedberg
C J Göthe
Author Affiliation
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Scand Audiol. 1993;22(2):141-3
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acoustic Stimulation
Adult
Amplifiers - adverse effects
Audiometry
Auditory Threshold
Environment
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Military Personnel
Noise - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
An analysis of a military database of about 36,000 tone audiograms from male Swedish conscripts aged 18 to 19 and recorded from 1969 to 1977 demonstrates a successively decreasing prevalence of hearing loss during this period. This might reflect improved therapy during the 1950s and 1960s of ear disorders causing hearing loss in small children. If observations in other studies on a reverse trend during the 1980s are confirmed, they indicate, together with the present study, that around 1980 young people began to be harmfully exposed to an environmental factor causing hearing loss. If this is the case, the causative factor would probably be non-occupational exposure to electronically amplified sounds from loudspeakers and headphones.
PubMed ID
8321999 View in PubMed
Less detail

Environmental barriers, person-environment fit and mortality among community-dwelling very old people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265500
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Timo Törmäkangas
Taina Rantanen
Maria Haak
Susanne Iwarsson
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:783
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility
Environment
Female
Frail Elderly
Housing for the Elderly
Humans
Male
Mobility Limitation
Mortality - trends
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Environmental barriers are associated with disability-related outcomes in older people but little is known of the effect of environmental barriers on mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured barriers in the outdoor, entrance and indoor environments are associated with mortality among community-dwelling 80- to 89-year-old single-living people.
This longitudinal study is based on a sample of 397 people who were single-living in ordinary housing in Sweden. Participants were interviewed during 2002-2003, and 393 were followed up for mortality until May 15, 2012.Environmental barriers and functional limitations were assessed with the Housing Enabler instrument, which is intended for objective assessments of Person-Environment (P-E) fit problems in housing and the immediate outdoor environment. Mortality data were gathered from the public national register. Cox regression models were used for the analyses.
A total of 264 (67%) participants died during follow-up. Functional limitations increased mortality risk. Among the specific environmental barriers that generate the most P-E fit problems, lack of handrails in stairs at entrances was associated with the highest mortality risk (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.14-2.10), whereas the total number of environmental barriers at entrances and outdoors was not associated with mortality. A higher number of environmental barriers indoors showed a slight protective effect against mortality even after adjustment for functional limitations (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00).
Specific environmental problems may increase mortality risk among very-old single-living people. However, the association may be confounded by individuals' health status which is difficult to fully control for. Further studies are called for.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23981906 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between ambient temperature and acute myocardial infarction hospitalisations in Gothenburg, Sweden: 1985-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114137
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62059
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Janine Wichmann
Annika Rosengren
Karin Sjöberg
Lars Barregard
Gerd Sallsten
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, Gothenborg, Sweden. gerd.sallsten@amm.gu.se
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e62059
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution
Female
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Hospital Mortality
Hospitalization
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - etiology - history
Patient Admission
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Young Adult
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death globally and evidence is steadily increasing on the role of non-traditional risk factors such as meteorology and air pollution. Nevertheless, many research gaps remain, such as the association between these non-traditional risk factors and subtypes of CVD, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and AMI hospitalisations using a case-crossover design in Gothenburg, Sweden (1985-2010). A secondary analysis was also performed for out-of-hospital ischemic heart disease (IHD) deaths. Susceptible groups by age and sex were explored. The entire year as well as the warm (April-September) and cold periods (October-March) were considered. In total 28,215 AMI hospitalisations (of 22,475 people) and 21,082 out-of-hospital IHD deaths occurred during the 26-year study period. A linear exposure-response corresponding to a 3% and 7% decrease in AMI hospitalisations was observed for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase in the 2-day cumulative average of temperature during the entire year (11°C) and the warm period (6°C), respectively, with and without adjustment for PM10, NO2, NOx or O3. No heat waves occurred during the warm period. No evidence of an association in the cold period nor any association between temperature and IHD deaths in the entire year, warm or cold periods--with and without adjusting for PM10, NO2, NOx or O3 was found. No susceptible groups, based on age or sex, were identified either. The inverse association between temperature and AMI hospitalisations (entire year and warm period) in Gothenburg is in accordance with the majority of the few other studies that investigated this subtype of CVD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23646115 View in PubMed
Less detail

Estimation and selection of complex covariate effects in pooled nested case-control studies with heterogeneity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114269
Source
Biostatistics. 2013 Sep;14(4):682-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Mengling Liu
Wenbin Lu
Vittorio Krogh
Göran Hallmans
Tess V Clendenen
Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte
Author Affiliation
Departments of Population Health and Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Source
Biostatistics. 2013 Sep;14(4):682-94
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Computer simulation
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Female
Humans
Italy - epidemiology
Likelihood Functions
Ovarian Neoplasms - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
A major challenge in cancer epidemiologic studies, especially those of rare cancers, is observing enough cases. To address this, researchers often join forces by bringing multiple studies together to achieve large sample sizes, allowing for increased power in hypothesis testing, and improved efficiency in effect estimation. Combining studies, however, renders the analysis difficult owing to the presence of heterogeneity in the pooled data. In this article, motivated by a collaborative nested case-control (NCC) study of ovarian cancer in three cohorts from United States, Sweden, and Italy, we investigate the use of penalty regularized partial likelihood estimation in the context of pooled NCC studies to achieve two goals. First, we propose an adaptive group lasso (gLASSO) penalized approach to simultaneously identify important variables and estimate their effects. Second, we propose a composite agLASSO penalized approach to identify variables with heterogeneous effects. Both methods are readily implemented with the group coordinate gradient decent algorithm and shown to enjoy the oracle property. We conduct simulation studies to evaluate the performance of our proposed approaches in finite samples under various heterogeneity settings, and apply them to the pooled ovarian cancer study.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23632625 View in PubMed
Less detail

Regional differences regarding risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in Stockholm County, Sweden: results from the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114522
Source
Scand J Rheumatol. 2013;42(5):337-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
H. Källberg
V. Vieira
M. Holmqvist
J E Hart
K H Costenbader
C. Bengtsson
L. Klareskog
E W Karlson
L. Alfredsson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
Source
Scand J Rheumatol. 2013;42(5):337-43
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - blood - epidemiology
Autoantibodies - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Geographic Mapping
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Peptides, Cyclic - immunology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease that is associated with genetic and environmental factors. We have investigated geospatial variation in the risk of developing RA within Stockholm County, Sweden, with respect to established environmental risk factors for RA, as well as serologically defined subgroups of RA.
Information regarding geographical location for 1432 cases and 2529 controls from the Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA) study, living in Stockholm County at RA symptom onset, or matched date for controls, was used to estimate geospatial variation in risk. We used generalized additive models (GAMs) to create a risk surface, calculate odds ratios (ORs), and adjust for potential confounding by smoking, education level, and RA within family. We performed a stratified analysis based on the presence/absence of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA).
We found significant spatial variation in the odds of developing RA in Stockholm County. After adjustment for smoking, education level, and family history of RA, this geospatial variation remained. The stratified analysis showed areas with higher ORs for ACPA-positive RA and ACPA-negative RA, after adjusting for smoking, education level, and having a family history of RA. Living in the city of Stockholm was associated with decreased risk of RA.
The risk of developing RA in Stockholm County is not distributed evenly and there are areas of increased risk that could not be explained by known factors. Further investigations of local exposures or social factors are warranted.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23611369 View in PubMed
Less detail

Relationship of subjective cognitive impairment and cognitive impairment no dementia to chronic disease and multimorbidity in a nation-wide twin study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114578
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;36(2):275-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Barbara Caracciolo
Margaret Gatz
Weili Xu
Alessandra Marengoni
Nancy L Pedersen
Laura Fratiglioni
Author Affiliation
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. barbara.caracciolo@ki.se
Source
J Alzheimers Dis. 2013;36(2):275-84
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Chronic Disease
Cognition Disorders - complications - epidemiology - genetics
Community Health Planning
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dementia - complications - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Odds Ratio
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We investigated the relation of subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) to common chronic diseases of the elderly and multimorbidity, and assessed the contribution of genetic background and shared familial environment to these associations. Subjects were 11,379 dementia-free twin individuals aged = 65 from the Swedish Twin Registry. SCI was defined as subjective complaint of cognitive change without objective cognitive impairment and CIND was defined according to current criteria. In unmatched, fully-adjusted regression models, mental, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and urological diseases were all significantly associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) of SCI and CIND. Circulatory and gastrointestinal diseases were related to SCI only, while endocrine diseases were associated with CIND. The adjusted ORs of multimorbidity were 2.1 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.8-2.3] for SCI and 1.5 for CIND (95% CI: 1.3-1.8). A dose-dependent relationship was observed between number of chronic diseases and ORs for SCI but not for CIND. In co-twin control analyses, the chronic diseases-SCI association was largely unchanged. On the other hand, the chronic diseases-CIND association was no longer statistically significant, except for cancer, where an increased OR was observed. In conclusion, chronic morbidity is associated with both SCI and CIND but disease profiles do not always overlap between the two cognitive syndromes. The association is stronger when diseases co-occur, especially for SCI. Genetic and early-life environmental factors may partially explain the association of CIND but not that of SCI with chronic diseases.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23603395 View in PubMed
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Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264582
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Mar;76:41-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Ingela Helmfrid
Samira Salihovic
Bert van Bavel
Gun Wingren
Marika Berglund
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Mar;76:41-8
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Body Burden
Cadmium - urine
Chromatography, Gas
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollution - analysis
Female
Fishes - metabolism
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Middle Aged
Pesticides - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Sweden - epidemiology
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg was associated with consumption of fish, both local and non-local, and Pb exposure was associated with the consumption of game. Overall, the contaminant concentrations measured in blood, urine and hair varied substantially among study participants, but on average, the concentrations were similar to concentrations measured in other groups of the general Swedish population in the same age range. Larger studies are needed to evaluate health risks (and causality) associated with historical environmental contamination.
PubMed ID
25529270 View in PubMed
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Self-sampling for analysis of respiratory viruses in a large-scale epidemiological study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265145
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(11)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
A. Plymoth
M. Rotzen-Ostlund
B. Zweygberg-Wirgart
C G Sundin
A. Ploner
O. Nyren
A. Linde
Source
Euro Surveill. 2015;20(11)
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Data Collection
Feasibility Studies
Female
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Nasal Cavity - virology
Population Surveillance
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses - isolation & purification
Respiratory Tract Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - virology
Specimen Handling - methods
Sweden - epidemiology
Viruses - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
Viral diagnosis of respiratory tract infections has so far required sampling by health professionals,hampering large-scale epidemiological studies of virus-specific disease outcomes. As part of a population-based, prospective study of work-related risk factors for transmission of viral infections (SWEDE-I), we developed a scheme for self-sampling with nasal swabs. Random selection from the gainfully employed population of a medium-sized town in central Sweden resulted in a study cohort of 2,237 men and women aged 25 to 63 years. From September 2011 through May 2012, the cohort reported all instances of respiratory tract infection or gastroenteritis and participants concomitantly sent self-sampled nasal swabs for analysis using regular mail. Diagnosis of 14 viruses was performed. A total of 1,843 samples were received. The week-wise average delay between disease on set and arrival of the specimens at the laboratory varied between four and six days, and the corresponding median delay was between 3.5 and six days. In line with previous community-based studies, picorna- and coronaviruses dominated in specimens obtained from the self-sampling scheme. The results of self-sampling were contrasted to those from contemporaneous routine clinical sampling, on the same age group, in the adjacent Stockholm county. Although higher proportions of positive samples for respiratory syncytial virus and influenza were observed in the clinical sampling scheme, estimations of seasonality for influenza A and picornaviruses derived from both schemes were similar. Our findings show that nasal self-sampling is feasible in large-scale surveillance of respiratory infections and opens new prospects for population based,virologically verified research on virus spread,burden of disease, and effects of environmental factors or interventions.
PubMed ID
25811646 View in PubMed
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Multiple chemical sensitivity in male painters; a controlled provocation study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature45864
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Oct;206(6):531-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Antonis Georgellis
Birgitta Lindelöf
Anders Lundin
Bengt Arnetz
Lena Hillert
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden. antonis.georgellis@smd.sll.se
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003 Oct;206(6):531-8
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Chemical Sensitivity - epidemiology - etiology - pathology - psychology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - pathology - psychology
Paint - adverse effects
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether male painters reporting multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) differ from their matched controls (male painters without such sensitivity) during controlled chamber challenges to singular and mixtures of odorous chemicals with respect to: (1) Subjective rating of symptoms (i.e., symptoms related to central nervous system (CNS) and symptoms related to irritation) and sensations of smell elicited by low-level chemical exposures. (2) Changes in serum prolactin and cortisol levels, changes in nasal cavity and eye redness as a result of the various exposures. Moreover, background assessments were made regarding mental well-being, sense of coherence (SOC) as well as state of anxiety and depression in both groups. The MCS and control group consisted of 14 and 15 male painters respectively. Regarding background assessments of mental well-being, anxiety, depression and SOC, statistically significant differences were obtained between painters with MCS and their controls. During the controlled chamber challenges, neither difference regarding sensations of smell nor development of CNS related symptoms were seen between MCS and control group. In contrast, subjective rating of symptoms related to irritation (i.e., eyes, nose, throat, skin, and breathing difficulties) was significant higher in subjects with MCS. No differences between the groups as a result of the different exposures were seen concerning nasal cavity, eye redness and serum cortisol levels. However, a trend (P = 0.056) between the groups was measured regarding a decline of serum prolactin levels in the MCS group. This is a relatively small study with a limited number of volunteers; and no definitive conclusions can be drawn concerning the above findings. But it is the first controlled challenge study that incorporates similarly exposed groups (painters) recruited from a community rather than from a clinical population.
PubMed ID
14626900 View in PubMed
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