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The epidemiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Sweden 1987-96.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58585
Source
Arch Dis Child. 2001 Nov;85(5):379-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
G. Hedbäck
K. Abrahamsson
B. Husberg
T. Granholm
A. Odén
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Drottning Silvias Barn-och Ungdomsjukhus, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-416 85, Gothenburg, Sweden. g.hedback@home.se
Source
Arch Dis Child. 2001 Nov;85(5):379-81
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Hypertrophy - epidemiology - surgery
Incidence
Infant
Male
Poisson Distribution
Pyloric Stenosis - epidemiology - surgery
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban health
Abstract
AIMS: To find out whether the incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) has changed over the past decade, and if so, to investigate possible contributory factors. METHODS: All infants undergoing pyloromyotomy for IHPS in Sweden between 1987 and 1996 were studied. Using the national patient registers the yearly incidence was determined and evaluated in relation to sex, latitude, urbanisation, and type of surroundings by use of a Poisson model. RESULTS: There was a substantial decline from 2.7/1000 to 0.85/1000 over the time period. The incidence in the south was almost three times greater than in the north. CONCLUSION: The declining incidence and geographical difference suggest that environmental factors are of importance in this disorder.
PubMed ID
11668097 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58702
Source
Environ Res. 2000 Oct;84(2):186-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2000
Author
M. Vahter
A. Akesson
B. Lind
U. Björs
A. Schütz
M. Berglund
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Environ Res. 2000 Oct;84(2):186-94
Date
Oct-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lactation - blood - urine
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Mercury - blood - urine
Mercury Poisoning - blood - epidemiology
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - urine
Pregnancy - blood - urine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood
Spectrometry, Fluorescence
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization/reduction and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. T-Hg in urine was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. About 72% of the Hg in blood (n = 148) in early pregnancy was MeHg (median 0.94 microg/L, maximum 6.8 microg/L). Blood MeHg decreased during pregnancy, partly due to decreased intake of fish in accordance with recommendations to not eat certain predatory fish during pregnancy. Cord blood MeHg (median 1.4 microg/L, maximum 4.8 microg/L) was almost twice that in maternal blood in late pregnancy and was probably influenced by maternal MeHg exposure earlier and before pregnancy. Blood I-Hg (median 0.37 microg/L, maximum 4.2 microg/L) and urine T-Hg (median 1.6 microg/L, maximum 12 microg/L) in early pregnancy were highly correlated, and both were associated with the number of amalgam fillings. The concentrations decreased during lactation, probably due to excretion in milk. Cord blood I-Hg was correlated with that in maternal blood. The results show the importance of speciation of Hg in blood for evaluation of exposure and health risks.
PubMed ID
11068932 View in PubMed
Less detail

Does breast-feeding affect the risk for coeliac disease?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58704
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:139-49
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
A. Ivarsson
L A Persson
O. Hernell
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Science, Paediatrics, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;478:139-49
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Bottle Feeding
Breast Feeding
Celiac Disease - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Diet
Female
Gluten - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Infant Food
Infant, Newborn
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Coeliac disease, or permanent gluten sensitive enteropathy, has emerged as a widespread health problem. It is considered an immunological disease, possibly of autoimmune type, albeit strictly dependent on the presence in the diet of wheat gluten and similar proteins from rye and barley. There are reasons to believe that the aetiology of coeliac disease is multifactorial, i.e. that other environmental exposures than the mere presence in the diet of gluten affect the disease process. Our studies have shown that prolonged breast-feeding, or perhaps even more important, ongoing breast-feeding during the period when gluten-containing foods are introduced into the diet, reduce the risk for coeliac disease. The amount of gluten consumed is also of importance in as much as larger amounts of gluten-containing foods increase the risk for coeliac disease, while it still is uncertain if the age for introducing gluten into the diet of infants is important. Thus, a challenging possibility, that need to be further explored, is if the coeliac enteropathy can be postponed, or possibly even prevented for the entire life span, by favourable dietary habits early in life.
PubMed ID
11065067 View in PubMed
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Pregnancy outcome of personnel in Swedish biomedical research laboratories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58778
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2000 Apr;42(4):438-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2000
Author
H. Wennborg
L. Bodin
H. Vainio
G. Axelsson
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Health Risk Assessment, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. helena.wennborg@imm.ki.se
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2000 Apr;42(4):438-46
Date
Apr-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology
Abortion, Spontaneous - epidemiology - etiology
Birth weight
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Laboratory Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Logistic Models
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Research
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Possible hazardous effects of laboratory work on the reproduction outcomes of female laboratory personnel in Sweden from 1990 to 1994 were investigated in a questionnaire-based study (n = 1052) by comparison with personnel in non-laboratory departments. The individual woman constituted the primary sampling unit, with her pregnancies defined as the unit of analysis. Allowance for dependence between different pregnancies of the same woman was considered by applying random effect models. With regard to spontaneous abortions, no elevated odds ratio was found for laboratory work in general, but an odds ratio of 2.3 and a 95% confidence interval of 0.9 to 5.9 (n = 856) was connected to working with chloroform. The odds ratio for large for gestational age infants in association with the mother's laboratory work was 1.9 (confidence interval, 0.7 to 5.2). The result with regard to spontaneous abortion partly supports previously reported increased risks of miscarriage related to laboratory work with solvents.
PubMed ID
10774513 View in PubMed
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Psychosocial factors, lifestyle, and fetal growth: the added value of both pre- and post-natal assessments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58358
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2003 Sep;13(3):210-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
Elisabeth Dejin-Karlsson
Per-Olof Ostergren
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing, School of Health and Society, Malmö University, S-205 06 Malmö, Sweden. elisabeth.dejin.karlsson@hs.mah.se
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2003 Sep;13(3):210-7
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Chi-Square Distribution
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Small for Gestational Age
Life Style
Logistic Models
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Social Support
Sweden - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Ultrasonography, Prenatal
Urban Population
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial resources as well as lifestyle habits during pregnancy have been shown to effect the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) child. Most previous studies are based on a single assessment of these exposures, which does not take into account the possibility of different effects during early and late stages of pregnancy. METHODS: The impact of psychosocial and lifestyle factors on the risk of giving birth to an SGA child (as measured by ultrasound) was examined among 747 nulliparous Swedish women who completed both a prenatal baseline, and a post-partum assessment. RESULTS: Those registering low social participation on both assessments showed increased risk of giving birth to an SGA infant (OR = 2.44 and 95% CI: 1.06-5.66), while at one assessment (OR = 1.70 and 95% CI: 0.74-3.91). Maternal smoking confirmed by both or one assessments yielded an OR = 2.72 and 95% CI: 1.37-5.39 and OR = 1.60 and 95% CI: 0.58-4.46, respectively. During early pregnancy, poor instrumental support, maternal smoking, or passive smoking yielded increased risks of SGA, adjusted for confounding (OR = 2.39 and 95% CI: 1.11-5.17; OR = 2.38 and 95% CI: 1.27-4.49; OR = 2.92 and 95% CI: 1.17-7.32, respectively). In late pregnancy, only maternal smoking yielded a significant association (OR = 2.34 and 95% CI: 1.24-4.41). CONCLUSION: Scheduling repeated assessments of psychosocial resources and lifestyle factors during pregnancy yielded additional information. The findings suggest that there can be differential effects of such exposures depending on gestational stage. This information is of importance when designing appropriate intervention strategies for maternal health services as well as for public health relevant policy formulation (e.g. regarding exposure to environmental tobacco during pregnancy).
PubMed ID
14533722 View in PubMed
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Medical and social prognosis for patients with perceived hypersensitivity to electricity and skin symptoms related to the use of visual display terminals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71510
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002 Oct;28(5):349-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Berndt Stenberg
Jan Bergdahl
Berit Edvardsson
Nils Eriksson
Gerd Lindén
Lars Widman
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden. berndt.stenberg@vll.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2002 Oct;28(5):349-57
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Computer Terminals
Electricity - adverse effects
Environmental Illness - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - rehabilitation
Facial Dermatoses - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - rehabilitation
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Prevalence
Prognosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to give a medical and social prognosis for patients with perceived "electrical sensitivity". METHODS: In 1980-1998, 350 patients with electrical sensitivity were registered at the University Hospital of Northern Sweden in Umeå, Sweden. Those with hypersensitivity to electricity had multiple symptoms evoked by exposure to different electric environments. Those with skin symptoms related to the use of visual display terminals (VDT) predominantly had facial skin symptoms evoked by a VDT, television screens, or fluorescent light tubes. A questionnaire on civil status, current health status, care, treatment and other measures taken, consequences of the problem, eliciting factors, and current employment was sent to all the patients. The response rate was 73%. Of the 50 respondents with hypersensitivity to electricity, 38% were men and 62% were women. Of the 200 patients with skin symptoms related to VDT use, 21.5% were men and 78.5% women. RESULTS: More women than men had turned to caregivers, including complementary therapies. A larger proportion of patients with hypersensitivity to electricity (38%) than those with skin symptoms related to VDT use (17%) was no longer gainfully employed. Both groups reported a higher symptom frequency than that reported by the the general population. Over time, the medical prognosis improved in the latter group but not in the former. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hypersensitivity to electricity, particularly women, have extensive medical problems and a considerable number of them stop working. Many patients with skin symptoms related to VDT use have a favorable prognosis. Both groups need early and consistent management.
PubMed ID
12432989 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps, 1958-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117177
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Sep;103(9):1708-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Christer Hogstedt
Catarina Jansson
Marcus Hugosson
Håkan Tinnerberg
Per Gustavsson
Author Affiliation
Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. christer.hogstedt@gmail.com
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Sep;103(9):1708-14
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos - adverse effects
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Pleural Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Poisson Distribution
Skin Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Soot - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
We examined cancer incidence in an expanded cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps.
We added male chimney sweep trade union members (1981-2006) to an earlier cohort (employed 1918-1980) and linked them to nationwide registers of cancer, causes of deaths, and total population. The total cohort (n = 6320) was followed from 1958 through 2006. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the male Swedish population as reference. We estimated exposure as years of employment and analyzed for exposure-response associations by Poisson regression.
A total of 813 primary cancers were observed versus 626 expected (SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.21, 1.39). As in a previous follow-up, SIRs were significantly increased for cancer of the esophagus, liver, lung, bladder, and all hematopoietic cancer. New findings included significantly elevated SIRs for cancer of the colon, pleura, adenocarcinoma of the lung, and at unspecified sites. Total cancer and bladder cancer demonstrated positive exposure-response associations.
Exposure to soot and asbestos are likely causes of the observed cancer excesses, with contributions from adverse lifestyle factors. Preventive actions to control work exposures and promote healthier lifestyles are an important priority.
PubMed ID
23327283 View in PubMed
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Progression to type 1 diabetes and autoantibody positivity in relation to HLA-risk genotypes in children participating in the ABIS study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93477
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Jun;9(3 Pt 1):182-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2008
Author
Gullstrand Camilla
Wahlberg Jeanette
Ilonen Jorma
Vaarala Outi
Ludvigsson Johnny
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatrics and Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. camgu@imk.liu.se
Source
Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Jun;9(3 Pt 1):182-90
Date
Jun-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autoantibodies - blood
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - genetics - immunology
Disease Progression
Genotype
Glutamate Decarboxylase - immunology
HLA Antigens - genetics
HLA-D Antigens - genetics
Humans
Incidence
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies against beta-cell antigens together with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-risk genotypes are used as predictive markers for type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we have investigated the role of HLA-risk and -protective genotypes for development of beta-cell autoantibodies and progression to T1D in healthy children. METHODS: T1D-related HLA genotypes and autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase [glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA)] and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A) were studied at 1, 2.5 and 5 yr of age in unselected healthy children and children with T1D participating in the All Babies In Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study. Results: GADA or IA-2A positivity at 5 yr of age was associated with DR4-DQ8 haplotype and DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype. By the age of 6-7 yr, we identified 32 children with T1D among the 17 055 participants in the ABIS study. Eight of 2329 (0.3%) non-diabetic children had permanent autoantibodies, and 143 of 2329 (6%) children had transient autoantibodies. HLA-risk genotypes associated with T1D, whereas protective genotypes were seldom found in children with T1D. Children with permanent autoantibodies had more often risk-associated DR4-DQ8 haplotype than autoantibody-negative children. No associations with HLA-risk or -protective genotypes were found for transient autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The strong relation between HLA-risk alleles and T1D once again confirmed that HLA-risk genotypes play an important role for development of T1D. However, HLA genotypes seem not to explain induction of autoantibodies, especially transient autoantibodies, in the general population, emphasizing the role of environmental factors in the initiation of autoimmunity. It seems that HLA-risk genotypes are responsible for maturation of the permanent autoantibody response.
PubMed ID
18331414 View in PubMed
Less detail

[The interplay between environment and genetics determines who gets diabetes].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99792
Source
Lakartidningen. 2010 Nov 10-16;107(45):2792-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Claes-Göran Ostenson
Author Affiliation
Institutionen för molekylär medicin och kirurgi, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm. claes-goran.ostenson@ki.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2010 Nov 10-16;107(45):2792-5
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
World Health
PubMed ID
21179863 View in PubMed
Less detail

Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101718
Source
Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):212-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Gösta Bluhm
Charlotta Eriksson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Nobels väg 13, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. gosta.bluhm@ki.se
Source
Noise Health. 2011 May-Jun;13(52):212-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aircraft
Automobiles
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
City Planning
Humans
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Public Policy
Railroads
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A) noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR) of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19) per 5 dB(A) noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.
PubMed ID
21537104 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Marianne Berwick
Author Affiliation
University of New Mexico Cancer Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. mberwick@salud.unm.edu
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Melanoma - blood - etiology - mortality
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - blood - etiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Ultraviolet Rays
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
A Swedish cohort analysis in this issue (1) demonstrates a significant reduction in all cause mortality and in cardiovascular mortality associated with several measures of sun exposure. In addition, ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. A potential explanation for the protective association is that UV exposure results in high levels of serum vitamin D which may improve survival. However, that explanation does not hold for ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds, which in this study is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. Such a finding is curious and inconsistent with a vitamin D hypothesis. These results should impel investigators to study further the biology of ultraviolet radiation, both natural and artificial, and its health effects.
Notes
RefSource: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):683-90
PubMed ID
21454422 View in PubMed
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Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as an extreme of a continuous trait: a quantitative genetic study of 8,500 twin pairs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131220
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Henrik Larsson
Henrik Anckarsater
Maria Råstam
Zheng Chang
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. henrik.larsson@ki.se
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Genetic Linkage - genetics
Genetic Testing
Health Surveys - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Although the clinical utility of categorically defined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established, there is also strong evidence supporting the notion of ADHD as an extreme of a continuous trait. Nevertheless, the question of whether the etiology is the same for different levels of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to assess genetic links between the extreme and the subthreshold range of ADHD symptoms.
Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and associated conditions. Two validated cutoff values were used for screening and assigning research diagnoses. Response rate was 80%. Twin methods were applied to investigate the extent to which ADHD is etiologically distinct from subthreshold variations in ADHD symptoms.
Extremes analyses indicated a strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation, with almost identical group heritability estimates around .60 for the diagnostic (prevalence 1.78%) and screening (prevalence 9.75%) criteria of ADHD.
A strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation of DSM-IV based assessments of ADHD symptoms was found. The data suggest that ADHD is best viewed as the quantitative extreme of genetic and environmental factors operating dimensionally throughout the distribution of ADHD symptoms, indicating that the same etiologic factors are involved in the full range of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
PubMed ID
21923806 View in PubMed
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Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131590
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:689
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Nicola Murgia
Kjell Torén
Jeong-Lim Kim
Eva Andersson
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:689
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Extraction and Processing Industry
Female
Gases - toxicity
Humans
Irritants - toxicity
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Paper
Respiration Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Wood
Abstract
The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants.
Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5) and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model.
This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21896193 View in PubMed
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Birth weight as an independent predictor of ADHD symptoms: a within-twin pair analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268834
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;56(4):453-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Erik Pettersson
Arvid Sjölander
Catarina Almqvist
Henrik Anckarsäter
Brian M D'Onofrio
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;56(4):453-9
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Birth Weight - physiology
Child
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Male
Prognosis
Registries
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Studies have found an association between low birth weight and ADHD, but the nature of this relation is unclear. First, it is uncertain whether birth weight is associated with both of the ADHD dimensions, inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. Second, it remains uncertain whether the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity is confounded by familial factors.
Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms by the Autism - Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities (A-TAC) inventory (N = 21,775 twins). Birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical Birth Registry. We used a within-twin pair design to control for genetic and shared environmental factors.
Reduced birth weight was significantly associated with a mean increase in total ADHD (ß = -.42; 95% CI: -.53, -.30), inattentive (ß = -.26; 95% CI: -.33, -.19), and hyperactive-impulsive (ß = -.16; 95% CI: -.22, -.10) symptom severity. These results imply that a change of one kilogram of birth weight corresponded to parents rating their child nearly one unit higher (going from "no" to "yes, to some extent" on a given symptom) on the total ADHD scale. These associations remained within pairs of MZ and DZ twins, and were also present when restricting the analyses to full term births.
There is an independent association between low birth weight and all forms of ADHD symptoms, even after controlling for all environmental and genetic confounds shared within twin pairs. These results indicate that fetal growth restriction (as reflected in birth weight differences within twin pairs) and/or the environmental factors which influence it is in the casual pathway leading to ADHD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25040291 View in PubMed
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Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87091
Source
Appl Ergon. 2008 Mar;39(2):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Arvidsson Inger
Hansson Gert-Ake
Mathiassen Svend Erik
Skerfving Staffan
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, SE-221 85, Lund, Sweden. inger.arvidsson@med.lu.se
Source
Appl Ergon. 2008 Mar;39(2):255-60
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aviation
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Health
Posture
Questionnaires
Shoulder Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
User-Computer Interface
Abstract
Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical workstations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10 degrees vs. -9 degrees ; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data.
PubMed ID
17568557 View in PubMed
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Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87164
Source
Ind Health. 2007 Dec;45(6):775-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Gunnarsson Kristina
Vingård Eva
Josephson Malin
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Ind Health. 2007 Dec;45(6):775-80
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Entrepreneurship - statistics & numerical data
Environment
Female
Health status
Humans
Internal-External Control
Job Satisfaction
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Workplace - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.
PubMed ID
18212472 View in PubMed
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Gender differences and temporal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes: results of 8012 cases in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden 1983-2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87253
Source
J Intern Med. 2008 Apr;263(4):386-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Ostman J.
Lönnberg G.
Arnqvist H J
Blohmé G.
Bolinder J.
Ekbom Schnell A.
Eriksson J W
Gudbjörnsdottir S.
Sundkvist G.
Nyström L.
Author Affiliation
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm. jan.j.c.oestman@solna.mail.telia.com
Source
J Intern Med. 2008 Apr;263(4):386-94
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Medical Records - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To establish the gender difference amongst newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients aged 15-34 years, considering age at diagnosis, temporal trend and seasonal variation at time of diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based prospective study with a mean annual population at risk of 2.3 million. SETTING: All departments of medicine, endocrinology and paediatrics and primary health care units in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Incident cases of diabetes aged 15-34 years at diagnosis 1983-2002. MEASURE INSTRUMENT: Basic characteristics of patients at diagnosis were reported by the diagnosing doctor on a standardized form. Level of ascertainment was estimated at 80-90%. RESULTS: Amongst all incident cases (n = 8012), 74% was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The mean annual incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was 12.7/100,000, in men 16.4/100,000 and in women 8.9/100,000. The incidence of type 1 diabetes decreased slowly by increasing age but was in all age groups higher in men, yielding an overall male/female ratio of 1.8. In both genders the incidence of type 1 diabetes decreased in average of 1.0% per year. A seasonal pattern with significantly higher incidence during January-March and lower during May-July was seen in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: A clear male predominance of type 1 diabetes was seen in all ages. The temporal trend and the seasonal pattern was similar in men and women. Hence, internal factors related to the gender rather than differences in the exposure to environmental factors seem to explain the consistent male-female bias in the postpubertal risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
PubMed ID
18205768 View in PubMed
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Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87354
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-12-2008
Author
Catalano Ralph
Bruckner Tim
Smith Kirk R
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Date
Feb-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Longevity
Male
Sex ratio
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Abstract
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.
PubMed ID
18250336 View in PubMed
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Characterizing noise and perceived work environment in a neurological intensive care unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87437
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Ryherd Erica E
Waye Kerstin Persson
Ljungkvist Linda
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community, Göteborg University, Box 414, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. eryherd@hotmail.com
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - statistics & numerical data
Equipment Failure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospital Design and Construction - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intensive Care Units - statistics & numerical data
Job Satisfaction
Loudness Perception
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Middle Aged
Neurology
Noise, Occupational - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Nursing Staff, Hospital - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - standards - statistics & numerical data
Patients' Rooms - statistics & numerical data
Psychoacoustics
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The hospital sound environment is complex. Alarms, medical equipment, activities, and ventilation generate noise that may present occupational problems as well as hinder recovery among patients. In this study, sound measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in a neurological intensive care unit. Staff completed questionnaires regarding psychological and physiological reactions to the sound environment. A-weighted equivalent, minimum, and maximum (L(Aeq),L(AFMin),L(AFMax)) and C-weighted peak (L(CPeak)) sound pressure levels were measured over five days at patient and staff locations. Acoustical descriptors that may be explored further were investigated, including level distributions, restorative periods, and spectral content. Measurements near the patients showed average L(Aeq) values of 53-58 dB. The mean length of restorative periods (L(Aeq) below 50 dB for more than 5 min) was 9 and 13 min for day and night, respectively. Ninety percent of the time, the L(AFMax) levels exceeded 50 dB and L(CPeak) exceeded 70 dB. Dosimeters worn by the staff revealed higher noise levels. Personnel perceived the noise as contributing to stress symptoms. Compared to the majority of previous studies, this study provides a more thorough description of intensive care noise and aids in understanding how the sound environment may be disruptive to occupants.
PubMed ID
18247879 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence and mortality in a Swedish rubber tire manufacturing plant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87623
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2007 Dec;50(12):901-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Wingren Gun
Axelson Olav
Author Affiliation
Divison of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. gunwi@imk.liu.se
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2007 Dec;50(12):901-9
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Manufactured Materials - toxicity
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupational Health
Petroleum - toxicity
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Risk factors
Rubber - toxicity
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: A classification of 12 work categories was used to evaluate the cancer incidence and mortality among a cohort of Swedish rubber tire workers. METHODS: Cancer incidence and mortality in the cohort was compared with expected values from national rates. Standardized incidence and mortality ratios were calculated for the total cohort, for sub-cohorts and with the inclusion of a latency requirement. RESULTS: Among men, increased incidence and mortality risks were found for cancer in the larynx; SIR=2.10; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.05-3.76, SMR=2.08; 95% CI: 0.42-6.09. Increased risks were also seen for cancer in the trachea, bronchus, and lung; SIR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-2.02, SMR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.21-1.94, the incidence risk was highest among those with the longest exposure duration and among workers in compounding/mixing, milling, and maintenance. Decreased incidence risks were seen for cancer of the prostate (SIR=0.74; 95% CI: 059-0.92) and skin (SIR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.36-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of an excess of tumors in the respiratory system is in agreement with earlier findings in other studies on rubber tire workers. The results on other cancer types are compared to earlier findings and related to work processes and chemical exposures of possible causal importance.
PubMed ID
17972254 View in PubMed
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