Skip header and navigation

Refine By

892 records – page 1 of 45.

Improved Housing Accessibility for Older People in Sweden and Germany: Short Term Costs and Long-Term Gains.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289909
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 26; 14(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-26-2017
Author
Björn Slaug
Carlos Chiatti
Frank Oswald
Roman Kaspar
Steven M Schmidt
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences & Centre for Ageing and Supportive Environments (CASE), Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. bjorn.slaug@med.lu.se.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 08 26; 14(9):
Date
08-26-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged, 80 and over
Architectural Accessibility - legislation & jurisprudence
Female
Germany
Housing - economics - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Models, Theoretical
Public Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Sweden
Abstract
The physical housing environment is important to facilitate activities of daily living (ADL) for older people. A hindering environment may lead to ADL dependence and thus increase the need for home services, which is individually restricting and a growing societal burden. This study presents simulations of policy changes with regard to housing accessibility that estimates the potential impact specifically on instrumental activities of daily living (I-ADL), usage of home services, and related costs. The models integrate empirical data to test the hypothesis that a policy providing funding to remove the five most severe environmental barriers in the homes of older people who are at risk of developing dependence in I-ADL, can maintain independence and reduce the need for home services. In addition to official statistics from state agencies in Sweden and Germany, we utilized published results from the ENABLE-AGE and other scientific studies to generate the simulations. The simulations predicted that new policies that remove potentially hindering housing features would improve I-ADL performance among older people and reduce the need for home services. Our findings suggest that a policy change can contribute to positive effects with regard to I-ADL independence among older people and to a reduction of societal burden.
Notes
Cites: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Jul;99(1):12-6 PMID 16867164
Cites: Scand J Rehabil Med. 1991;23(4):193-202 PMID 1785028
Cites: Health Serv Res. 1984 Aug;19(3):357-82 PMID 6746297
Cites: J Aging Health. 2011 Apr;23(3):578-604 PMID 21169222
Cites: Gerontologist. 2017 Apr 3;:null PMID 28379425
Cites: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 May;54(5):809-16 PMID 16696748
Cites: Int J Public Health. 2010 Jun;55(3):145-6 PMID 20143126
Cites: Am J Occup Ther. 2016 Mar-Apr;70(2):7002270020p1-9 PMID 26943110
Cites: Gerontologist. 2003 Oct;43(5):628-37 PMID 14570959
Cites: Gerontologist. 2007 Feb;47(1):78-84 PMID 17327543
Cites: Scand J Occup Ther. 2014 Sep;21(5):323-33 PMID 24784725
Cites: Gerontologist. 2009 Jun;49(3):355-67 PMID 19420315
Cites: Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 May-Jun;54(3):e349-63 PMID 22421356
Cites: Scand J Occup Ther. 2017 Jan 24;:1-15 PMID 28114837
Cites: Gerontologist. 2007 Feb;47(1):96-107 PMID 17327545
PubMed ID
28846592 View in PubMed
Less detail

Age-related associations between work over-commitment and zest for work among Swedish employees from a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289925
Source
Work. 2017; 57(2):269-279
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2017
Author
Roma Runeson-Broberg
Jean-Baptist du Prel
Peter Westerholm
Maria Nordin
Anders Knutsson
Lars Alfredsson
Göran Fahlén
Richard Peter
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Work. 2017; 57(2):269-279
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Occupational Stress - psychology
Reward
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Workload - psychology
Abstract
In aging societies, zest for work may be pivotal when deciding to stay occupationally active longer. Psychosocial work stress is a prevalent public health problem and may have an impact on zest for work. Work over-commitment (WOC) is a personal coping strategy for work stress with excessive striving and a health risk. However, the long-term effect of WOC on zest for work is poorly understood.
To investigate the age-related associations of work over-commitment with zest for work.
During 1996-1998 and 2000-2003, predominantly industrial workers (n?=?2940) participated in the WOLF-Norrland study and responded to a questionnaire referring to socio-demographics, WOC, zest for work, effort-reward imbalance proxies, and mental health. Age-adjusted multiple logistic regressions were performed with original and imputed datasets.
Cross-sectionally, work overcommitted middle-aged employees had an increased prevalence of poor zest for work compared to their contemporaries without WOC (OR: 3.74 [95%-CI 2.19; 6.40]). However, in a longitudinal analysis associations between onset of 'poor zest for work' and the WOC subscales 'need for approval' (OR: 3.29 [95%-CI 1.04; 10.37]) and 'inability to withdraw from work' (OR: 5.14 [95%-CI 1.32; 20.03]) were observed.
The longitudinal findings among older employees could be relevant regarding the expected need to remain occupationally active longer.
PubMed ID
28582947 View in PubMed
Less detail

Mercury in fur of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southern Sweden and Comparison to Ecotoxicological Thresholds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290214
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017 Nov; 99(5):561-566
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Staffan Åkerblom
Johnny de Jong
Author Affiliation
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. staffan.akerblom@slu.se.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017 Nov; 99(5):561-566
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Chiroptera - metabolism
Ecotoxicology
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Europe
Hair - chemistry - metabolism
Mercury - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Sweden
Abstract
To characterise mercury (Hg) exposure in Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii, Kuhl 1817) in southern Sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine Hg concentrations. The fur Hg levels determined [1.15?±?0.27 (mean?±?standard deviation, n?=?17) µg Hg g-1 fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of Hg exposure in bat populations in northern Europe. Mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur from other bat species, but were lower than proposed toxicological thresholds in bats (>?30 µg Hg g-1 fw) and mice (5 µg Hg g-1 fw). This is the first study to examine Hg exposure in bats in Scandinavia.
Notes
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2013 May 21;47(10):4967-83 PMID 23590191
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Feb 17;49(4):2059-65 PMID 25591047
Cites: Environ Res. 1977 Aug;14(1):30-4 PMID 560962
Cites: Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017 Feb;175(2):237-243 PMID 27278962
Cites: Ecotoxicology. 2010 Oct;19(7):1277-84 PMID 20596767
Cites: Ecotoxicology. 2014 Jan;23(1):45-55 PMID 24271419
Cites: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Feb;24(6):5497-5508 PMID 28028704
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1978 Nov;20(5):696-701 PMID 737347
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Jun;66(6):699-706 PMID 11353370
Cites: Ecotoxicology. 2014 Oct;23(8):1419-29 PMID 25048962
Cites: Environ Toxicol Chem. 2010 Mar;29(3):501-6 PMID 20821471
Cites: Chemosphere. 2016 Mar;147:376-81 PMID 26774302
Cites: Ambio. 2014;43 Suppl 1:91-103 PMID 25403972
Cites: Ambio. 2007 Feb;36(1):12-8 PMID 17408187
Cites: Environ Pollut. 2016 Jul;214:847-858 PMID 27155931
Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 2006 Sep;36(8):609-62 PMID 16973445
Cites: Environ Pollut. 2007 Jul;148(2):483-90 PMID 17257720
Cites: Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Jul;28(1):81-9 PMID 19427169
Cites: Environ Pollut. 2015 Dec;207:52-8 PMID 26340299
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health. 1980 May;6(3):597-606 PMID 7420467
Cites: Ecotoxicology. 2012 May;21(4):1094-101 PMID 22331394
PubMed ID
29128886 View in PubMed
Less detail

Marginal structural model to evaluate the joint effect of socioeconomic exposures on the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes: a longitudinal study based on data from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290217
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 08; 27(8):479-484
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Laura Pazzagli
Anna Möllsten
Ingeborg Waernbaum
Author Affiliation
Division of Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address: laura.pazzagli@stat.unipg.it.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 08; 27(8):479-484
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diabetic Nephropathies - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - diagnosis - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Risk factors
Social Determinants of Health
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Unemployment
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) that may lead to renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demanding dialysis and transplantation. The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial and both genes and environmental and life style-related factors are involved. In this study, we investigate the effect of the socioeconomic exposures, unemployment and receiving income support, on the development of ESRD in T1D patients, using a marginal structural model (MSM) in comparison with standard logistic regression models.
The study is based on the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register which in 1977 started to register patients developing T1D before 15 years of age. In the analyses, we include patients born between 1965 and 1979, developing diabetes between 1977 and 1994, and followed until 2013 (n = 4034). A MSM was fitted to adjust for both baseline and time-varying confounders.
The main results of the analysis indicate that being unemployed for more than 1 year and receiving income support are risk factors for the development of ESRD. Multiple exposures over time to these risk factors increase the risk associated with the disease.
Using a MSM is an advanced method well suited to investigate the effect of exposures on the risk of complications of a chronic disease with longitudinal data. The results show that socioeconomic disadvantage increases the risk of developing ESRD in patients with T1D.
PubMed ID
28935026 View in PubMed
Less detail

Mold and dampness exposure and allergic outcomes from birth to adolescence: data from the BAMSE cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290271
Source
Allergy. 2017 Jun; 72(6):967-974
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
J D Thacher
O Gruzieva
G Pershagen
E Melén
J C Lorentzen
I Kull
A Bergström
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Allergy. 2017 Jun; 72(6):967-974
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Fungi - pathogenicity
Humans
Humidity - adverse effects
Hypersensitivity - etiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Rhinitis - etiology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
Exposure to moldy or damp indoor environments is associated with allergic disease in young children, but it is unclear whether the effects persist to adolescence. Our objective was to assess whether exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increases the risk of asthma, rhinitis, or IgE sensitization in children followed from birth to 16 years of age.
We collected questionnaire derived reports of mold or dampness indicators and allergic outcomes from 3798 children in a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Sensitization was assessed from blood samples in 3293 children. Longitudinal associations between prevalent asthma, rhinitis, and IgE sensitization and mold or dampness indicators were assessed using generalized estimating equations.
Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with asthma up to 16 years of age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08-1.59), while exposure to mold odor (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) and visible mold (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.04-1.58) were associated with rhinitis. Increased risks were observed for nonallergic asthma (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27-2.55) and rhinitis (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03-1.93). No association was observed between mold or dampness indicators and IgE sensitization. Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with persistent asthma (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.20-2.50), but not with early-transient or late-onset asthma.
Exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increased the risk of asthma and rhinitis up to 16 years of age, particularly for nonallergic disease. Early exposure to mold or dampness appeared particularly associated with persistent asthma through adolescence.
Notes
Cites: PLoS One. 2014 Aug 19;9(8):e105125 PMID 25136984
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):110-22 PMID 25159468
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Oct;136(4):829-36; quiz 837 PMID 26449797
Cites: Allergy. 2016 Feb;71(2):239-48 PMID 26475651
Cites: Thorax. 2006 Mar;61(3):221-5 PMID 16396946
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Oct;45(10):1566-78 PMID 25845975
Cites: Indoor Air. 2016 Apr;26(2):168-78 PMID 25650175
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jan 15;141(2):103-10 PMID 7817966
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2013 May;70(5):325-31 PMID 23396522
Cites: Indoor Air. 2010 Oct;20(5):392-8 PMID 20590918
Cites: Indoor Air. 2009 Jun;19(3):184-92 PMID 19298228
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e47526 PMID 23144822
Cites: Indoor Air. 2014 Apr;24(2):158-70 PMID 24016225
Cites: Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Jan 5;183(1):113-24 PMID 19818335
Cites: Allergy. 2015 Jun;70(6):667-73 PMID 25703776
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Dec 15;186(12):1286-91 PMID 23103735
Cites: Allergy. 2011 Dec;66(12):1570-9 PMID 21923669
Cites: Allergy. 2016 Mar;71(3):342-9 PMID 26505741
Cites: Arch Toxicol. 2010 Mar;84(3):205-20 PMID 19904525
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2011 Jun;41(6):851-9 PMID 21561494
Cites: Eur Respir J. 2007 Mar;29(3):509-15 PMID 17107993
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;138(1):76-83.e1 PMID 26851966
Cites: Pediatrics. 2014 Sep;134(3):428-34 PMID 25136039
Cites: Lancet. 2006 Aug 26;368(9537):733-43 PMID 16935684
Cites: Indoor Air. 2016 Apr;26(2):207-18 PMID 25858592
Cites: Allergy. 2012 Apr;67(4):537-44 PMID 22335548
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr;133(4):979-88 PMID 24461583
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):240-6 PMID 22104609
Cites: Acta Paediatr. 2004 Jul;93(7):899-905 PMID 15303804
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Nov;132(5):1099-1110.e18 PMID 24028857
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2007;35(2):125-32 PMID 17454915
Cites: Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007 Aug;18(5):425-32 PMID 17617810
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Aug 15;172(4):451-9 PMID 20639287
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010 Jan;83(1):85-94 PMID 19633985
Cites: Indoor Air. 2007 Jun;17(3):226-35 PMID 17542835
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2013 Jul;43(7):762-74 PMID 23786283
Cites: Allergy. 2002 Jul;57(7):607-13 PMID 12100301
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Jan;45(1):154-63 PMID 25200568
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jun;119(6):748-56 PMID 21269928
Cites: Pediatrics. 2015 Mar;135(3):e598-606 PMID 25687143
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Oct;136(4):932-40.e12 PMID 25976706
Cites: Epidemiology. 2013 Jan;24(1):54-61 PMID 23222555
PubMed ID
27925656 View in PubMed
Less detail

Respiratory symptoms and lung function in relation to wood dust and monoterpene exposure in the wood pellet industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290727
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2017 Jun; 122(2):78-84
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Håkan Löfstedt
Katja Hagström
Ing-Liss Bryngelsson
Mats Holmström
Anna Rask-Andersen
Author Affiliation
a Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Örebro University , Örebro , Sweden.
Source
Ups J Med Sci. 2017 Jun; 122(2):78-84
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - therapy
Cough
Dust
Forced expiratory volume
Health status
Humans
Hypersensitivity
Industry
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Monoterpenes - adverse effects
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Respiration
Respiratory Function Tests
Spirometry
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Time Factors
Vital Capacity
Wood
Young Adult
Abstract
Wood pellets are used as a source of renewable energy for heating purposes. Common exposures are wood dust and monoterpenes, which are known to be hazardous for the airways. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of occupational exposure on respiratory health in wood pellet workers.
Thirty-nine men working with wood pellet production at six plants were investigated with a questionnaire, medical examination, allergy screening, spirometry, and nasal peak expiratory flow (nasal PEF). Exposure to wood dust and monoterpenes was measured.
The wood pellet workers reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms, dry cough, and asthma medication compared to controls from the general population. There were no differences in nasal PEF between work and leisure time. A lower lung function than expected (vital capacity [VC], 95%; forced vital capacity in 1?second [FEV1], 96% of predicted) was noted, but no changes were noted during shifts. There was no correlation between lung function and years working in pellet production. Personal measurements of wood dust at work showed high concentrations (0.16-19?mg/m3), and exposure peaks when performing certain work tasks. Levels of monoterpenes were low (0.64-28?mg/m3). There was no association between exposure and acute lung function effects.
In this study of wood pellet workers, high levels of wood dust were observed, and that may have influenced the airways negatively as the study group reported upper airway symptoms and dry cough more frequently than expected. The wood pellet workers had both a lower VC and FEV1 than expected. No cross-shift changes were found.
Notes
Cites: J Occup Environ Hyg. 2008 May;5(5):296-304 PMID 18322870
Cites: Epidemiology. 1991 Jul;2(4):263-70 PMID 1912041
Cites: Eur Respir J. 1994 Dec;7(12):2146-53 PMID 7713195
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1996 Jun;22(3):182-90 PMID 8837263
Cites: Thorax. 1992 Feb;47(2):84-7 PMID 1549828
Cites: Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1994 Mar;55(3):207-17 PMID 8184800
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1995;67(2):111-8 PMID 7672854
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2001 Oct;45(7):603-8 PMID 11583662
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 1995 Jun;39(3):299-305 PMID 7793749
Cites: Toxicology. 2000 Jul 5;147(3):209-14 PMID 10924802
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 1996 Feb;53(2):112-7 PMID 8777447
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 2002 Jan;41(1):38-53 PMID 11757054
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2004 Jun;48(4):339-49 PMID 15191943
Cites: Acta Otolaryngol. 1992 Sep;112(5):839-44 PMID 1456040
Cites: Allergy. 1995 Jul;50(7):559-62 PMID 8588687
Cites: J Occup Med. 1989 Jan;31(1):29-31 PMID 2738747
Cites: Clin Exp Allergy. 1991 Nov;21(6):733-7 PMID 1777833
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2003 Apr;47(3):219-26 PMID 12639835
Cites: Acta Otolaryngol. 1984 Nov-Dec;98(5-6):548-55 PMID 6524350
Cites: Contact Dermatitis. 1996 Mar;34(3):185-90 PMID 8833462
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2012 Aug;56(7):755-63 PMID 22879445
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 1994 Mar;51(3):165-72 PMID 8130844
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 2008 Nov;52(8):685-94 PMID 18703543
Cites: Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001 Jul;16(7):763-9 PMID 11458924
Cites: Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997 Apr;23(2):114-20 PMID 9167234
Cites: Ann Occup Hyg. 1999 Aug;43(6):381-92 PMID 10518464
Cites: Ups J Med Sci. 1986;91(3):299-310 PMID 3811032
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Sep;152(3):1107-36 PMID 7663792
Cites: Respiration. 1995;62(3):130-5 PMID 7569332
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1983;51(3):191-8 PMID 6852927
Cites: J Environ Monit. 2002 Oct;4(5):648-56 PMID 12400909
Cites: Am J Med Sci. 1999 Nov;318(5):293-7 PMID 10555090
Cites: Allergy. 2000 Sep;55(9):836-41 PMID 11003447
Cites: Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Mar;153(3):948-52 PMID 8630578
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Nov;102 Suppl 7:119-28 PMID 7889871
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1973 Oct;52(4):193-8 PMID 4270244
Cites: Chest. 1995 Sep;108(3):642-6 PMID 7656610
Cites: J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2005;15(2):124-30 PMID 16047713
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1994 Jan;25(1):65-7 PMID 8116656
Cites: Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2000 Mar;15(3):263-76 PMID 10701289
Cites: Am J Med Sci. 2001 Apr;321(4):249-79 PMID 11307867
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990;62(5):379-83 PMID 2228258
Cites: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004 Nov;8(11):1285-91 PMID 15581194
Cites: Am J Ind Med. 1997 Apr;31(4):385-98 PMID 9093652
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2004 Oct;61(10):824-30 PMID 15377768
Cites: Eur Respir J. 2008 Feb;31(2):334-42 PMID 17989115
PubMed ID
28276782 View in PubMed
Less detail

Uppsala Consensus Statement on Environmental Contaminants and the Global Obesity Epidemic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290785
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 05 01; 124(5):A81-3
Publication Type
Consensus Development Conference
Journal Article
Date
05-01-2016
Author
Lars Lind
P Monica Lind
Margareta H Lejonklou
Linda Dunder
Åke Bergman
Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna
Erik Lampa
Hong Kyu Lee
Juliette Legler
Angel Nadal
Youngmi Kim Pak
Richard P Phipps
Laura N Vandenberg
Daniel Zalko
Marlene Ågerstrand
Mattias Öberg
Bruce Blumberg
Jerrold J Heindel
Linda S Birnbaum
Author Affiliation
Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 05 01; 124(5):A81-3
Date
05-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Consensus Development Conference
Journal Article
Keywords
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic
Environmental health
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Epidemics
Global health
Humans
Obesity - chemically induced - epidemiology
Sweden
Notes
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):359-66 PMID 23322813
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2013 May;121(5):594-9 PMID 23591545
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55387 PMID 23359474
Cites: Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013;5:725-33 PMID 23277027
Cites: PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5186 PMID 19365547
Cites: Mol Endocrinol. 2006 Sep;20(9):2141-55 PMID 16613991
Cites: BMC Med. 2013;11:228 PMID 24228800
Cites: J Health Econ. 2012 Jan;31(1):219-30 PMID 22094013
Cites: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015 Dec 1;289(2):262-75 PMID 26415833
Cites: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):19-29 PMID 19433244
Cites: PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e103337 PMID 25076055
Cites: JAMA. 2014 Jul;312(2):189-90 PMID 25005661
Cites: Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016 May-Jun;10(3):243-55 PMID 26383959
Cites: Acta Paediatr. 2008 Oct;97(10):1465-9 PMID 18665907
Cites: Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Feb;22(2):488-96 PMID 23963708
Cites: Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Dec;42:256-68 PMID 23892310
Cites: Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009 May 25;304(1-2):97-105 PMID 19433254
Cites: Lancet. 2014 Aug 30;384(9945):766-81 PMID 24880830
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2009 Mar;66(3):143-9 PMID 19060027
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Oct;117(10):1549-55 PMID 20019905
Cites: Endocrinology. 2013 Apr;154(4):1465-75 PMID 23493373
Cites: Endocr Rev. 2015 Dec;36(6):E1-E150 PMID 26544531
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jul;123(7):730-6 PMID 25742056
Cites: Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011 Jun;7(6):346-53 PMID 21467970
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Oct;123(10):1030-7 PMID 25956007
PubMed ID
27135406 View in PubMed
Less detail

Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: a case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268814
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jun;129:39-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Marko Filipovic
Andreas Woldegiorgis
Karin Norström
Momina Bibi
Maria Lindberg
Ann-Helen Österås
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Jun;129:39-45
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Airports
Animals
Drinking Water - standards
Fishes - metabolism
Fluorocarbons - analysis - chemistry
Groundwater - chemistry
Humans
Lakes - chemistry
Military Facilities
Muscle, Skeletal - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis - chemistry
Surface Properties
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - chemistry
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried. One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520ngg(-1) dry weight and
PubMed ID
25262531 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood tuberculosis and exposure to indoor air pollution: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269091
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
N. Jafta
P M Jeena
L. Barregard
R N Naidoo
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Male
Needs Assessment
Pediatrics
Risk assessment
Sweden
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Abstract
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and biomass fuel smoke (BMS) poses respiratory health risks, with children and women bearing the major burden.
We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between childhood tuberculosis (TB) and exposure to ETS and BMS.
We searched three databases for epidemiological studies that investigated the association of childhood TB with exposure to ETS and BMS. We calculated pooled estimates and heterogeneity for studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and stratified studies on ETS by outcome.
Five case-control and three cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and quality assessment. Pooled effect estimates showed that exposure to ETS is associated with tuberculous infection and TB disease (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.9) among exposed compared to non-exposed children. TB disease in ETS studies produced a pooled OR of 2.8 (95%CI 0.9-4.8), which was higher than the OR for tuberculous infection (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.9-2.9) for children exposed to ETS compared to non-exposed children. Studies on BMS exposure were too few and too small to permit a conclusion.
Exposure to ETS increases the risk of childhood TB disease or tuberculous infection.
PubMed ID
25868030 View in PubMed
Less detail

Isocyanate exposure in bathtub refinishing: à propos a case of occupational asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87541
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(3):287-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Seldén Anders I
Andersson Lennart
Barlas Georgios
Westberg Håkan
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden. anders.selden@orebroll.se
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(3):287-90
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Asthma - chemically induced
Hospitalization
Humans
Isocyanates - analysis - poisoning
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
Work-related asthma in a bathtub refinishing technician prompted measurements of isocyanate exposure in this operation. Very high levels of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) oligomer, up to 8500 microg/m3 NCO, were found during top varnish spray-painting, whereas the levels of HDI monomer were substantially lower. The results suggest that only full-piece, self-contained respirators would suffice to protect technicians from serious pulmonary disease.
PubMed ID
17932019 View in PubMed
Less detail

Mortality, morbidity and occupational exposure to airway-irritating agents among men with a respiratory diagnosis in adolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87693
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Feb;65(2):120-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Wiebert P.
Svartengren M.
Lindberg M.
Hemmingsson T.
Lundberg I.
Nise G.
Author Affiliation
Dr P Wiebert, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Norrbacka, Karolinska Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden; pernilla.wiebert@sll.se.
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Feb;65(2):120-5
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - diagnosis - mortality - psychology
Career Choice
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Employment
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Irritants - toxicity
Male
Military Medicine
Morbidity
Prevalence
Proportional Hazards Models
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - diagnosis - mortality - psychology
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of an airway diagnosis in adolescence on future health and occupation in Swedish men. METHODS: Data were collected from the linkage of four Swedish national registers: the Military Service Conscription Register, the Population and Housing Censuses, the Inpatient Care Register and the National Cause of Death Register. A job-exposure matrix for airway-irritating substances was developed for application on the conscription cohort. The cohort included 49 321 Swedish men born 1949-51. Three groups-(1) healthy, (2) asthmatics (mild and severe asthma) and (3) subjects with allergic rhinitis without concurrent asthma-were identified at conscription and analysed for mortality, in-patient care and strategies for choice of occupation with emphasis on airway-irritating job exposure. Analyses were adjusted for smoking and childhood socioeconomic position. RESULTS: The prevalence of total asthma was 1.8%, severe asthma 0.45% and allergic rhinitis 2.7%. Mortality for all causes was significantly higher in total asthma, hazard ratio (HR) 1.49 (95% CI 1.00 to 2.23), and lower in allergic rhinitis, HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.91). Asthma was a risk factor for inpatient care while allergic rhinitis was associated with less in-patient care (odds ratio (OR) for total asthma 1.16 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.34), severe asthma 1.38 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.85), allergic rhinitis 0.92 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.03)). Those with asthma tended to avoid jobs with a high probability for airway-irritating exposure (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.09), but not to the same extent as subjects with allergic rhinitis (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.70) (ORs from 1990). CONCLUSION: Subjects with asthma did not change their exposure situation to the same extent as subjects with allergic rhinitis. Further, asthmatics had an increased risk for morbidity and mortality compared to healthy subjects and subjects with allergic rhinitis.
PubMed ID
17681997 View in PubMed
Less detail

Decreased blood lead levels in residents of Stockholm for the period 1980-1984.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature237185
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1986 Apr;12(2):114-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1986
Author
C G Elinder
L. Friberg
B. Lind
B. Nilsson
M. Svartengren
I. Overmark
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1986 Apr;12(2):114-20
Date
Apr-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood Specimen Collection
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lead - blood
Male
Middle Aged
Random Allocation
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
A number of measures have been taken to decrease the spread of lead to ambient air and food. In a study of the effect of these and other preventive measures, blood samples from approximately 100 persons living in the inner city area of Stockholm were collected and analyzed for lead content on three different occasions, in 1980, 1983, and 1984. The same subjects were examined on at least two occasions and the analytical method, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, was carefully controlled by means of reference samples on each occasion. The blood lead levels decreased during the observation period. The average blood lead concentrations for all the examined persons were 0.37, 0.26, and 0.25 mumol/l for 1980, 1983, and 1984, respectively. The mean of the differences in individual blood lead levels for 1980 and 1984 was 0.12 mumol/l. This figure corresponds to an average decrease in blood lead of 34% for all the subjects examined in 1980. The decrease occurred mainly during the period 1980-1983 (mean 0.11 mumol/l) and, thereafter, was only slight for the period 1983-1984 (mean 0.01 mumol/l). Factors such as age, sex, and change of residence during the observation period did not influence the final results.
PubMed ID
3726492 View in PubMed
Less detail

The work ability index and single-item question: associations with sick leave, symptoms, and health--a prospective study of women on long-term sick leave.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144395
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010 Sep;36(5):404-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Linda Ahlstrom
Anna Grimby-Ekman
Mats Hagberg
Lotta Dellve
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden. linda.ahlstrom@amm.gu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2010 Sep;36(5):404-12
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Confidence Intervals
Disability Evaluation
Employment - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Linear Models
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - psychology - rehabilitation
Occupational Health - statistics & numerical data
Pain Measurement
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life - psychology
Questionnaires
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Time Factors
Workplace - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study investigated the association between the work ability index (WAI) and the single-item question on work ability among women working in human service organizations (HSO) currently on long-term sick leave. It also examined the association between the WAI and the single-item question in relation to sick leave, symptoms, and health. Predictive values of the WAI, the changed WAI, the single-item question and the changed single-item question were investigated for degree of sick leave, symptoms, and health.
This cohort study comprised 324 HSO female workers on long-term (>60 days) sick leave, with follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. Participants responded to questionnaires. Data on work ability, sick leave, health, and symptoms were analyzed with regard to associations and predictability. Spearman correlation and mixed-model analysis were performed for repeated measurements over time.
The study showed a very strong association between the WAI and the single-item question among all participants. Both the WAI and the single-item question showed similar patterns of associations with sick leave, health, and symptoms. The predictive value for the degree of sick leave and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was strong for both the WAI and the single-item question, and slightly less strong for vitality, neck pain, both self-rated general and mental health, and behavioral and current stress.
This study suggests that the single-item question on work ability could be used as a simple indicator for assessing the status and progress of work ability among women on long-term sick leave.
PubMed ID
20372766 View in PubMed
Less detail

Osteocalcin gene polymorphisms influence concentration of serum osteocalcin and enhance fracture identification.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145085
Source
J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jun;25(6):1392-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Fiona McGuigan
Jitender Kumar
Kaisa K Ivaska
Karl J Obrant
Paul Gerdhem
Kristina Akesson
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Department of Orthopedics, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
Source
J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jun;25(6):1392-9
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Cohort Studies
Female
Fractures, Bone - blood - genetics
Gene Frequency - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Logistic Models
Osteocalcin - blood - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
Osteoporosis is a major health problem affecting more than 75 million people throughout Europe, the United States, and Japan. Epidemiologic studies have determined that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We have investigated the association between polymorphisms at the osteocalcin locus and variables linked to bone health. Osteocalcin provides a link between bone and energy metabolism, hence its potential importance as an osteoporosis candidate gene. In this study, we included a total of 996 women (all aged 75 years) from the Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment (OPRA) cohort. We sequenced the osteocalcin gene along with flanking regions to search for novel coding polymorphisms. We also analyzed four polymorphisms selected from within and flanking regions of the osteocalcin gene to study their association with serum total osteocalcin levels (S-TotalOC), total-body (TB) bone mineral density (BMD), fracture, TB fat mass, and body mass index (BMI). The promoter polymorphism rs1800247 was significantly associated with S-TotalOC (p = .012) after controlling for BMI and TB BMD. The polymorphism rs1543297 was significantly associated with prospectively occurring fractures (p = .008). In a model taking into account rs1543297 and rs1800247, along with TB BMD, BMI, smoking, and S-TotalOC, the polymorphisms together were able to identify an additional 6% of women who sustained a fracture (p = .02). We found no association between the polymorphisms and TB BMD, BMI, or TB fat mass. In conclusion, polymorphisms in and around the osteocalcin locus are significantly associated with S-TotalOC and fracture. Genotyping at the osteocalcin locus could add valuable information in the identification of women at risk of osteoporosis.
PubMed ID
20200947 View in PubMed
Less detail

Use, non-use and perceived unmet needs of assistive technology among Swedish people in the third age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277113
Source
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2016;11(3):195-201
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Charlotte Löfqvist
Björn Slaug
Henrik Ekström
Marianne Kylberg
Maria Haak
Source
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2016;11(3):195-201
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Age Factors
Aged
Aging
Environment
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Perception
Self-Help Devices - utilization
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
To describe the most prominent use of or perceived unmet need of assistive technology (AT) and to compare the characteristics of users, non-users and those expressing perceived unmet need with respect to overall health, independence in everyday life, environmental barriers and socio-demographic features.
The study is based on data collected in the "Home and Health in the Third Age Project". In all, 371 individuals participated and data were collected during home visits in southern Sweden by interviewers trained specifically for this project. The data collection comprised well-proven self-report scales and observational formats on the home environment and health indicators as well as questions about basic demographics and socio-structural data.
The proportion of users constituted almost half of the total sample. The most common types of AT used were for furnishing/adaptation (35%) and the highest perceived unmet need concerned AT for communication, in total 8%. Those cohabiting were to a higher extent users of AT for furnishing/adaptation, compared to those who lived alone. A higher perceived unmet need was seen among those who lived alone compared with cohabiting people.
These findings are of importance for future planning and development of policy to improve health services for the new generation of elderly. Implications for Rehabilitation In order to support the ageing process, the need for assistive technology has to be monitored in the third age. Assistive technology for furnishings and adaptation are frequently used by individuals in their third age and are important to support ageing in the home. Not only do health aspects impact the use of assistive technology, but gender, living conditions and social situation also matter - older men especially need to be monitored thoroughly according to their perceived unmet needs as well as do older persons living alone.
PubMed ID
25238550 View in PubMed
Less detail

Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277460
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74(4):265-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Jessica S Ericsson
Jan L Wennström
Björn Lindgren
Max Petzold
Anna-Lena Östberg
Kajsa H Abrahamsson
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74(4):265-71
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dental Care
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Gingivitis - classification - psychology
Health Behavior
Health status
Humans
Male
Models, Psychological
Oral Health
Parents - education
Residence Characteristics
Self Efficacy
Sex Factors
Sweden
Tobacco use
Toothbrushing
Young Adult
Abstract
To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents.
Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level.
In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing?=?2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth.
Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions.
PubMed ID
26599291 View in PubMed
Less detail

Perspectives of working life research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95134
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2009 Sep;35(5):394-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Järvholm Bengt
Albin Maria
Johansson Gunn
Wadensjö Eskil
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Bengt.jarvholm@envmed.umu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2009 Sep;35(5):394-6
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Employment - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - psychology
Humans
Occupational Exposure - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Quality of Life
Research - organization & administration
Sweden
Abstract
We recently finished a position paper on Swedish working life research for the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research. An obvious question was the definition of "working life research". Searching the literature, we found a plethora of terms used to describe this area and lack of a generally accepted definition. It also became clear that the primary goals of such research varied widely between international organizations and governments. In this paper, our aim is to discuss the definition and goals of working life research.
PubMed ID
19669072 View in PubMed
Less detail

Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95185
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:221
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Kullberg Agneta
Karlsson Nadine
Timpka Toomas
Lindqvist Kent
Author Affiliation
Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden. agneta.kullberg@liu.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:221
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Crime
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fear
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Safety
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. RESULTS: Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. CONCLUSION: We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish community. The results of this study suggest that residents' self-assessed area reputation is an important underlying mechanism of perceived safety. We also found a difference in crime rates and safety-related concerns between areas with blocks of flats compared with small-scale areas although the neighbourhoods were close geographically.
PubMed ID
19586534 View in PubMed
Less detail

No interaction between smoking and working as a hairdresser with respect to reproductive health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95270
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2009 Apr;51(4):399; author reply 399-400
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
Axmon Anna
Rylander Lars
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Lund University Lund, Sweden.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2009 Apr;51(4):399; author reply 399-400
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - etiology
Barbering - statistics & numerical data
Beauty Culture
Cohort Studies
Female
Fertilization
Humans
Norway
Retrospective Studies
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden
Notes
Comment On: J Occup Environ Med. 2008 Dec;50(12):1371-719092492
PubMed ID
19359895 View in PubMed
Less detail

Heritabilities for fifteen routine biochemical values: findings in 215 Swedish twin pairs 82 years of age or older.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95278
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(5):562-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Nilsson Sven E
Read Sanna
Berg Stig
Johansson Boo
Author Affiliation
Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jonkoping University, Sweden. sven.nilsson@hhj.hj.se
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2009;69(5):562-9
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged, 80 and over
Biological Markers - blood
Female
Humans
Inheritance Patterns - genetics
Male
Sweden
Twins - genetics
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to calculate the overall heritability of some routine biochemical analyses. Furthermore, as genetic and environmental influences might differ across various segments, genetic impact in the highest and lowest thirds of the distributions was estimated. METHODS: Ninety-six monozygotic and 120 dizygotic same-sex twin pairs aged 82 and older were tested. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on serum levels of albumin, calcium, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, GGT, potassium, sodium, creatinine, urea, urate, cobalamin, folate, homocysteine, free thyroxine and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). RESULTS: Additive genetic influence of between 66% and 28% of the variance was accounted for all values except creatinine, for which the genetic influence was marginal. The highest influence was found for homocysteine, cobalamin, folate and HDL-cholesterol. Genetic influence for the tests was mainly in congruence with previous findings in younger samples. When limited to the highest and lowest thirds of distribution, there were substantial differences in the proportion of genetic influence for some tests. CONCLUSION: For the majority of biochemical tests, the magnitude of genetic influence is considerable. Heritability estimates, however, should be considered in a broad context, with age, gender, morbidity and medication taken into account. Notably, for many test values, the genetic impact may differ considerably between the highest and the lowest range of the distribution.
PubMed ID
19343610 View in PubMed
Less detail

892 records – page 1 of 45.