For the solution of ecological problems in the framework of the preparation of the municipal ecological program in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) there was peiformed the assessment of the state of population health, the evaluation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk from chemicals that pollute the air and drinking water Atmospheric air was established to be the main environment cause for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. The obtained results served as the basis for the development of technological, sanitary and hygienical measures of the program aimed at optimizing of the population health.
The negative impact of urbanization on public health is obvious. However; due to the comprehensiveness and polymorphicity of its manifestations there are not established criteria for them. Health risk methodology allows, in principle, to obtain quantitative indices of the separate results of the impact on the health status of the citizens of metropolis that can be extremely effective in this area. The total cross-media riskfrom traffic pollution, drinking water quality, open ponds, noise, etc. permits to use of hygiene criteria in urban planning, insurance, taxation, etc.
Negative trends in incidence rates of children and adolescents of the city of Penza are due to the influence of both environmental factors as well as the educational process. Hygienic trouble in the city of Penza determines air pollution emissions of road transport, as evidenced by the high levels of morbidity rate in children and adolescents. The priorities for the correction factors are conditions and the organization of nutrition, physical education. There are identified the most important lifestyle factors for senior pupils that need the solution.
There was executed the ecologic-hygienic assessment of the distribution of respiratory diseases prevalence in bioclimatic zones of the Primorsky Krai. The aim of the study was a systematic assessment of the impact of ecological-hygienic factors of environment on the distribution of respiratory diseases in adolescents and children of the Primorsky region. As an information database there were used indices of the prevalence of diseases of the respiratory system of the ICD-10 class of the official statistical report forms for the period of2000-2013 and the parameters of the environment offactor modules (6 - socio-sanitary, 5 - environmental). The numerical values of modules offactors were determined according to a specially developed scoring scale. The study of the prevalence was carried out with the use of a classical method of data analysis - descriptive statistics, Chi-square criteria. By means of the method of regression analysis from the SPSS package software there was established the relationship of environmental factors and the level of the prevalence of diseases, and were calculated values of the factor loadings influencing on the morbidity rate of children and adolescents. The study revealed that in the structure of morbidity diseases of the respiratory system account of 39% in adolescents, 61% - in children. Constructed predictive models describe the trend of the increasing in the prevalence in adolescents and children. Over the past 15 years, the level of respiratory diseases morbidity rate increased by 46.1%. It is established that the prevalence of respiratory diseases in children and adolescents from various districts of the Primorsky territory depends on the features of the bioclimatic zones and the degree of sanitary-hygienic situation, as well as combinations of parameters that form these zones; the highest cumulative level of the prevalence is observed in the bioclimatic zone of the coast, that is caused by the various degree of the impact of biotropic factors of environment; The prevalence of diseases of respiratory system is mainly affected by bioclimatic factors: residence in an area of high humidity, temperature swings, movements of air masses in combination with air pollution.
In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.
The relevance of the study on the Gydansky Peninsula lies in poor knowledge and inaccessibility of the territory, planned intensive industrial development of the Gydansky Peninsula, in 2011 there were received licenses for the exploration of license areas at the peninsula up to 2031. Industrial development will inevitably lead to certain environmental shifts, emission of the harmful substances into biosphere, the accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants in soil and water sources. The proposed development of the territory of the Peninsula Gydan sets the task of assessment of the impact of gas and oil production in conditions of the far North on health, as well indigenous persons as employees recruited to this of the region. One of the informative approaches to the assessment of population health is the assessment of the cytogenetic status with the use of noninvasive analysis of buccal epithelium. The aim of the study is to determine the cytogenetic status of the inhabitants of the village of Antipayuta of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug for the assessment of the impact of environmental factors on the health of the population at the present stage of the industrial development of the territory. Samples of buccal epithelium of 81 alien and indigenous people of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district were the object of the investigation. There was performed the analysis of indices of cells of buccal epithelium of the residents living in the village in comparison with the control group. The analysis of samples was performed on a Nikon Eclipse E100 microscope. For the assessment of the cytogenetic status of the individual there was used the proposed by Sycheva L. P. (2012-Index of accumulation of cytogenetic damages (Iac). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear protrusions does not exceed the performance of the control group. The index of accumulation of cytogenetic damage for the population of the village is 0.78±0.07% and corresponds to a low level. The analysis of indices of buccal epithelial cells of residents living in rural areas was performed in the comparison with the control group The prevalence rate of cells with micronuclei and protrusions were shown to account of 14.6% andfail to exceed indices in the control group. Accumulation index of cytogenetic damages for the village population is 0.78 ± 0.07 % and corresponds to the low level. The amount of cells with micronuclei and protrusions in the current study is by 14.6% lower than the average of the control group. The intensity of proliferative processes and apoptosis in the comparison groups occurs evenly.
In August 2015 there were executed investigations on the study of the soils diversity of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. One of the directions of this work got be the study of urban soils of settlements of the Yamal-Nenents Autonomous Okrug. The sectors for the observation were settlement of Harsaim, village Aksarka, city of Salekhard, settlement Harp and city of Labytnangi. About 20 soil samples were collected during the field work. Samples were collected from a depth of 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm. Heavy metals (HM) were detected with the use of X-ray fluorescent analyzer “Spectroscan-MAX”. The HM content values were compared with the corresponding Approxible Permissible Concentrations and Maximum Allowable Concentrations (MAC) adopted in Russia. Hydrocarbons content was determined by gravimetric method. Values of the hydrocarbons content in studied soils were compared with the existing regulations of the Russian Federation. The levels of soil contamination by hydrocarbons were determined. The study of soil samples from different settlements allowed to reveal characteristic features of soil contamination of separate settlements by HM and hydrocarbons and to compare them against each other. The vast majority of samples are characterized by arsenic exceedance of MAC, which should indicate to a high regional background of this element. For a more adequate assessment of the Zc meaning as the value of the total pollution index of soils there were used not only arithmetical average values of the coefficients of the chemical composition concentration (Kc), but also their average geometric values. According to levels of total soil contamination most of soil samples are characterized as non-hazardous (Zc
The use of groundwater in population water supply systems gains more and more importance because of increasing degradation of the quality of surface water sources. At the same time there are changed concepts on ubiquitous high quality of groundwater. The executed analysis offoreign and domestic literature allowed authors to determine the character and causes of negative changes in the composition of groundwater. In the large body of investigations there were established cause-and-effect relationships between a number of noninfectious (including cardiovascular and cancer) and infectious diseases and anthropogenic pollution and the natural composition of groundwater. In the article there is substantiated the formation of a new interdisciplinary scientific direction - medical hydrogeology. On the basis of current data on the medical and ecological significance of the quality, quantity and regime of the groundwater, geological conditions of the shaping of their composition, there was shown the need of the consideration of the hydrological situation in making water supply management solutions safe for the health of the population. In this regard, there were considered the interrelationship and interdependence of allied disciplines - hygiene, ecological toxicology and epidemiology, hydrogeochemistry, hydrogeology. There was pointed the importance of the acquisition of based on hydrogeology medical specialists of the water supply profile for sharing with hygienists of the effective solution of tasks of the management of groundwater sources.
In modern conditions the base of the assurance of the safety of human being from harmful factors of environment is the hygienic rationing for the latters. The use of this methodological principle led to the considerable decline in the level of chemical pollution of environment objects. However tens of millions of Russians are exposed to the impact of chemicals above admissible hygienic level. There was noted the high prevalence and mortality rate due to noninfectious diseases of the population. The hygienic science needs to develop and introduce methodology of personification prevention on protection of the person against chemical environmental pollution.
In the paper there are presented results of investigations of indices of the physical development of male adolescents aged of 11-17 years - residents of the 1-2 generation from new coming European migrants in the Magadan region during 2008-2014. There were observed 418 adolescents - representatives of the 1 generation, and 463 cases from the 2 generation. Representatives of the 2 generation in the initial period (11-12 years) were established to show higher tempos of growth. Maximal gains in the body length, body mass, and chest circumference in adolescents of the 1 generation occur at the age of 13-14 years, but in the 2 generation it is seen one year later - at the age of 14-15 years. In adolescents of each generation there was noted the high variability of the level of major indices of the physical development. However, among representatives of the 1 generation there is less proportion of cases with normal or average values of body length, body mass, and chest circumference along with larger proportion ofpersons with diverse deviations, as well deficit as excess in comparison with the 2 generation. At the final stage of the puberty age (17 years) more adolescents with microsomatic (25%) and disharmonic (38.2%) body constitution occur among the subjects from the 1 generation as compared to those of the 2 generation (19.7% and 28.2%, respectively).
The purpose of this study was to assess whether similar environmental factors predict adolescents' smoking in two different cultures: in the Pitkäranta district in Russian Karelia and in eastern Finland. The data were gathered by self-administered questionnaires from ninth-grade students in 10 comprehensive schools in Pitkäranta (n = 385) and from age-matched students in 24 schools in eastern Finland (n = 2,098). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test whether similar path structures fit for boys and for girls in Pitkäranta and in eastern Finland, and to test whether regression coefficients were similar between the cultures by sex. Smoking by family members and best friends was positively related to adolescents' smoking both directly and indirectly. Environmental factors were similar predictors of smoking between the cultures for boys. For girls, different regression coefficients in Pitkäranta and in eastern Finland were found. Best friend's smoking was the most important predictor of adolescents' own smoking in every sub-sample. When indirect relationships were identified, the significance of parents' and siblings' smoking, in addition to smoking by best friends, was strongly supported.
The physical development of children and adolescents characterizes a process of their growth and maturation of the growing body. It is a key criterion of children's health. The dynamics in the physical development of child and adolescent populations suggests that a complex of biosocial and environmental factors influences the rate of children's growth and development. The past 10-15 years have been marked by an insignificant positive dynamics of the major morphological parameters and some sex-age groups have shown their stabilization and a significant reduction in functional parameters with continuous sex maturation acceleration. There is a definite relationship between their physical development and health status. Failures in age-specific development terms (a biological age) and morphofunctional disharmony are generally accompanied by health deviations. There are more profound impairments in the physical development of an individual are, the more severe diseases are.
The accident that occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, released large quantities of radionuclides--among them radioiodine--into the atmosphere, thereby raising public concerns about its influence on thyroid structure and function, especially the development of malignancy. There were even reports about 700 deaths due to thyroid carcinoma in Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus, resulting from the accident. In this review we discussed the incidence of thyroid cancer in different parts of the world, especially in heavily contaminated countries, as Ukraine and Belarus, and the possible link between radioisotope activity in the thyroid and the development of malignancy. The study carried out in Minsk showed 40-fold increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer in the years 1986-1994, in comparison to the period 1977-1985. An increase of the incidence of thyroid cancer has generally been observed in many countries after the Chernobyl accident. We focused on the factors that may have an influence on this phenomenon, especially diagnostic tests, health care, social and environmental factors, like iodine level in water and soil. The results of molecular biology studies, e.g. RET translocation in carcinoma type RET/PTC1 in elderly and RET/PTC3 in children, and expression Ax1 and Gas6 in children were reviewed as well. We also mentioned other thyroid diseases, like nodular goitre, cysts, the disturbance of thyroid function and autoimmunity, possibly linked to the radiation after Chernobyl accident. Data obtained from the regions near Chernobyl showed no increased risk of other types of malignancy (leukaemia, Hodgkin's and non Hodgkin's lymphoma) in 1986-1996. In this article the epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Poland was also reviewed.
Under the conditions of hot and mountain-continental climate, the morbidity rates in the inhabitants were estimated to be significantly lower than those in young men who had not been acclimatized or adapted to living conditions and in non-acclimatized men. A role of individual physical environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, average and maximum air speed) and integral exposure by the wind chill index (a combined impact of an air speed and ambient temperature) as risk factors to human health was defined, The mountain-continental climate showed a relationship of the influence of these factors to habitation at different altitudes above sea level.
The authors determined concentration of asbestos fibers in lung tissue samples obtained in hospital of Asbestos town in Sverdlovsk region. The samples were taken from 47 individuals who died with various causes. of Workers engaged into extraction and beneficiation of chrysotile asbestos at Bazhenovsky field, into production of chrysotile asbestos goods and those who reside in close proximity to the enterprises demonstrated no differences in general content of fibrous particles and of chrysotile asbestos fibers in lung tissue, if compared to workers of the same enterprises and industrial regions dwellers of Canada (being second, after Russia, for total chrysotile asbestos production). The study proved concentrations of amphibole asbestos fibers to be one order lower than those in Canada.
According to most parameters, children's health in area containing asbestos production is considered as typical one for industrial environment. Dust containing asbestos induces higher incidence of respiratory diseases and immune changes. Frequent respiratory diseases are characteristic for junior age groups of children.
Examination of 400 workers in Bratsk aluminium plant proved respiratory diseases formation to be influenced by both occupational factors and various toxic chemicals that are released into atmosphere by other industrial polluters. Structure of respiratory diseases is represented mainly by diffuse pneumoconiosis caused by toxic and dust factors. Prophylaxis of those diseases should be aimed not only to better work conditions, but also to specify measures improving regional ecologic situation.
Department of Environmental Epidemiology, the Urals Branch of the Center for Preparation and Implementation of International Projects on Technical Assistance, Yekaterinburg, Russia. LarisaP@ocsen.mplik.ru
The highly industrialized small town of Verkhnyaya Pyshma (in the Urals region of Russia) was chosen as the site of a multimedia-multipollutant risk assessment using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methodology. The assessment was based on routine environmental pollution monitoring data for ambient air, soils, drinking water, and food, and the international environmental epidemiology literature. Using an a priori set of the preliminary health-based criteria, we selected nine pollutants for risk assessment: total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), ammonia arsenic, copper, cadmium, and lead. We used dose-response functions derived from epidemiologic studies to assess individual and population risks for TSP, SO2, NO2, As, Cd, and Pb. We assessed both cancer (for BaP, As, and Cd) and non-cancer (for all the chosen pollutants but BaP) responses, but in this paper we discuss only the assessments of noncarcinogenic risks due to TSP, SO2, NO2, Pb, and Cd as examples of how the quantitative estimates of health effects can be produced by using a risk function approach. We also schematically present a modified conceptual model of multimedia-multipollutant risk assessment taking into account the experience gained with this study.
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Aim of the study was to elucidate relationship between complex effect on organism of unfavorable ecological factors of high altitudes and course of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertensive disease in Surgut (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District). Five year medico-ecological monitoring established direct relation between dynamics of average monthly hospital admissions of patients with IHD and hypertension, level of atmospheric pressure and concentration of phenol in the air. Complex of nature conservation measures resulted in decreases of frequency of hospitalizations as well as cardiovascular morbidity with temporary loss of working capacity.