[The balance of the Work of Plenum of the Research Council on Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of the Russian Federation "priorities of preventive health care in the sustainable development of society: state and approaches for the solution of problems"].
In the projection of sanitary protection zones of water sources it is extremely important to determine the specific boundaries of the established zones of sanitary protection due to the solution of property issues and responsibilities. In the paper projection of data with account of required scaling it is not possible to do. In this case, the use of geographic information systems is appropriate and useful. In addition there is necessary an adjustment of the existing sanitary calculations in relation to zones of sanitary protection of water sources in the part of specification of the order of approval of projects of sanitary protection zones and organization of the control for their implementation.
The lack of adequate legislative and regulatory framework for ensuring minimization of the health risks in the field of environmental protection is the obstacle for the application of the risk analysis methodology as a leading tool for administrative activity in Russia. "Principles of the state policy in the sphere of ensuring chemical and biological safety of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 and beyond", approved by the President of the Russian Federation on 01 November 2013, No PR-25 73, are aimed at the legal support for the health risk analysis methodology. In the article there have been supposed the main stages of the operative control of the environmental quality, which lead to the reduction of the health risk to the acceptable level. The further improvement of the health risk analysis methodology in Russia should contribute to the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of chemical and biological safety through the introduction of complex measures on neutralization of chemical and biological threats to the human health and the environment, as well as evaluation of the economic effectiveness of these measures. The primary step should be the legislative securing of the quantitative value for the term: "acceptable risk".
One of the main criteria which determine the possibility of the use of a particular type of ice-melter reagents (IMR) is the degree of their safety for the environment and human health, which is reflected in the establishment of safe doses and concentrations. In this regard, the current area of research is to improve the ecological and epidemiological principles of risk assessment of modern types of anti-icing agents. Currently available data concerning monitoring soil studies and the snow held in various cities of Russia, show that there is a process of accumulation of the main components of IMR - sodium and chlorine ions in the areas related to the roadway. The article is designated a problem of existing methodological approaches to the assessment of the phytotoxic impact in the investigation of anti-icing agents in the laboratory. There was executed the comparative characteristics of the results of the preliminary pilot studies on the phytotoxic properties of IMR under using different substrates for germination of seeds - soil and filter paper. The data obtained are characterized by differences in the degree of phytotoxic action of the same species depending upon ice-melter reagents methodical setting circuit laboratory experiment. As a result, there was shown the imperfection of the existing method of rapid analysis in relation to ice-melter materials (IMM).
The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
Research priorities of Alexei Nikolaevich Sysin (1879-1956) were faced to the study of issues of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of Russia. World- renowned hygienist scientist was the one of the pioneers in the field of general and communal hygiene, epidemiology and disinfection. Not little attention A.N. Sysin paid also to issues of occupational health, together with other scientists he laid the foundation of modern Occupational Health. The victory of the Great October Revolution has set before organizers and medical science scholars, among who was A.N. Sysin, new challenges in dealing with the many complex issues, including occupational health issues. Already in the first months of the new Republic he prepared dozens of directives, regulations and instructions, wrote a large number of draft laws for health services, developed the first regulations on the sanitary supervision of the country enterprises. The leading role in the emergence of many printed newspapers and magazines, books and bulletins on general issues in health, preventive medicine, hygiene, epidemiology, occupational health is belonged to A.N. Sysin. He published more than 250 scientific papers on various aspects of sanitary science: from the problems of epidemics of dangerous infections to the working and living conditions of different enterprises. A. N. Sysin paid a lot of attention to industrial injuries, problems of increscent occupational toxicology, the introduction of newest forms of general and personal protective equipment at the plant, modernization of the industrial equipment, issues of the shortened workday, labor of women and children - all kinds of sanitary measures and improvement of labor and living workers' conditions.
The comparative research was carried to study basic indices of physical development and cardiovascular system in Aboriginals and north-born Europeans of different areas of Russia’s northeast (Chukotsky Autonomous District, Magadan Region). According to most examined morphofunctional characteristics no significant differences were found between the groups of subjects that testify to the formation, under the current social conditions, of convergent adaptation processes typical for the two ethnic cohorts from the observed areas of residing. High percentage of asthenia in body constitution of young residents from Magadan Region was common and mostly demonstrated by Aboriginals of the Magadan city.
For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist with health care management in Russia, we analyzed health care providers' educational needs, as they perceive them.
A total of 4, 367 questionnaires were sent to practicing physicians and physician-executives in 3 regions of the Russian Federation. The questionnaires included 14 items designed to determine respondents' current levels of satisfaction and preferences for health care management education in Russia.
There were 847 questionnaires returned, for a total response rate of 19.4%. Physicians were dissatisfied with the current status of health care management education, but they were interested in learning the skills of health care management. The health care legal system and computer systems and data analysis were the most popular courses requested; health care management and marketing were the least popular. Learning interests of executives differed from those of practicing physicians, and regions differed in their combined interests for courses. Medical school and continuing education departments were seen as the best choices for delivering health care management education.
As health care policy shifts in new directions, physicians in leadership positions expect Russian medical schools and continuing education departments to provide courses that enable improvements in health care.
A critical survey of all published measurements made so far aimed at retrospective biological dosimetry using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques on some workers at the Mayak reprocessing plant and on members of the Techa River cohort is given. Each individual has a recorded dose derived from personal monitoring measurements, usually external gamma-rays for Mayak workers or from reconstruction techniques, usually internally derived for the Techa River cohort. From the person's age, which affects the control level, and the stated dose, an expected number of translocations is calculated for each individual and comparisons made to the observed numbers of translocations. From this, an assessment of how well FISH studies can help to validate existing estimates of dose is made. This varies from study to study. Good agreement is generally obtained for the Techa River cohort and lower doses of the Mayak cohort. Rather poorer agreement applies to the more highly exposed Mayak workers. Some of the discrepancy could be because the FISH painting technique was new and was applied to populations before a proper investigation on how to use it for retrospective biological dosimetry had taken place. In addition, too few cells were generally scored per individual so that statistical uncertainties were large.
The paper analyzes of the currently available guidelines for assessing damages (in kind and value terms) caused by environmental factors to the population's health. The contributions of various diseases, the quality of the environment, bad habits, and other internal and external factors to the mortality structure in Russia are compared. The authors show it important to study the comparative role of the quality of life and its style, environmental pollution, the population's subjective perception of risks in the formation of health damages.
The aim of this survey was to study the ecological state in the Kurgan Region in the period of 1993 to 2003. The survey showed the west and northwest part of the Kurgan Region to be areas at risk for environment-dependent diseases. The major risk factors included a high pollution of water sources with limited water resources due to the radioactive pollution occurring in the 1940s to the 1950s in some areas of the region; transformation of natural landscapes caused by spring floods and soil erosions among other things.
The paper gives hygienic characteristics of water supplying conditions in the oil-producing areas of the Republic of Tatarstan. A long-term intensive oil-field development, without taking into account its environmental influence, is shown to have resulted in the pollution of water resources and broken the conditions of water consumption by the population. There has been a considerable increase in the total mineralization (1.8-2.3 g/l) of rivers, the levels of chlorides (300-1200 mg/l) and sulfates (300-1800 mg/l), and the salinity of springs. The implementation of nature-conserving and sanitary-and-hygienic measures have stabilized and improved the qualitative composition of water sources used for drinking water supply in the oil-producing areas of the Republic of Tatarstan, leading to a marked trend for improving water supplying conditions and accordingly the quality of the population's life.
The Government of Moscow allocates substantial funds for the development of a sociohygienic monitoring (SGM) system and for the guidance of the population's health status monitoring in relation to environmental factors. The risk-assessing studies made jointly with the investigators of the A. N. Sysin Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, make it possible to determine priorities in risk control and to introduce new technologies for controlling the public health associated with the influence of social and environmental factors.
There was performed an assessment of the quality of the environment and the state of health of the child population of the one out of industrialized regions of the Moscow region. There were determined priority risk factors for diseases of the respiratory system and skin. The indices and the structure of morbidity rate were analyzed according to the incidence of outpatient visits. There was developed a comprehensive hygienic model for the preventive and therapeutic activities aimed at the improvement of the environment and reduction of the morbidity rate in children's population.
The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.
This paper presents findings from public health and environmental assessment work that has been conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia. RTGs utilise heat energy from radioactive isotopes, in this case 90Sr and its daughter nuclide 90Y, to generate electricity as a power source. Different accident scenarios based on the decommissioning process for RTGs are assessed in terms of possible radiation effects to humans and the environment. Doses to humans and biota under the worst-case scenario were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature.