Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.
This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).
The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that the LED lighting (LL) in training class does not have a negative impact on the change in the functional state of the neuro-psychiatric sphere in pupils by the end of the school day, if compared with traditional for schools fluorescent lighting (FL). With the help of specially matched methods for psychophysiological examination there was performed the testing of changes in the functional state of the neuro-psychiatric in pupils during the school day and there was made an analysis of these changes in dependence on the type of lighting the classroom. LL, if compared to FL, was established to lead to a significant weakening of the negative changes of functional lability of the visual analyzer, the power of excitation of the nervous system and cognitive functions, as well as to an increase in positive changes in psychomotorics. The data obtained allow us to recommend the use of LED lighting equipment in modern schools.
In the article there is considered the complex of methodological approaches for the detection of vanadium in the air and biological substrates of the population for the practical use in the frameworks of public health monitoring in areas with localization of steel industry facilities. The developed complex of methods on the base of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) allowed to perform the hygienic assessment of the quality of objects of the environment in the territory located in the zone of the impact of emissions of ferrovanadium production (the city of Tchusovoy of the Perm Krai). From the results of the study there was established the significant excess of the vanadium content in the ambient air of the studied area in relation to the control territory and to the reference concentration for chronic inhalation exposure (RfCxp) to 6.0 times. There was revealed a significant excess of vanadium content in the blood of children residing in the study area, with respect to the regional background levels (0.0001-0.00016 mg/dm3). Complex clinical laboratory and chemical-analytical studies of biosubstrates of the children population allowed to substantiate the marker of the inhalation exposure (the vanadium content in the blood) and its reference level (0.0023 dm3).
A methodical approach to the hygienic assessment of the educational environment in children's educational institutions was developed and tested for the objective determination of the level ofsanitary and epidemiological welfare and effective planning of preventive measures with bearing in mind environmental factors which have the most negative impact on children's health.
The current environmental and socio-economic living conditions are major causes of the deterioration of the population health. The physical development of children and adolescents permits to evaluate fleeting changes in the population. There was performed the evaluation of the physical development of 1664 schoolchildren in the Ulyanovsk region. Features of the physical development, the state of autonomic tone and cardiac activity of children and adolescents residing in areas with the intense anthropogenic impact testify to the exertion of adaptation mechanisms under the influence of environmental factors.
Leptospira, the causal agent of leptospirosis, has been isolated from the environment, patients, and wide spectrum of animals in Russia. However, the genetic diversity of Leptospira in natural and anthropurgic foci was not clearly defined.
The recent MLST scheme was used for the analysis of seven pathogenic species. 454 pyrosequencing technology was the base of the whole genome sequencing (WGS).
The most wide spread and prevalent Leptospira species in Russia were L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii. Five STs, common for Russian strains: 37, 17, 199, 110, and 146, were identified as having a longtime and ubiquitous distribution in various geographic areas. Unexpected properties were revealed for the environmental Leptospira strain Bairam-Ali. WGS of this strain genome suggested that it combined the features of the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains and may be a reservoir of the natural resistance genes. Results of the comparative analysis of rrs and rpoB genes and MLST loci for different Leptospira species strains and phenotypic and serological properties of the strain Bairam-Ali suggested that it represented separate Leptospira species.
Thus, the natural and anthropurgic foci supported ubiquitous Leptospira species and the pool of genes important for bacterial adaptivity to various conditions.
Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".
[The balance of the Work of Plenum of the Research Council on Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of the Russian Federation "priorities of preventive health care in the sustainable development of society: state and approaches for the solution of problems"].
In the projection of sanitary protection zones of water sources it is extremely important to determine the specific boundaries of the established zones of sanitary protection due to the solution of property issues and responsibilities. In the paper projection of data with account of required scaling it is not possible to do. In this case, the use of geographic information systems is appropriate and useful. In addition there is necessary an adjustment of the existing sanitary calculations in relation to zones of sanitary protection of water sources in the part of specification of the order of approval of projects of sanitary protection zones and organization of the control for their implementation.
The lack of adequate legislative and regulatory framework for ensuring minimization of the health risks in the field of environmental protection is the obstacle for the application of the risk analysis methodology as a leading tool for administrative activity in Russia. "Principles of the state policy in the sphere of ensuring chemical and biological safety of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025 and beyond", approved by the President of the Russian Federation on 01 November 2013, No PR-25 73, are aimed at the legal support for the health risk analysis methodology. In the article there have been supposed the main stages of the operative control of the environmental quality, which lead to the reduction of the health risk to the acceptable level. The further improvement of the health risk analysis methodology in Russia should contribute to the implementation of the state policy in the sphere of chemical and biological safety through the introduction of complex measures on neutralization of chemical and biological threats to the human health and the environment, as well as evaluation of the economic effectiveness of these measures. The primary step should be the legislative securing of the quantitative value for the term: "acceptable risk".
One of the main criteria which determine the possibility of the use of a particular type of ice-melter reagents (IMR) is the degree of their safety for the environment and human health, which is reflected in the establishment of safe doses and concentrations. In this regard, the current area of research is to improve the ecological and epidemiological principles of risk assessment of modern types of anti-icing agents. Currently available data concerning monitoring soil studies and the snow held in various cities of Russia, show that there is a process of accumulation of the main components of IMR - sodium and chlorine ions in the areas related to the roadway. The article is designated a problem of existing methodological approaches to the assessment of the phytotoxic impact in the investigation of anti-icing agents in the laboratory. There was executed the comparative characteristics of the results of the preliminary pilot studies on the phytotoxic properties of IMR under using different substrates for germination of seeds - soil and filter paper. The data obtained are characterized by differences in the degree of phytotoxic action of the same species depending upon ice-melter reagents methodical setting circuit laboratory experiment. As a result, there was shown the imperfection of the existing method of rapid analysis in relation to ice-melter materials (IMM).
The realization of the package of measures directed at the consecutive decrease of the negative effect of hazardous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment to the acceptable risk level stipulates the development of standard legal regulation in the field of ensuring the chemical and biological safety. For this purpose article presents substantiation and conceptual approaches to the creation of legislation in the field of the chemical and biological security of the Russian Federation within the pursued state policy. In determination of conceptual approaches, in the article there are reported: the main idea, the purpose, a subject of legal regulation, the circle of people who will be subjected to the laws, the place offuture laws in the system of current legislation, the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Federal backbone laws of the Russian Federation to realization of which laws are directed, there is given the general characteristic and an assessment of a condition of legal regulation in this field, results of the analysis of the information on the need for correspondence of Russian laws to provision of international treaties, concerning prohibitions of the biological and chemical weapon, safe handling with biological agents and chemicals, and also the development of uniform procedures of ensuring chemical and biological safety. The major aspect in the shaping of the legislation is the global character ofproblems of chemical and biological safety in this connection in article there is indicated the need of rapprochement of rules of law for this area with partners in economic cooperation and integration. Taking into account an orientation of future laws on the decrease in the level of the negative impact of dangerous chemical and biological factors on the population and environment, there are designated medical, social, economic and political consequences of their implementation. There are presented the proposed structure for bills: “About biological safety”, “On Chemical Safety” and “On the National collection of pathogens.
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
Research priorities of Alexei Nikolaevich Sysin (1879-1956) were faced to the study of issues of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of Russia. World- renowned hygienist scientist was the one of the pioneers in the field of general and communal hygiene, epidemiology and disinfection. Not little attention A.N. Sysin paid also to issues of occupational health, together with other scientists he laid the foundation of modern Occupational Health. The victory of the Great October Revolution has set before organizers and medical science scholars, among who was A.N. Sysin, new challenges in dealing with the many complex issues, including occupational health issues. Already in the first months of the new Republic he prepared dozens of directives, regulations and instructions, wrote a large number of draft laws for health services, developed the first regulations on the sanitary supervision of the country enterprises. The leading role in the emergence of many printed newspapers and magazines, books and bulletins on general issues in health, preventive medicine, hygiene, epidemiology, occupational health is belonged to A.N. Sysin. He published more than 250 scientific papers on various aspects of sanitary science: from the problems of epidemics of dangerous infections to the working and living conditions of different enterprises. A. N. Sysin paid a lot of attention to industrial injuries, problems of increscent occupational toxicology, the introduction of newest forms of general and personal protective equipment at the plant, modernization of the industrial equipment, issues of the shortened workday, labor of women and children - all kinds of sanitary measures and improvement of labor and living workers' conditions.
The comparative research was carried to study basic indices of physical development and cardiovascular system in Aboriginals and north-born Europeans of different areas of Russia’s northeast (Chukotsky Autonomous District, Magadan Region). According to most examined morphofunctional characteristics no significant differences were found between the groups of subjects that testify to the formation, under the current social conditions, of convergent adaptation processes typical for the two ethnic cohorts from the observed areas of residing. High percentage of asthenia in body constitution of young residents from Magadan Region was common and mostly demonstrated by Aboriginals of the Magadan city.
A critical survey of all published measurements made so far aimed at retrospective biological dosimetry using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques on some workers at the Mayak reprocessing plant and on members of the Techa River cohort is given. Each individual has a recorded dose derived from personal monitoring measurements, usually external gamma-rays for Mayak workers or from reconstruction techniques, usually internally derived for the Techa River cohort. From the person's age, which affects the control level, and the stated dose, an expected number of translocations is calculated for each individual and comparisons made to the observed numbers of translocations. From this, an assessment of how well FISH studies can help to validate existing estimates of dose is made. This varies from study to study. Good agreement is generally obtained for the Techa River cohort and lower doses of the Mayak cohort. Rather poorer agreement applies to the more highly exposed Mayak workers. Some of the discrepancy could be because the FISH painting technique was new and was applied to populations before a proper investigation on how to use it for retrospective biological dosimetry had taken place. In addition, too few cells were generally scored per individual so that statistical uncertainties were large.
The Radiation Protection Research Unit of the European Commission has been supporting collaborative research projects on the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident since 1991. However, in the Fourth Framework Programme of the Commission which started in 1996, the collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union has been placed on a different footing, and the programme has been expanded to include other regions, especially in Russia and Kazakhstan, where previous nuclear incidents have led to the exposure of workers and the local populations and to widespread radioactive contamination. There are 15 projects on health-related studies in the newly started programme, and in order to improve the collaboration between the different scientists working in these projects a Cluster Contractors' Meeting was organised in San Miniato, Italy, in June 1997 with the participation of some 50 scientists from the European Union (EU) and the Newly Independent States (NIS). This report summarizes the different topics, including molecular biology and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer, various epidemiological studies and dose reconstruction, which were discussed at the meeting and which form the major projects in the new collaborative programme.
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Building I, Room 1404E, Boston, MA 02115, USA. email@example.com
We evaluated the associations of serum dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with longitudinally assessed growth measurements among peripubertal Russian boys.
A total of 499 boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, aged 8 to 9 years were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2005 and were followed prospectively for 3 years. Blood samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted at entry and repeated at annual study visits. Multivariate mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures were used to examine the associations of serum dioxins and PCBs with longitudinal measurements of BMI, height, and height velocity.
Serum dioxin (total 2005 toxic equivalency [TEQ] median: 21.1 pg/g lipid) and PCBs (median sum of PCBs: 250 ng/g lipid) were measured in 468 boys. At study entry and during 3 years of follow-up, >50% of the boys had age-adjusted BMI and height z scores within 1 SD of World Health Organization-standardized mean values for age. Boys in the highest exposure quintile of the sum of dioxin and PCB concentrations and total TEQs had a significant decrease in mean BMI z scores of 0.67 for dioxins and TEQs and 1.04 for PCBs, compared with boys in the lowest exposure quintile. Comparison of the highest versus the lowest quintile revealed that higher serum PCB concentrations were associated with significantly lower height z scores (mean z-score decrease: 0.41) and height velocity (mean decrease: 0.19 cm/year) after 3 years of follow-up.
Our findings suggest that exposures to dioxins and PCBs are associated with reduced growth during the peripubertal period and may compromise adult body mass, stature, and health.
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Feb;112(2):257-6514754581