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Exposure to microbial agents in house dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122533
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
U. Gehring
M. Korppi
G. Doekes
J. Riedler
C. Braun-Fahrländer
S. Bitter
S. Schmid
L. Keski-Nisula
M. Roponen
V. Kaulek
J-C Dalphin
P I Pfefferle
H. Renz
G. Büchele
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland. anne.karvonen@thl.fi
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Austria - epidemiology
Biological Markers - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - immunology
Dust - analysis - immunology
Endotoxins - analysis - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Finland - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - blood - immunology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Polysaccharides - analysis - immunology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - immunology
Rural Population
Switzerland - epidemiology
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with development of wheezing and allergic diseases.
To assess the association of microbial exposure in rural homes with the risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic dermatitis and sensitization.
Birth cohorts of rural children (n = 1133), half from farmer families, were followed up from birth to 2 years of age by questionnaires in five European centres. Endotoxin and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. were determined from living room floor and mother's mattress dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Specific IgE against 19 allergens was measured at 1 year of age. Discrete-time hazard models, generalized estimations equations (GEE) and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses.
The incidence of asthma was inversely associated with the amount of dust (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) and the loads (units/m(2)) of EPS (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.04) and endotoxin (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.05) in the mother's mattress. Similar associations were seen with wheezing and with living room floor dust. The microbial markers were highly correlated and their effects could not be clearly separated. The inverse associations were seen especially among non-farmers. The risk of sensitization to inhalant allergens increased with increasing endotoxin exposure from mattress dust. No associations were observed with concentrations (units/g) or with atopic dermatitis.
The amount and microbial content of house dust were inversely associated with asthma and wheezing, but due to high correlations between microbial agents and amount of dust, it was not possible to disentangle their individual effects. New ways to better measure and represent exposure to environmental microbes, including indexes of biodiversity, are needed especially among farmers.
PubMed ID
22805472 View in PubMed
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A comparison of the psychosocial environment of two types of residences for persons with severe mental illness: small congregate community residences and psychiatric inpatient settings.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71446
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;48(4):243-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2002
Author
David Brunt
Lars Hansson
Author Affiliation
School of Health Sciences and Social Work, Växjö University, Sweden. david.brunt@ivosa.vxu.se
Source
Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;48(4):243-52
Date
Dec-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Community Mental Health Services - organization & administration
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Personnel
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Psychotic Disorders - diagnosis - rehabilitation
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residential Treatment
Severity of Illness Index
Social Environment
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Legislation was passed in Sweden to stimulate the development of different housing solutions for persons suffering from severe mental illness. Among these solutions are small congregate residences built in the community to provide suitable housing and support for those not able or willing to live independently. AIMS: The general aim of the present study was to compare the psychosocial environment of two types of residences for the persons with severe mental illness - congregate community residences and psychiatric inpatient settings. A specific aim was to see if the former provided higher levels of autonomy than the latter. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study the real version of the Community Oriented Program Environmental Scale (COPES) was administered to residents, patients and staff members. RESULTS: The study showed that the psychosocial environment differs between the two types of settings. Residents and staff in small congregate residences rated higher levels of Autonomy and lower levels of Practical Orientation, Anger and Aggression and Order and Organisation than patients and staff in inpatient settings. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial environment profiles for psychiatric settings in different phases of the care process may vary in terms of the aforementioned subscales.
PubMed ID
12553405 View in PubMed
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Factors promoting sustainable work in women with fibromyalgia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117089
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Sep;35(19):1622-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Annie Palstam
Gunvor Gard
Kaisa Mannerkorpi
Author Affiliation
Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. annie.palstam@gu.se
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Sep;35(19):1622-9
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Disability Evaluation
Disabled Persons - psychology
Employment
Female
Fibromyalgia - diagnosis - psychology
Focus Groups
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Pain - etiology - psychology
Qualitative Research
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Urban Population
Women, Working - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
To examine and describe the factors promoting sustainable work in women with fibromyalgia (FM).
A qualitative interview study. Twenty-seven gainfully employed women with FM participated in five focus group interviews. Their median age was 52 years, ranging from 33 to 62. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative latent content analysis.
Four categories were identified describing factors promoting sustainable work: the meaning of work and individual strategies were individual promoters while a favourable work environment and social support outside work were environmental promoters. The meaning of work included individual meaning and social meaning. The individual strategies included handling symptoms, the work day and long-term work life. A favourable work environment included the physical and psychosocial work environment. Social support outside work included societal and private social supports.
Promoting factors for work were identified, involving individual and environmental factors. These working women with FM had developed advanced well-functioning strategies to enhance their work ability. The development of such strategies should be supported by health-care professionals as well as employers to promote sustainable work in women with FM.
Work disability is a common consequence of fibromyalgia (FM). Working women with FM appear to have developed advanced well-functioning individual strategies to enhance their work ability. The development of individual strategies should be supported by health-care professionals as well as employers to promote sustainable work and health in women with FM.
PubMed ID
23336119 View in PubMed
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Unemployment and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134627
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Jens P Bonde
Ellen A Nohr
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the relation between employment status, type of unemployment and pregnancy outcomes.
A cohort study of 7,282 pregnancies of unemployed women and 56,014 pregnancies among women in paid jobs was performed within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained and information about lifestyle, occupational, medical, and obstetric factors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for fetal loss, congenital anomalies, multiple births, sex ratio, preterm and very preterm birth and small for gestational age status, adjusting for lifestyle, medical and obstetric factors.
There were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between employed and unemployed women but women receiving unemployment benefit had an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.31) and having a small for gestational age child (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.19) compared with employed women. Women receiving sickness or maternity benefit had an increased risk of multiple birth (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.04), preterm (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) and very preterm birth (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.89), while those receiving an unreported type of support had an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93).
We found no indication that being unemployed during pregnancy benefits or endangers the health of the child. Within the subgroups of unemployed women, we observed that women receiving unemployment and sickness or maternity benefits were at higher risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
PubMed ID
21558297 View in PubMed
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Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134673
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Ase Vikanes
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Andrej M Grjibovski
Per Magnus
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Allium
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Hyperemesis Gravidarum - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Seafood
Severity of Illness Index
Water - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis), characterised by severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, has an unknown aetiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate food and nutrient intake before pregnancy and the risk of developing hyperemesis in women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 7710 pregnant women answered a FFQ about their diet during the 12 months before becoming pregnant and a questionnaire about illnesses during pregnancy, including hyperemesis. Only women who were hospitalised for hyperemesis were included as cases. Nutrient intakes during the year before pregnancy did not differ between the ninety-nine women who developed hyperemesis and the 7611 who did not. However, the intake of seafood, allium vegetables and water was significantly lower among women who developed hyperemesis than among women in the non-hyperemesis group. Relative risks of hyperemesis were approximated as OR, and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women in the upper tertile of seafood consumption had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the lower tertile (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·98), and women in the second tertile of water intake had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the first tertile (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·73). The findings suggest that a moderate intake of water and adherence to a healthy diet that includes vegetables and fish are associated with a lower risk of developing hyperemesis.
PubMed ID
21554820 View in PubMed
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Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134772
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Roy M Nilsen
Per Magnus
Jan Alexander
Margareta Haugen
Author Affiliation
Divisions of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Diet, Mediterranean
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Status
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - etiology
Premature Birth - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21543541 View in PubMed
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Farm children's exposure to herbicides: comparison of biomonitoring and questionnaire data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180236
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
Donald C Cole
Len Ritter
Brian D Ripley
Author Affiliation
Health Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. Tye_Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
Adolescent
Adult
Agriculture
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Herbicides - urine
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Questionnaires
Abstract
Pesticide exposure has been associated with various childhood cancers. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, with few using biologic measures of dose. This study was designed to measure herbicide exposure directly in children of farm applicators, and to compare these results with exposure imputed from questionnaire information.
Two consecutive 24-hour urine samples were collected from 92 children of Ontario farm applicators who used the herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) for the first time during 1996. The farm applicator completed questionnaires describing his pesticide-handling practices as well as the child's location during the various stages of handling these pesticides.
Approximately 30% of the children on farms using these herbicides had detectable concentrations in their urine, with maximum values of 100 microg/L for 2,4-D and 45 microg/L for MCPA. Children with higher levels were more likely to be boys and to have parents who also had higher mean urinary concentrations. The sensitivity and specificity of a simple indicator of use were 47% and 72%, respectively, for 2,4-D, and 91% and 30%, respectively, for MCPA, using the biomonitoring data as the gold standard.
Information on living on a farm, or on living on a farm where a specific pesticide is used, is not enough to classify children's exposures. Given this potential for misclassification, we urge incorporation of biomonitoring studies in subsets of children at least to estimate the extent of misclassification.
PubMed ID
15127911 View in PubMed
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Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in female Swedish physical therapists with more than 15 years of job experience: prevalence and associations with work exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101934
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2011 Apr;27(3):213-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas Grooten
Philip Wernstedt
Marc Campo
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. wim.grooten@ki.se
Source
Physiother Theory Pract. 2011 Apr;27(3):213-22
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Health
Odds Ratio
Physical Therapy (Specialty)
Posture
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) in female physiotherapists with more than 15 years of job experience. A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to 203 female physiotherapists with more than 15 years of job experience. Unconditional logistic regression was used to study the association between job exposures and the risk for WRMDs. The questionnaire was returned by 131 physiotherapists (64.5%). Of 99 subjects who answered specific questions about WRMDs, 52 (53.5%) were affected by WRMDs in at least one body part. Regions most affected were the hand/wrist (n=31; 58.5%) and the lower back (n=30; 56.5%). For hand/wrist pain, associations were found with: orthopedic manual therapy techniques (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=3.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.2-13.1); working in awkward or cramped positions (OR=4.96; 95% CI=1.3-18.7); and high psychological job demands (OR=4.34; 95% CI=1.2-15.0). For lower back pain, associations were found with: working in awkward or cramped positions (adjusted OR=6.37; 95% CI=1.6-24.7); and kneeling or squatting (adjusted OR=4.76; 95% CI=1.4-15.9). More than half of the respondents reported WRMDs. General physical and psychosocial work-related exposures, as well as specific therapy tasks, were strongly associated with WRMDs. Larger, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the direction of causality.
PubMed ID
20690880 View in PubMed
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Threats and acts of intimate partner violence reported by users at Norwegian women's shelters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101937
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Mar;26(5):950-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Kjersti Alsaker
Kjell Kristoffersen
Bente E Moen
Valborg Baste
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Medicine, Research Group for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. kjersti.alsaker@isf.uib.no.
Source
J Interpers Violence. 2011 Mar;26(5):950-70
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Battered Women - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Crime Victims - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Mental health
Middle Aged
Norway
Public Housing
Questionnaires
Self Disclosure
Severity of Illness Index
Spouse Abuse - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Spouses
Women's health
Young Adult
Abstract
Women (n = 87) at women's shelters in Norway, a country of high welfare and gender equality, reported a multitude of severe threats and actual acts of physical, sexual and psychological violence. An individual threatening to kill his partner represented a significant increased risk for experiencing serious acts of violence, especially when the threats were repeated. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all the women's shelters. Experiences of violence were measured by The Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Index (PMWI).
PubMed ID
20587473 View in PubMed
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Environmentally reformed travel habits during the 2006 congestion charge trial in Stockholm--a qualitative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131412
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3202-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Greger Henriksson
Olle Hagman
Håkan Andréasson
Author Affiliation
Department of Urban Planning and Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden. gregerh@kth.se
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3202-15
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Attitude
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Cities
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Policy - economics
Humans
Particulate Matter - analysis
Questionnaires
Sweden
Transportation - economics - methods
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour.
PubMed ID
21909301 View in PubMed
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Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth: awareness and use in schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131582
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):137-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Shauna M Downs
Anna Farmer
Maira Quintanilha
Tanya R Berry
Diana R Mager
Noreen D Willows
Linda J McCargar
Author Affiliation
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Source
Can J Diet Pract Res. 2011;72(3):137-40
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alberta
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - standards
Food Services
Guideline Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Guidelines as Topic
Health promotion
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Nutritional Status
Questionnaires
Schools
Social Environment
Abstract
In June 2008, the Alberta government released the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth. We evaluated the awareness of and intent to use the guidelines in Alberta schools, and sought to determine whether organizational characteristics were a factor in adoption of the guidelines.
Randomly selected schools from across Alberta completed a 19-question telephone survey, which included open- and closed-ended questions about the schools' characteristics, the priority given to healthy eating, awareness of the guidelines, and the schools' intent to use the guidelines. Of the 554 schools contacted, 357 (64%) completed the survey.
Overall, 76.1% of schools were aware of the guidelines and 65% were in the process of adopting them. Fifty percent of schools identified healthy eating as a high priority and 65.9% reported making changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year. Schools that were larger, public, and urban, and had a school champion and healthy eating as a high priority were more likely to be adopting the guidelines.
Most schools were aware of the nutrition guidelines and many had begun the adoption process. Identifying a school champion may be an important first step for schools in terms of adopting health promotion initiatives.
PubMed ID
21896251 View in PubMed
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Genetic epidemiology of Scheuermann's disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131603
Source
Acta Orthop. 2011 Oct;82(5):602-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Frank Damborg
Vilhelm Engell
Jan Nielsen
Kirsten O Kyvik
Mikkel Ø Andersen
Karsten Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lillebaelt Hospital, Kolding. Frankdamborg@stofanet.dk
Source
Acta Orthop. 2011 Oct;82(5):602-5
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Scheuermann Disease - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Sex Factors
Abstract
The genetic/environmental etiology of Scheuermann's disease is unclear. We estimated the heritability of the disease using an etiological model adjusted for sex and time of diagnosis, and examined whether the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease was constant over time.
46,418 twins were sent a questionnaire about health and disease. Of these, 75% returned the questionnaire and 97% answered the question "Have you been diagnosed as having Scheuermann's disease by a doctor?"
Responders included 11,436 complete pairs of twins. Data were analysed using classical twin modeling methods. Tetrachoric correlations were used to decide which etiological model to fit. The best-fitting model was the AE model. Heritability was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.65-0.81), while variance explained by environmental factors was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.19-0.35). A threshold of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.9-2.2) was calculated, corresponding to a prevalence of 1.9% (95% CI: 1.3-2.8) for women. Regression coefficients for age and sex were 0.000 (95% CI: -0.003 to 0.002) and -0.32 (95% CI: -0.42 to -0.23).
We found a heritability of 0.74 in Scheuermann's disease. The threshold in men was lower than in women, corresponding to a male prevalence that was almost twice that of females. We found no change in the prevalence of Scheuermann's disease throughout the 50-year age span that we examined.
Notes
Cites: Am J Med Genet. 2001 May 15;100(4):275-911343318
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Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Oct;88(10):2133-617015588
Cites: J Surg Orthop Adv. 2009 Fall;18(3):122-819843436
PubMed ID
21895506 View in PubMed
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Community-based health research led by the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131709
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Sonia Wesche
Roseanne C Schuster
Pam Tobin
Cindy Dickson
Darcie Matthiessen
Shel Graupe
Megan Williams
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Community Health Sciences, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011 Sep;70(4):396-406
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate change
Community-Based Participatory Research
Focus Groups
Food Supply
Health Services Research
Humans
Indians, North American
Northwest Territories
Questionnaires
Abstract
This paper documents an exceptional research partnership developed between the Vuntut Gwitchin Government (VGG) in Old Crow, Yukon, with a group of scientists to examine northern food security and health as part of a larger, multidisciplinary International Polar Year (IPY) research program. We focus on the elements that enabled a successful community-researcher relationship. Study design. The VGG led the development of the research and acted as Principal Investigator on the IPY grant. The multidisciplinary collaboration spanned the physical, biological and health sciences, including issues related to food security.
The food security and health component of this research was carried out using a series of complementary methods, including focus groups, structured interviews, a household questionnaire, an interactive workshop, community meetings, transcript analysis and a caribou flesh exposure assessment.
Results from the food security component are informing local and regional adaptation planning. The legacy of the research collaboration includes a number of results-based outputs for a range of stakeholders, a community-based environmental monitoring program, long-term research relationships and improved community capacity.
The type of collaboration described here provides a useful model for new types of participatory health research with northern communities.
PubMed ID
21884655 View in PubMed
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Exposure to tobacco smoke and prevalence of symptoms decreased among Finnish restaurant workers after the smoke-free law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131740
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan;55(1):37-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Jere P Reijula
Tom S-E Johnsson
P Simo Kaleva
Kari E Reijula
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan;55(1):37-43
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Chi-Square Distribution
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Restaurants - legislation & jurisprudence
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Abstract
The impact of tobacco legislation and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in bars and restaurants were assessed in a national survey.
Questionnaire surveys among restaurant workers were conducted in 2007 before the smoking ban, and in 2009.
The exposure to ETS decreased significantly after the launch of the 2007 smoke-free law. During 2007-2009, the prevalence of those restaurant workers with no exposure increased from 54% to 82% (P-value
PubMed ID
21882216 View in PubMed
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Municipal bylaw to reduce cosmetic/non-essential pesticide use on household lawns - a policy implementation evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131875
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:74
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Donald C Cole
Loren Vanderlinden
Jessica Leah
Rich Whate
Carol Mee
Monica Bienefeld
Susitha Wanigaratne
Monica Campbell
Author Affiliation
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Health Sciences Building, Ste 400, 155 College St, Toronto, ON, M5T 3M7, Canada. donald.cole@utoronto.ca
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:74
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
Environmental Health - education - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Policy - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Pollution - legislation & jurisprudence - prevention & control
Female
Housing
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Models, Biological
Ontario
Pesticides
Questionnaires
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Pesticide use on urban lawns and gardens contributes to environmental contamination and human exposure. Municipal policies to restrict use and educate households on viable alternatives deserve study. We describe the development and implementation of a cosmetic/non-essential pesticide bylaw by a municipal health department in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and assess changes in resident practices associated with bylaw implementation.
Implementation indicators built on a logic model and were elaborated through key informant interviews. Bylaw impacts on awareness and practice changes were documented through telephone surveys administered seasonally pre, during and post implementation (2003-2008). Multivariable logistic regression models assessed associations of demographic variables and gardening season with respondent awareness and practices.
Implementation indicators documented multiple municipal health department activities and public involvement in complaints from commencement of the educational phase. During the enforcement phases only 40 warning letters and 7 convictions were needed. The number of lawn care companies increased. Among survey respondents, awareness of the bylaw and the Natural Lawn campaign reached 69% and 76% respectively by 2008. Substantial decreases in the proportion of households applying pesticides (25 to 11%) or hiring lawn care companies for application (15 to 5%) occurred. Parallel absolute increases in use of natural lawn care methods occurred among households themselves (21%) and companies they contracted (7%).
Bylaws or ordinances implemented through education and enforcement are a viable policy option for reducing urban cosmetic pesticide use.
Notes
Cites: J Public Health Manag Pract. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):600-418849782
Cites: Pest Manag Sci. 2004 Jun;60(6):605-1215198335
Cites: Environ Health. 2010;9:5420799988
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Nov;109(11):1185-9111713005
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2000 Mar-Apr;91(2):137-4310832181
Cites: Pediatrics. 2006 Dec;118(6):e1845-5917116700
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2007 Jan-Mar;10(1-2):81-9918074305
Cites: J Environ Health. 2008 Jan-Feb;70(6):28-3018236934
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(9-10):583-718569630
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1999 Feb;28(1):10-810195658
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107 Suppl 3:431-710346991
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Aug;117(8):1191-419672396
Cites: Environ Health. 2009;8:1819379510
Cites: Environ Health. 2009;8:919323818
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):Suppl I8-1419263977
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2002 May;110(5):507-1412003754
Cites: Pest Manag Sci. 2004 Jun;60(6):531-4315198325
PubMed ID
21867501 View in PubMed
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Neck postures in air traffic controllers with and without neck/shoulder disorders.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87091
Source
Appl Ergon. 2008 Mar;39(2):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Arvidsson Inger
Hansson Gert-Ake
Mathiassen Svend Erik
Skerfving Staffan
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, SE-221 85, Lund, Sweden. inger.arvidsson@med.lu.se
Source
Appl Ergon. 2008 Mar;39(2):255-60
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aviation
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Health
Posture
Questionnaires
Shoulder Pain - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
User-Computer Interface
Abstract
Prolonged computer work with an extended neck is commonly believed to be associated with an increased risk of neck-shoulder disorders. The aim of this study was to compare neck postures during computer work between female cases with neck-shoulder disorders, and healthy referents. Based on physical examinations, 13 cases and 11 referents were selected among 70 female air traffic controllers with the same computer-based work tasks and identical workstations. Postures and movements were measured by inclinometers, placed on the forehead and upper back (C7/Th1) during authentic air traffic control. A recently developed method was applied to assess flexion/extension in the neck, calculated as the difference between head and upper back flexion/extension. Results: cases and referents did not differ significantly in neck posture (median neck flexion/extension: -10 degrees vs. -9 degrees ; p=0.9). Hence, the belief that neck extension posture is associated with neck-shoulder disorders in computer work is not supported by the present data.
PubMed ID
17568557 View in PubMed
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Mediterranean-type diet and risk of preterm birth among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa): a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87330
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):319-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Haugen Margaretha
Meltzer Helle Margrete
Brantsaeter Anne Lise
Mikkelsen Tina
Osterdal Marie Louise
Alexander Jan
Olsen Sjurdur F
Bakketeig Leiv
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Nydalen, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):319-24
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Diet, Mediterranean
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Nutrition Physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology - prevention & control
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth. We wanted to investigate whether a Mediterranean-type diet (MD) could be associated with a lower risk of preterm birth in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The data collection was conducted as part of MoBa at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. In MoBa, women answer a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) at week 18-22 of pregnancy. The MD criteria were intake of fish > or =2 times a week, fruit and vegetables > or =5 times a day, use of olive/canola oil, red meat intake
PubMed ID
18307072 View in PubMed
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Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87408
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Thieden Elisabeth
Author Affiliation
The Skin Clinic, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. et01@bbh.regionh.dk
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Female
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Risk-Taking
Solar System
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls received a significantly higher UVR dose than boys due to more days with risk behaviour (sunbathing or exposing shoulders outdoors). This exposure pattern, with females having more risk behaviour than males, was also found among adolescents and adults. Sunbathing or exposing shoulders (risk behaviour) outside the beach resulted in a median of 2.5 SED per day in northern Europe and 3.2 SED per day in southern Europe, while the corresponding values were 4.6 SED and 6.9 SED per day at the beach. UVR doses above 10 SED per day were connected with risk behaviour. The subjects had a median of 13 days with risk behaviour (range, 0-93 days). The subjects used sunscreen on a median of five days (range, 0-130 days), but have a median of seven days with risk behaviour without sunscreen applied (range, 0-47 days). They had a median of one sunburn per sun-year (range 0-10). Fifty percent of the UVR dose was received between 12.00 and 15.00. Only the gardeners received the main part of their UVR dose on workdays. Conclusions : - High UVR doses are connected with risk behaviour. Reduction of cumulative lifetime UVR dose could be obtained by minimizing risk behaviour. - Sunburns were highly correlated to risk behaviour. - Use of sunscreen correlated with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan", indicating that sunscreens were used to avoid sunburn during risk behaviour. - Scheduling lunch breaks and other breaks indoors at noon, where ambient UVR peaks, could reduce the occupational UVR exposure significantly. - In the winter-half-year in Denmark. the UVR dose received from solar exposure is negligible and no UVR precautions are needed. This study documented that high subject compliance rate and data reliability could be obtained in long-time UVR dosimeter study as ours by being service minded but persistent, offering dosimeter maintenance service within 24 hours and scrutinizing data for errors and mistakes just after data collection.
PubMed ID
18321444 View in PubMed
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Characterizing noise and perceived work environment in a neurological intensive care unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87437
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Ryherd Erica E
Waye Kerstin Persson
Ljungkvist Linda
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community, Göteborg University, Box 414, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. eryherd@hotmail.com
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - statistics & numerical data
Equipment Failure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospital Design and Construction - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intensive Care Units - statistics & numerical data
Job Satisfaction
Loudness Perception
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Middle Aged
Neurology
Noise, Occupational - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Nursing Staff, Hospital - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - standards - statistics & numerical data
Patients' Rooms - statistics & numerical data
Psychoacoustics
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The hospital sound environment is complex. Alarms, medical equipment, activities, and ventilation generate noise that may present occupational problems as well as hinder recovery among patients. In this study, sound measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in a neurological intensive care unit. Staff completed questionnaires regarding psychological and physiological reactions to the sound environment. A-weighted equivalent, minimum, and maximum (L(Aeq),L(AFMin),L(AFMax)) and C-weighted peak (L(CPeak)) sound pressure levels were measured over five days at patient and staff locations. Acoustical descriptors that may be explored further were investigated, including level distributions, restorative periods, and spectral content. Measurements near the patients showed average L(Aeq) values of 53-58 dB. The mean length of restorative periods (L(Aeq) below 50 dB for more than 5 min) was 9 and 13 min for day and night, respectively. Ninety percent of the time, the L(AFMax) levels exceeded 50 dB and L(CPeak) exceeded 70 dB. Dosimeters worn by the staff revealed higher noise levels. Personnel perceived the noise as contributing to stress symptoms. Compared to the majority of previous studies, this study provides a more thorough description of intensive care noise and aids in understanding how the sound environment may be disruptive to occupants.
PubMed ID
18247879 View in PubMed
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Genetics and gene-environment interactions in atopic diseases. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87519
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Håberg Siri E
Nafstad Per
Nystad Wenche
Magnus Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. siri.haberg@fhi.no
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Fathers
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) aims to provide new insights in a broad variety of diseases. The goal of the study is to understand pathways in disease development, and identify preventive measures. Several designs are suitable for studying genetics in complex diseases like asthma and allergy, in MoBa. METHODS: MoBa is a prospective population based cohort of 100 000 pregnancies, following offspring into adulthood. Enrollment started in 1999, and will be completed in 2008. A biobank with samples from the mother, father and child, together with detailed questionnaires from early pregnancy and childhood constitute the basis of the study. When studying complex diseases like asthma, a design with case-parent triads is useful. Parental effects and interactions between maternal and fetal genes can be detected. Stratifying triads by environmental exposure enables assessment of gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: By July 2006, more than 73,000 pregnancies have been included, with nearly 7,000 siblings and 1,300 pairs of twins enrolled. Biological samples are processed and stored at the biobank. The first children are reaching age seven in 2006. CONCLUSION: The MoBa cohort provides an excellent basis for studying genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on complex diseases.
PubMed ID
18073489 View in PubMed
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