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[Scientific rationale for basic directions of the optimization of the population health in the development of municipal environmental programs].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264391
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):117-20
Publication Type
Article
Author
M Iu Iakusheva
O V Astaf'eva
S E Deriagina
M B Sergeeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):117-20
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Health - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Local Government
Program Evaluation
Public Health
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
For the solution of ecological problems in the framework of the preparation of the municipal ecological program in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) there was peiformed the assessment of the state of population health, the evaluation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk from chemicals that pollute the air and drinking water Atmospheric air was established to be the main environment cause for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. The obtained results served as the basis for the development of technological, sanitary and hygienical measures of the program aimed at optimizing of the population health.
PubMed ID
26031056 View in PubMed
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[Effect of auto-road complex in the city of Surgut on air pollution and population health].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264399
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):57-61
Publication Type
Article
Author
M V Vinokurova
M V Vinokurov
S A Voronin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):57-61
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Cities
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Humans
Motor Vehicles
Particulate Matter - analysis
Public Health
Retrospective Studies
Siberia
Urban health
Abstract
Currently, due to the increase in motorization, the problem of environmental pollution by emissions of objects of auto-road complex is becoming more and more important not only for cities, butfor dynamically developing regional cities. The negative impact is characterized by the increase of the morbidity rate of environmentally-dependent diseases, primarily respiratory diseases, neoplasms. This exposure is most pronounced near the motorways, at the gas station, and also spreads to residential areas, which requires the optimization of protective and preventive measures. Presented article is devoted to the characterization of air pollution of various areas in the city of Surgut due to emission of sources of auto-road complex with the assessment of public health risks.
PubMed ID
26031043 View in PubMed
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[Hazard assessment of the impact of high temperature and air pollution on public health in Moscow].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264401
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):36-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
B A Revich
D A Shaposhnikov
S L Avaliani
K G Rubinshtein
S V Emelina
M V Shiriaev
E G Semutnikova
P V Zakharova
O Iu Kislova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):36-40
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Illness - epidemiology
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Morbidity - trends
Moscow - epidemiology
Public Health
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Urban health
Urban Population
Abstract
In the article there are considered the main problems of assessing public health risks of the combined effects of high temperatures and air pollution with the account taken of the consequences of abnormally hot weather observed in summer 2010 in Moscow and without equals in the history of meteorological measurements in the city. The daily average concentrations of fine suspended particles matter (PM10) in the city during peatland fires from 4 to 9 August are emphasized to be within the range of 431-906 µ/m3, being 7.2-15.1 times the Russian maximum permissible concentration (MPCs) (60 µ/m3). The anomalous heat and high levels of air pollution in this period were shown to cause a significant increase in excess mortality among the population of Moscow. There was established the relative gain in mortality from all natural causes per 10 µg/m3 increase in daily average concentrations of PM10 and ozone, which was respectively: 0.47% (95%; CI: 0.31-0.63) and 0.41% (95%; CI: 0.31-1.13). On the base of the statistical analysis of daily mortality rates, meteorological indices, the concentrations of PM10 and ozone there was developed marking scale for the risk assessment of these indices accordingly to 4 gradings--low (permissible), warning, alert, and a hazard level. There has been substantiated the importance of the introduction of the system for the early alert for hazard weather events and the unified rating scale for the hazard of high air temperatures and high levels of air pollution with PM10 and ozone, which allows to take timely measures for the protection of the public health.
PubMed ID
26031039 View in PubMed
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[Urbanization--a factor that increases the risk for health].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264404
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):8-11
Publication Type
Article
Author
K B Fridman
T V Kriukova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):8-11
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Illness - epidemiology
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Humans
Hygiene - standards
Morbidity - trends
Public Health
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Urbanization - trends
Abstract
The negative impact of urbanization on public health is obvious. However; due to the comprehensiveness and polymorphicity of its manifestations there are not established criteria for them. Health risk methodology allows, in principle, to obtain quantitative indices of the separate results of the impact on the health status of the citizens of metropolis that can be extremely effective in this area. The total cross-media riskfrom traffic pollution, drinking water quality, open ponds, noise, etc. permits to use of hygiene criteria in urban planning, insurance, taxation, etc.
PubMed ID
26031033 View in PubMed
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Source
Municipality of Anchorage (Alaska), Department of Health and Environmental Protection. v.
Publication Type
Report
Source
Municipality of Anchorage (Alaska), Department of Health and Environmental Protection. v.
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Public Health
Environmental health
Anchorage
Notes
ALASKA RA448.A5A558 (1979, 1980, 1981, 1983)
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Addressing the linkage between exposure to pesticides and human health effects--research trends and priorities for research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166662
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):441-56
Publication Type
Article
Author
L. Ritter
N C I Goushleff
Tye Arbuckle
Donald Cole
Mark Raizenne
Author Affiliation
Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres and Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Iritter@uoguelph.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):441-56
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Humans
Pesticides - toxicity
Public Health
Public Policy
Research Design
Risk assessment
Abstract
In recent years, there has been escalating concern over the possible association between exposure to pesticides and adverse human health effects by a number of non-governmental organizations, professional and public interest groups. Recognizing the need to document the scientific basis of these concerns as a foundation for initiating a research theme devoted to linkages between exposures to pesticides and human health effects, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) requested a summary of recent research trends that address these linkages. Experts across Canada in the field of pesticide regulation and research were invited to participate in the review. The review summarizes the limitations of past and current studies related to pesticides and human health effects research and makes suggestions for future research priorities and proposed study designs that will improve the assessment of pesticide exposure, the associated health risks, and improved methodology for regulatory decision making.
PubMed ID
17090482 View in PubMed
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[Characterization of the sanitary situation in the Kurgan Region].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166779
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):37-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
O V Antonov
I V Antonova
L F Maier
V E Chuev
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):37-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Catchment Area (Health)
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hygiene - standards
Public Health
Russia
Abstract
The aim of this survey was to study the ecological state in the Kurgan Region in the period of 1993 to 2003. The survey showed the west and northwest part of the Kurgan Region to be areas at risk for environment-dependent diseases. The major risk factors included a high pollution of water sources with limited water resources due to the radioactive pollution occurring in the 1940s to the 1950s in some areas of the region; transformation of natural landscapes caused by spring floods and soil erosions among other things.
PubMed ID
17078292 View in PubMed
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The value of information for managing contaminated sediments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268547
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9478-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-19-2014
Author
Matthew E Bates
Magnus Sparrevik
Nicolas de Lichy
Igor Linkov
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Aug 19;48(16):9478-85
Date
Aug-19-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Benzofurans - analysis - toxicity
Decision Making
Decision Support Techniques
Dioxins - analysis - toxicity
Environment
Geologic sediments
Humans
Information Dissemination
Norway
Probability
Public Health
Stochastic Processes
Uncertainty
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Water Pollution
Abstract
Effective management of contaminated sediments is important for long-term human and environmental health, but site-management decisions are often made under high uncertainty and without the help of structured decision support tools. Potential trade-offs between remedial costs, environmental effects, human health risks, and societal benefits, as well as fundamental differences in stakeholder priorities, complicate decision making. Formal decision-analytic tools such as multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) move beyond ad hoc decision support to quantitatively and holistically rank management alternatives and add transparency and replicability to the evaluation process. However, even the best decisions made under uncertainty may be found suboptimal in hindsight, once additional scientific, social, economic, or other details become known. Value of information (VoI) analysis extends MCDA by systematically evaluating the impact of uncertainty on a decision. VoI prioritizes future research in terms of expected decision relevance by helping decision makers estimate the likelihood that additional information will improve decision confidence or change their selection of a management plan. In this study, VoI analysis evaluates uncertainty, estimates decision confidence, and prioritizes research to inform selection of a sediment capping strategy for the dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan contaminated Grenland fjord system in southern Norway. The VoI model extends stochastic MCDA to model decisions with and without simulated new information and compares decision confidence across scenarios with different degrees of remaining uncertainty. Results highlight opportunities for decision makers to benefit from additional information by anticipating the improved decision confidence (or lack thereof) expected from reducing uncertainties for each criterion or combination of criteria. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of VoI analysis for environmental decisions by predicting when decisions can be made confidently, for prioritizing areas of research to pursue to improve decision confidence, and for differentiating between decision-relevant and decision-irrelevant differences in evaluation perspectives, all of which help guide meaningful deliberation toward effective consensus solutions.
PubMed ID
24957130 View in PubMed
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Methylmercury blood guidance values for Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144477
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):28-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
Melissa Legrand
Mark Feeley
Constantine Tikhonov
Deborah Schoen
Angela Li-Muller
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environment and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. melissa.legrand@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):28-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Canada
Child
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Mammals
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Public Health
Reference Values
Risk assessment
Seafood - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from fish and marine mammal consumption continues to present a public health concern. To date, developmental neurotoxicity is the most sensitive health outcome, forming the basis for health-risk assessments and the derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. This article summarizes existing Health Canada MeHg blood guidance values for general population and expands them to include a harmonized provisional interim blood guidance value of 8 microg/L based on the existing provisional Tolerable Daily Intake for children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Associated public health actions, according to age, sex, and level of exposure are recommended.
PubMed ID
20364534 View in PubMed
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[The sanitary and epidemiological assessment of the risk from economic and other activities that are a potential public hazard].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168935
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Mar-Apr;(2):12-4
Publication Type
Article

Quantitative microbial risk assessment combined with hydrodynamic modelling to estimate the public health risk associated with bathing after rainfall events.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276538
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Apr 1;548-549:270-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2016
Author
Fasil Ejigu Eregno
Ingun Tryland
Torulv Tjomsland
Mette Myrmel
Lucy Robertson
Arve Heistad
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2016 Apr 1;548-549:270-9
Date
Apr-1-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bathing Beaches - statistics & numerical data
Cryptosporidium
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Escherichia coli
Giardia
Humans
Hydrodynamics
Models, Theoretical
Norway - epidemiology
Public Health
Rain
Risk assessment
Sewage - microbiology
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study investigated the public health risk from exposure to infectious microorganisms at Sandvika recreational beaches, Norway and dose-response relationships by combining hydrodynamic modelling with Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA). Meteorological and hydrological data were collected to produce a calibrated hydrodynamic model using Escherichia coli as an indicator of faecal contamination. Based on average concentrations of reference pathogens (norovirus, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium) relative to E. coli in Norwegian sewage from previous studies, the hydrodynamic model was used for simulating the concentrations of pathogens at the local beaches during and after a heavy rainfall event, using three different decay rates. The simulated concentrations were used as input for QMRA and the public health risk was estimated as probability of infection from a single exposure of bathers during the three consecutive days after the rainfall event. The level of risk on the first day after the rainfall event was acceptable for the bacterial and parasitic reference pathogens, but high for the viral reference pathogen at all beaches, and severe at Kalvøya-small and Kalvøya-big beaches, supporting the advice of avoiding swimming in the day(s) after heavy rainfall. The study demonstrates the potential of combining discharge-based hydrodynamic modelling with QMRA in the context of bathing water as a tool to evaluate public health risk and support beach management decisions.
PubMed ID
26802355 View in PubMed
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[Implementation of new knowledge in times of climate change?]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95343
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 26;171(44):3203-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-26-2009
Author
Ringsted Charlotte
Author Affiliation
Københavns Universitet og Region Hovedstaden, Center for Klinisk Uddannelse, Rigshospitalet, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark. charlotte.ringsted@rh.regionh.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 26;171(44):3203-6
Date
Oct-26-2009
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate
Diffusion of Innovation
Education, Medical, Continuing
Environmental health
Humans
Information Dissemination
Knowledge
Professional Competence
Public Health
Risk factors
Abstract
Climate change is the primary threat to public health in the 21st century. There is a huge need for creation of new knowledge on how most effectively and efficiently to respond to the negative effects on health. Participatory research and development projects may be essential in creation and dissemination of new knowledge. Theoretically underpinned interventions and implementation strategies are necessary to ensure that knowledge is translated into action. Universities and health care organisations have a central role in preparing future health professionals by giving them the skills and knowledge needed.
PubMed ID
19857404 View in PubMed
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A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95843
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2004 Sep 1;330(1-3):71-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
El-Zein Abbas
Tewtel-Salem Mylene
Nehme Gebran
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Lebanon. abbas.elzein@aub.edu.lb
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2004 Sep 1;330(1-3):71-80
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Climate
Female
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lebanon - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Mortality - trends
Public Health
Abstract
The literature on the association between health and weather in the temperate to semi-arid cities of the Eastern Mediterranean is scarce. The quantification of the relationship between temperature and daily mortality can be useful for developing policy interventions such as heat-warning systems. A time-series analysis of total daily mortality and weather data for the city of Beirut was carried out. The study covered the period between 1997 and 1999. Poisson auto-regressive models were constructed, with mean daily temperature and mean daily humidity as explanatory variables. Delayed effects, up to 2 weeks, were accounted for. The regression models were used next to assess the effect of an average increase in temperature on yearly mortality. The association between temperature and mortality was found to be significant. A relatively high minimum-mortality temperature (TMM) of 27.5 degrees C was calculated. A 1 degrees C rise in temperature yielded a 12.3% increase (95% confidence interval: 5.7-19.4%) and 2.9% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2-3.7%) in mortality, above and below TMM, respectively. Lag temperature variables were found to be significant below TMM but not above it. Where the temperature change was less than 0.5 degrees C, annual above-TMM losses were offset by below-TMM gains, within a 95% confidence interval. TMM for Beirut fell within the range usually associated with warm climates. However, the mild below-TMM and steep above-TMM slopes were more typical of cities with temperate to cold climates. Our findings suggest that heat-related mortality at moderately high temperatures can be a significant public health issue in countries with warm climates. Moreover, at the projected climate change over the next 50 years, heat-related losses are unlikely to be offset by cold-related gains.
PubMed ID
15325159 View in PubMed
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Strategic environmental assessment of alternative sewage sludge management scenarios.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95908
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2003 Feb;21(1):19-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Poulsen Tjalfe G
Hansen Jens Aa
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 57, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark.
Source
Waste Manag Res. 2003 Feb;21(1):19-28
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
Environment
Forecasting
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Public Health
Risk assessment
Sewage
Soil Pollutants
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Abstract
Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of sewage sludge management in a Danish municipality (Aalborg), with 160,000 inhabitants using alternative methods for aggregation of environmental impacts was performed. The purpose is to demonstrate the use of SEA in relation to sludge management and to improve SEA methodology. Six different scenarios for management of sewage sludge within the Aalborg municipality involving thermal treatment, composting and landfilling of sludge were evaluated. Environmental impact categories considered were global warming, non-renewable resources (nutrients and fossil fuels) and land use. Impact categories human health, ecotoxicity and soil quality were excluded as methodology for their assessment is not yet fully developed. Thermal sludge treatment with energy utilisation was shown to be a promising option for sewage sludge management in Aalborg. Sensitivity of the relative environmental impacts with respect to calculation methodology and input parameter values were evaluated to identify important parameters and calculation methods. The analysis showed that aggregation procedures, sludge biogas potential and sludge production were very important whereas sludge transport was not.
PubMed ID
12667015 View in PubMed
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A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185407
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2003 Jun;13(2):181-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2003
Author
T. Westrell
O. Bergstedt
T A Stenström
N J Ashbolt
Author Affiliation
Department of Water and Environmental Studies, University of Linköping, Sweden. thewe@tema.liu.se
Source
Int J Environ Health Res. 2003 Jun;13(2):181-97
Date
Jun-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disinfection
Equipment Failure
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Particle Size
Public Health
Risk assessment
Sweden
Water Microbiology
Water Purification
Abstract
A failure in treatment or in the distribution network of a surface water-works could have serious consequences due to the variable raw water quality in combination with an extended distribution. The aim of this study was to examine the theoretical impact of incidents in the drinking water system on the annual risk of infection in a population served by a large water treatment plant in Sweden. Reported incidents in the system were examined and a microbial risk assessment that included three pathogens, Cryptosporidium parvum, rotavirus and Campylobacter jejuni, was performed. The main risk incidents in water treatment were associated with sub-optimal particle removal or disinfection malfunction. Incidents in the distribution network included cross-connections and microbial pollution of reservoirs and local networks. The majority of the annual infections were likely to be due to pathogens passing treatment during normal operation and not due to failures, thus adding to the endemic rate. Among the model organisms, rotavirus caused the largest number of infections. Decentralised water treatment with membranes was also considered in which failures upstream fine-pored membranes would have little impact as long as the membranes were kept intact.
PubMed ID
12745338 View in PubMed
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The population approach to stroke prevention: a Canadian perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185575
Source
Clin Invest Med. 2003 Apr;26(2):78-86
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
T Kue Young
Vladimir Hachinski
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. kue.young@utoronto.ca
Source
Clin Invest Med. 2003 Apr;26(2):78-86
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Health Resources - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Health Services - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Population Surveillance
Preventive Medicine - methods - statistics & numerical data
Public Health
Risk factors
Stroke - epidemiology - mortality - prevention & control
Abstract
To contrast the population and clinical approaches to stroke prevention and to review Canadian data relevant to estimating disease burden, assessing risk factors, designing preventive strategies and organizing health services.
A narrative review of the published literature and statistical data accessible through the Internet.
Unlike the clinical approach, which emphasizes individual patients at high risk diagnosed and treated intensively, usually by medical or surgical means (or both), a population approach focuses on the entire population and bases interventions on behavioural and environmental changes. Stroke offers a particularly promising target for prevention. It represents a leading cause of serious disability, death and reduced quality of life. The aging of our population threatens to increase the already considerable burden. Stroke shares several risk factors with other chronic diseases, especially ischemic heart disease. These risk factors vary in their impact on Canadians (population attributable risk proportion), which is a function of their prevalence and strength of association with the occurrence of stroke. Although effective preventive measures are available for people at high risk, they are not being applied systematically among potential beneficiaries. Small reductions in the exposure to risk factors in the entire population offer an alternative, where even modest success may translate into major gain.
The clinical and population approaches to stroke prevention are complementary. Existing national strategies directed at promotion of healthy life-styles (especially physical activity) and hypertension control, when fully implemented, will reduce the frequency, severity and impact of stroke on Canadian society.
PubMed ID
12722841 View in PubMed
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Environmental influences on healthcare expenditures: an exploratory analysis from Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185805
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 May;57(5):334-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2003
Author
M. Jerrett
J. Eyles
C. Dufournaud
S. Birch
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and Geology, Health Studies Program, and Institute of Environment and Health, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. jerrettm@mcmaster.ca
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 May;57(5):334-8
Date
May-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - prevention & control
Environmental Exposure - economics - prevention & control
Government
Health Expenditures - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Mortality
Ontario - epidemiology
Public Health
Regression Analysis
Abstract
This paper explores the relation between healthcare expenditures (HCEs) and environmental variables in Ontario, Canada.
The authors used a sequential two stage regression model to control for variables that may influence HCEs and for the possibility of endogenous relations. The analysis relies on cross sectional ecological data from the 49 counties of Ontario.
The results show that, after control for other variables that may influence health expenditures, both total toxic pollution output and per capita municipal environmental expenditures have significant associations with health expenditures. Counties with higher pollution output tend to have higher per capita HCEs, while those that spend more on defending environmental quality have lower expenditures on health care.
The implications of our findings are twofold. Firstly, sound investments in public health and environmental protection have external benefits in the form of reduced HCEs. Combined with the other benefits such as recreational values, investments in environmental protection probably yield net social benefits. Secondly, health policy that excludes consideration of environmental quality may eventually result in increased expenditures. These results suggest a need to broaden the cost containment debate to ensure environmental determinants of health receive attention as potential complements to conventional cost control policies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12700215 View in PubMed
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Understanding the determinants of active transportation to school among children: evidence of environmental injustice from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131102
Source
Health Place. 2012 Mar;18(2):163-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Roman A Pabayo
Lise Gauvin
Tracie A Barnett
Patrick Morency
Béatrice Nikiéma
Louise Séguin
Author Affiliation
Faculté de Médecine, CRCHUM (Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal), Department of Social & Preventive Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. pabayo@ualberta.ca
Source
Health Place. 2012 Mar;18(2):163-71
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Environment
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Theoretical
Poverty Areas
Public Health
Quebec
Safety
Schools
Social Justice
Transportation - methods
Abstract
To examine the combined influence of poverty and dangerousness of the neighborhood on active transportation (AT) to school among a cohort of children followed throughout the early school years.
Growth curve modeling was used to identify determinants of AT to school among 710 children participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development from 2003 through 2006. Parent-reported dangerousness and pedestrian-vehicle collision data were merged with travel mode and health data.
At age 6 years, insufficient household income, having an older sibling, and living in a neighborhood that is not excellent for raising children, or characterized with high decay were predictive of greater likelihood of using AT and remained unchanged as children progressed from kindergarten through grade 2.
A public health concern is children experiencing environmental injustice. Since AT is most likely to be adopted by those living in poverty and because it is also associated with unsafe environments, some children are experiencing environmental injustice in relation to AT. Interventions may be implemented to reduce environmental injustice through improvements in road safety.
PubMed ID
21937255 View in PubMed
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Developmental origins of health and disease: the views of first-time mothers in 5 European countries on the importance of nutritional influences in the first year of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132069
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):2018S-2024S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Heather Gage
Monique Raats
Peter Williams
Bernadette Egan
Viktoria Jakobik
Kirsi Laitinen
Elena Martin-Bautista
Martina Schmid
Julia von Rosen-von Hoewel
Cristina Campoy
Tamas Decsi
Jane Morgan
Berthold Koletzko
Author Affiliation
Food, Consumer Behaviour, and Health Research Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom. h.gage@surrey.ac.uk
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):2018S-2024S
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Breast Feeding
Diet
England
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Germany
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Hungary
Infant
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Mothers
Public Health
Questionnaires
Smoke
Spain
Tobacco
Young Adult
Abstract
The programming concept suggests that poor early nutrition causes an array of medical problems later in life. Public health messages about the implications of programming may not be reaching parents and influencing infant feeding behaviors.
The views of new mothers were sought about the extent to which lifelong health is influenced by diet as an infant, rather than by genetic predispositions or lifestyles and behaviors.
A questionnaire survey of first-time mothers was undertaken in 5 European countries.
A convenience sample of 2071 mothers from England (438), Finland (426), Germany (414), Hungary (389), and Spain (404) self-completed the questionnaire. High proportions of mothers agreed that how an infant is fed affects his or her health over the first year (95.8%) and in subsequent years (88.5%), but the effect of infant feeding decisions on the development of long-term conditions was the least-cited underlying reason. Diet as an infant was rated an extremely/very important influence on adult health by 64% of mothers, equivalent to environmental pollution (63%), but by fewer mothers than were diet and physical activity in childhood/adolescence (79%, 84%) and adulthood (81%, 83%), genetics/inheritance (70%), and exposure to cigarette smoke (81%). Inter- and intracountry differences were observed.
Mothers in this study consider diet as an infant to be a less important influence on lifelong health than many lifestyle, behavioral, and environmental factors and genetics. Further dissemination of the implications of programming to consumers may be warranted.
PubMed ID
21849599 View in PubMed
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