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Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 polymorphisms are associated with components of energy balance in the Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105822
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):384-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
James Thorburn
Anne Gregory
Hongwei Zhang
Guang Sun
Author Affiliation
Nutrition Sciences Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada (BF-B), and the Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, Canada (JT, AG, HZ, and GS).
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):384-91
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Body Composition - genetics
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Energy Metabolism - genetics
Female
Food Habits
Gene Frequency
Gene-Environment Interaction
Haplotypes
Humans
Life Style
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - genetics
Overweight - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Receptors, Somatostatin - genetics - metabolism
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy balance and body composition in animal models. Inconsistent effects of MCHR1 polymorphisms on energy homeostasis in humans may partly be attributable to environmental factors.
We examined the effect of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs133073, rs133074, rs9611386, and rs882111) in the MCHR1 gene on body composition as well as energy-related lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity). We also examined the effect of gene-lifestyle interactions on body composition.
A total of 1153 participants (248 men and 905 women) from the cross-sectional Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study were genotyped by using probe-based chemistry validated assays. Diet and physical activity were estimated by using validated frequency questionnaires, and body composition was assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Three polymorphisms (rs9611386, rs882111, and rs133073) were associated with differences in body-composition measurements (all P
PubMed ID
24305679 View in PubMed
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Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105827
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):142-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
R J Bertelsen
C K Faeste
B. Granum
E. Egaas
S J London
K-H Carlsen
K C Lødrup Carlsen
M. Løvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Food, Water and Cosmetics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):142-9
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Beds - adverse effects
Child
Dust - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food - adverse effects
Food Hypersensitivity - immunology
Humans
Male
Norway
Time Factors
Abstract
Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment.
The objective of this study was firstly to describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13-year-old adolescents and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust.
Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analysed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models.
Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (
PubMed ID
24304208 View in PubMed
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The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105931
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 22;281(1775):20132319
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-22-2014
Author
Ilona Nenko
Adam D Hayward
Virpi Lummaa
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, , Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK, Department of Environmental Health, Jagiellonian University Medical College, , Grzegorzecka 20, Krakow 31-531, Poland.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 22;281(1775):20132319
Date
Jan-22-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Female
Fertility
Finland
Food Supply
Humans
Male
Nutritional Status
Reproductive Behavior
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking.
PubMed ID
24285194 View in PubMed
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A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106015
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Finn Nilson
Syed Moniruzzaman
Ragnar Andersson
Author Affiliation
Division of Risk Management, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Altitude
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sunlight
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Research has shown that hip fracture risk increases with latitude; hypothetically due to reduced sunlight exposure and its effect on bone quality. Sweden, with large differences in latitude and UV radiation, is ideal to study in order to analyse the association between latitude and UV radiation on age- and sex-specific hip fracture rates among elderly.
Aggregated (2006-2008) age- and sex-specific hip fracture data was obtained for each Swedish municipality as well as the municipality's latitudinal coordinates and aggregated (2006-2008) UV radiation levels. Pearson correlations were calculated between hip fracture incidence rates, latitude and UV radiation. Independent t tests were calculated on tertile-categorized latitudinal data in order to investigate the difference in hip fracture risk between these categories.
Statistically significant correlations were seen in all groups between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation. The independent t tests showed that this correlation was mainly due to high incidence rates in high latitude municipalities.
Statistically significant correlations are seen between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation in Sweden and the northern parts of Sweden have an increased risk of hip fractures compared to the middle and southern parts. To our knowledge this is the first study using a national discharge register that shows this relationship and provides a starting point for further research to investigate why populations in northern Sweden have a higher risk of hip fractures compared to other Swedish regions.
PubMed ID
24265166 View in PubMed
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[Experience in researching the total impact of environmental factors on the health of children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39542
Source
Gig Sanit. 1985 Jun;(6):33-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1985

[Evaluation of the clinical, psychological and socio-environmental factors, affecting disability of elderly people undergoing surgical myocardial revascularization].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258668
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2014;27(2):382-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
R K Kantemirova
Z D Fidarova
S G Krivenkov
V Kh Khavinson
K L Kozlov
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2014;27(2):382-8
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological - physiology
Age Factors
Aged
Disability Evaluation
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - psychology - surgery
Myocardial Revascularization - methods - psychology - rehabilitation
Postoperative Period
Prognosis
Return to Work - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Social Adjustment
Social Support
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Factors significant for clinical-and-labor prognosis in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease after surgical myocardial revascularization are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that for each level of the problem there are their own significant factors. Besides, the most essential correlations between investigated factors are marked out. The results obtained will enable to determine more correctly clinical-and-labor prognosis for patients with ischemic heart disease and develop their efficient rehabilitation programs. It is demonstrated that elderly patients have some features of vital activity restriction which are necessary to take into account while medical social expertise and rehabilitation program development.
PubMed ID
25306675 View in PubMed
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Environmental exposures and the risk of multiple sclerosis investigated in a Norwegian case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258707
Source
BMC Neurol. 2014;14:196
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Marte Wendel Gustavsen
Christian Magnus Page
Stine Marit Moen
Anja Bjølgerud
Pål Berg-Hansen
Gro Owren Nygaard
Leiv Sandvik
Benedicte Alexandra Lie
Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius
Hanne F Harbo
Source
BMC Neurol. 2014;14:196
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Case-Control Studies
Cats
Dogs
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infectious Mononucleosis - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology - etiology
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pets
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Several environmental exposures, including infection with Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D and smoking are established risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, high hygienic standard and infection with parasites have been proposed to influence MS risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various environmental exposures on MS risk in a Norwegian cohort, focusing on factors during childhood related to the hygiene hypothesis.
A questionnaire concerning environmental exposures, lifestyle, demographics and comorbidity was administrated to 756 Norwegian MS patients and 1090 healthy controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of MS associated with the variables infectious mononucleosis, severe infection during childhood, vaccination and animals in the household during childhood. Age, gender, HLA-DRB1*15:01, smoking and infectious mononucleosis were included as covariates. General environmental exposures, including tobacco use, were also evaluated.
Infectious mononucleosis was confirmed to be significantly associated with increased MS risk, also after adjusting for the covariates (OR?=?1.79, 95% CI: 1.12-2.87, p?=?0.016). The controls more often reported growing up with a cat and/or a dog in the household, and this was significant for ownership of cat also after adjusting for the covariates (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.78, p?=?0.001). More patients than controls reported smoking and fewer patients reported snuff use.
In this Norwegian MS case-control study of environmental exposures, we replicate that infectious mononucleosis and smoking are associated with increased MS risk. Our data also indicate a protective effect on MS of exposure to cats during childhood, in accordance with the hypothesis that risk of autoimmune diseases like MS may increase with high hygienic standard.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25274070 View in PubMed
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Contaminant levels in the world's northernmost harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258753
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):140-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2014
Author
Heli Routti
Christian Lydersen
Linda Hanssen
Kit M Kovacs
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):140-6
Date
Oct-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Animals
Environmental monitoring
Female
Male
Norway
Pesticides - chemistry - metabolism
Phenols - blood - chemistry
Phoca
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - chemistry - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
The world's northernmost harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population, which inhabits Svalbard, Norway, constitutes a genetically distinct population. The present study reports concentrations of 14 PCBs, 5 chlordanes, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, and, a-, ß-and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in blubber, and pentachlorophenol, 4-OH-heptachlorostyrene, 10 OH-PCBs and 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in plasma of live-captured harbor seals from this population (4 males, 4 females, 4 juveniles), sampled in 2009-2010. Concentrations of PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane, a-HCH and mirex and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates in Svalbard harbor seals were considerably lower than harbor seal from more southerly populations, while concentrations of HCB, OH-PCBs and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates were similar for harbor seals from Svalbard and southern areas. Concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the Svalbard harbor seals were 60-90% lower than levels determined a decade ago in this same population. Current concentrations of legacy POPs are not considered a health risk to the harbor seals from Svalbard.
PubMed ID
25152181 View in PubMed
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Common etiological factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior: a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258813
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Therese Ljung
Qi Chen
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The prevention of suicidal behavior is one of the most important tasks for mental health clinicians. Although a few studies have indicated an increased risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the development of more effective ways of identifying and modifying the risk is hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for this association.
To explore whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior share genetic and environmental risk factors.
Matched cohort design across different levels of family relatedness recorded from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. We identified 51?707 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (through patient and prescribed drug registers) in Sweden and their relatives by linking longitudinal population-based registers. Control participants were matched 1:5 on sex and birth year.
Any record of suicide attempt or completed suicide defined by discharge diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases.
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands) had increased risks of attempted and completed suicide, even after adjusting for comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.62 [95% CI, 3.29-3.98] and 5.91 [95% CI, 2.45-14.27], respectively). The highest familial risk was observed among first-degree relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?2.42 [95% CI, 2.36-2.49] among parents of probands with ADHD and OR?=?2.28 [95% CI, 2.17-2.40] among full siblings of probands with ADHD; completed suicide: OR?=?2.24 [95% CI, 2.06-2.43] and OR?=?2.23 [1.83-2.73], respectively), whereas the risk was considerably lower among more genetically distant relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?1.59 [95% CI, 1.47-1.73] among maternal half siblings, OR?=?1.57 [95% CI, 1.45-1.70] among paternal half siblings, and OR?=?1.39 [95% CI, 1.35-1.43] among cousins; completed suicide: OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.08-2.10], OR?=?2.02 [95% CI, 1.47-2.79], and OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). These familial aggregation patterns remained similar across sex, after excluding relatives with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and probands with suicidal behavior, and after excluding probands and relatives with severe comorbid disorders.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with an increased risk of both attempted and completed suicide. The pattern of familial risks across different levels of relatedness suggests that shared genetic factors are important for this association. This is an important first step toward identifying the underlying mechanisms for the risk of suicidal behavior in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suggests that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their family members are important targets for suicide prevention and treatment.
PubMed ID
24964928 View in PubMed
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Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258854
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):235-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2014
Author
Jaana I Halonen
Timo Lanki
Tarja Yli-Tuomi
Anu W Turunen
Jaana Pentti
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):235-43
Date
May-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Automobile Driving
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Noise
Prospective Studies
Self-Assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees.
Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study.
Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus =45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women.
Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):211-324668139
PubMed ID
24788851 View in PubMed
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E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258871
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Annika Nilsson
Marianne Andrén
Maria Engström
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:52
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Clinical Competence - standards
Educational Measurement - methods - standards
Female
Health Personnel - education - standards
Health Services for the Aged - standards
Humans
Learning
Male
Middle Aged
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires - standards
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.
Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education.
Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives.
The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24742168 View in PubMed
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Celiac disease risk varies between birth cohorts, generating hypotheses about causality: evidence from 36 years of population-based follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258907
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Fredinah Namatovu
Olof Sandström
Cecilia Olsson
Marie Lindkvist
Anneli Ivarsson
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Causality
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a major public health problem with estimated 1-3% prevalence in the general population. In recent years an increase in CD prevalence has been reported both in Sweden and worldwide. This study aimed at examining the annual incidence rate of biopsy-proven celiac disease among children in Sweden over a 36-year period, to assess variations by age, sex and birth cohort, and to assess the clinical impact of these changes.
The National Swedish Childhood CD Register was used to identify 9107 children aged 0-14.9 years who were diagnosed with CD during the period 1973 to 2009. From 1973 to 1990 the register covered 15% of the nation, this increased to 40% during 1991-1997; a full national coverage was obtained from 1998 onwards. Estimations for the annual incidence rate, cumulative incidence and clinical impact by age groups, calendar month and birth cohorts were made.
CD incidence is continuing to increase in the child population aged 2-14.9 years. A continued variation in CD incidence was observed in children aged 0-1.9 years, characterized by a marked decrease in most recent years. The median age at diagnosis has increased from 1.0 year in the 1970s to 6.8 years in 2009. The average number of new cases has risen from ~200 during 1973-1983 to ~600 during 2004-2009. In the birth cohorts of 2000-2002 the cumulative incidence even exceeded that of the epidemic cohorts at comparable ages. The highest cumulative incidence was observed in the birth cohorts of 1985-1995 and 2000-2002.
CD risk varies between birth cohorts, suggesting cyclic environmental and/or lifestyle risk factors in CD etiology. More research on underlying risk factors is required in order to move forward with preventive strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24693975 View in PubMed
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Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258924
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Micael Widerström
Caroline Schönning
Mikael Lilja
Marianne Lebbad
Thomas Ljung
Görel Allestam
Martin Ferm
Britta Björkholm
Anette Hansen
Jari Hiltula
Jonas Långmark
Margareta Löfdahl
Maria Omberg
Christina Reuterwall
Eva Samuelsson
Katarina Widgren
Anders Wallensten
Johan Lindh
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Cryptosporidium - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden - epidemiology
Water
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - methods
Water supply
Young Adult
Abstract
In November 2010, ˜27,000 (˜45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24655474 View in PubMed
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Mortality related to air pollution with the moscow heat wave and wildfire of 2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258959
Source
Epidemiology. 2014 May;25(3):359-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Dmitry Shaposhnikov
Boris Revich
Tom Bellander
Getahun Bero Bedada
Matteo Bottai
Tatyana Kharkova
Ekaterina Kvasha
Elena Lezina
Tomas Lind
Eugenia Semutnikova
Göran Pershagen
Source
Epidemiology. 2014 May;25(3):359-64
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Cause of Death
Child
Disasters
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Extreme Heat - adverse effects
Female
Fires
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Moscow
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Prolonged high temperatures and air pollution from wildfires often occur together, and the two may interact in their effects on mortality. However, there are few data on such possible interactions.
We analyzed day-to-day variations in the number of deaths in Moscow, Russia, in relation to air pollution levels and temperature during the disastrous heat wave and wildfire of 2010. Corresponding data for the period 2006-2009 were used for comparison. Daily average levels of PM10 and ozone were obtained from several continuous measurement stations. The daily number of nonaccidental deaths from specific causes was extracted from official records. Analyses of interactions considered the main effect of temperature as well as the added effect of prolonged high temperatures and the interaction with PM10.
The major heat wave lasted for 44 days, with 24-hour average temperatures ranging from 24°C to 31°C and PM10 levels exceeding 300 µg/m on several days. There were close to 11,000 excess deaths from nonaccidental causes during this period, mainly among those older than 65 years. Increased risks also occurred in younger age groups. The most pronounced effects were for deaths from cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and nervous system diseases. Continuously increasing risks following prolonged high temperatures were apparent during the first 2 weeks of the heat wave. Interactions between high temperatures and air pollution from wildfires in excess of an additive effect contributed to more than 2000 deaths.
Interactions between high temperatures and wildfire air pollution should be considered in risk assessments regarding health consequences of climate change.
Notes
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Comment In: Epidemiology. 2014 May;25(3):365-724713879
PubMed ID
24598414 View in PubMed
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A 10-year follow-up of a population-based study of people with multiple sclerosis in Stockholm, Sweden: changes in health-related quality of life and the value of different factors in predicting health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259017
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2014
Author
Charlotte Chruzander
Charlotte Ytterberg
Kristina Gottberg
Ulrika Einarsson
Lotta Widén Holmqvist
Sverker Johansson
Source
J Neurol Sci. 2014 Apr 15;339(1-2):57-63
Date
Apr-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Population Surveillance - methods
Predictive value of tests
Quality of Life - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQL) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is negatively affected compared to that of the general population. Cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms have been shown to predict worse HRQL in a short-term perspective. Considering the progressive nature of MS, it is essential to include the long-term (10 years) perspective of HRQL in PwMS.
The aim of this 10-year follow-up of a population-based sample of PwMS was to explore changes in and the predictive value of personal factors, degree of MS disability, depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment on HRQL.
Data on personal and disease-specific factors, mood, and cognitive function was collected. Data on HRQL was collected, seen as a health profile with the Sickness Impact Profile, as a health index with the EuroQol 5D and as a single global question with the EQ Visual Analog Scale.
HRQL worsened over 10 years according to the health profile (Sickness Impact Profile Total and its physical dimension) and according to the health index. The effect sizes were small. HRQL assessed with the single global question remained unchanged. Depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment predicted worse HRQL.
In a 10-year perspective the HRQL with regard to its physical domain or when seen as a total health profile tends to get worse in PwMS. Yet, HRQL with regard to its psychosocial domain and with regard to PwMS' self-rated health, remains stable. There is a potential for health-care professionals to decrease the impact of modifiable factors on HRQL in PwMS by identifying those with depressive symptoms and/or cognitive impairment and initiating evidence-based treatment as well as meeting the need for environmental facilitators aiming at reducing disability.
PubMed ID
24492009 View in PubMed
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Increasing overweight in Greenland: social, demographic, dietary and other life-style factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3084
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):86-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
B. Deutch
H S Pedersen
J C Hansen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Arctic Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark. bd@mil.au.dk
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):86-98
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Body mass index
Comparative Study
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - diagnosis - epidemiology
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Obesity - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: In several Arctic countries, weight gain is very evident among the local populations and the percentages of overweight and obese persons are increasing rapidly. Since the development of overweight among the Arctic populations seems to coincide with the westernization of their diet and other life-style factors, it is tempting to hypothesize that the transition to carbohydrate- and fat-rich western food causes the weight gain. The high relative content of (n-3) fatty acids in traditional foods presumably provides some protection against cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and various other diseases of affluent industrialized societies. In the present study, we have investigated the recent weight gain in Greenland and have tried to relate it to social factors, present dietary habits and other life-styles. STUDY DESIGN: The cross-sectional study, which was part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assess Programme, included 410 men and women (18-49 years) from 5 districts in Greenland. It was based upon questionnaires including a dietary survey, anthropometric measurements and blood lipid analyses. RESULTS: Obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2, corresponding to about 19% of the participants) increased with age, was most prevalent among higher household economic levels, and correlated with neither local, nor imported food intake. CONCLUSION: Overweight was not found to be correlated with either western, or traditional food composition. Obesity had adverse effects on several health indicators, serum triglyceride, HDL and the cardiovascular risk index, (Chol-HDL)/HDL and TG/HDL, counteracting the positive effects of (n-3) fatty acids and should be considered as a serious health risk for the Greenlandic population.
PubMed ID
15776996 View in PubMed
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Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance among the inuit population of Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3132
Source
Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1766-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Marit E Jørgensen
Peter Bjeregaard
Knut Borch-Johnsen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Centre, Gentofte, Denmark. National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. maej@novonordisk.com
Source
Diabetes Care. 2002 Oct;25(10):1766-71
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Diet
Dietary Proteins
Educational Status
Exercise
Female
Fruit
Geography
Glucose Intolerance - epidemiology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Inuits
Life Style
Male
Meat
Random Allocation
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among the Inuit population of Greenland and to determine risk factors for developing glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 917 randomly selected adult Inuit subjects living in three areas of Greenland. Diabetes and IGT were diagnosed using the oral glucose tolerance test. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were measured and blood samples were taken from each subject. Sociodemographic characteristics were investigated using a questionnaire. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalences of diabetes and IGT were 10.8 and 9.4% among men and 8.8 and 14.1% among women, respectively. Of those with diabetes, 70% had not been previously diagnosed. Significant risk factors for diabetes were family history of diabetes, age, BMI, and high alcohol consumption, whereas frequent intake of fresh fruit and seal meat were inversely associated with diabetic status. Age, BMI, family history of diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, and place of residence were significant predictors of IGT. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of diabetes is high among the Inuit of Greenland. Heredity was a major factor, while obesity and diet were important environmental factors. The high proportion of unknown cases suggests a need for increased diabetes awareness in Greenland.
Notes
Erratum In: Diabetes Care. 2002 Dec;25(12):2372
PubMed ID
12351475 View in PubMed
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Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3145
Source
Pages 102-111 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
.nary 6012001 RAPID SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE AND HEALTH IN THE ARCTIC Petet Bjerregaard ABSTRACT d The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profo~ inlluence on their health. History tells about devastating epideJDJCS and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have
  1 document  
Author
Bjerregaard, P
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Section for Research in Greenland, Copenhagen. p.bjerregaard@dadlnet.dk
Source
Pages 102-111 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Culture
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Environmental pollution
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Status Indicators
Health Transition
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant mortality
Inuit
Male
Social Change
Suicide
Tuberculosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society. Chronic diseases are on the increase due to changing life styles, and environmental pollution with mercury and persistent organic pollutants may pose a threat to future generations of Inuit.
PubMed ID
11507959 View in PubMed
Documents
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Dementia in Newfoundland: identification of a geographical isolate?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225301
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Dec;45(4):307-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
M F Frecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Dec;45(4):307-11
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Cluster analysis
Dementia - epidemiology - mortality
Family
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The aims were (1) to identify from death certificates regions with an increased incidence of dementia mortality; and (2) to determine whether a previously observed excess of patients with Alzheimer disease originating from a small area could be confirmed in a survey of death certificates.
The study identified all individuals dying with dementia, recorded on death certificates as an immediate, antecedent, underlying, or contributing cause of death. Rather than the usual residence, the birthplace of these individuals was used to determine regional differences in dementia mortality. A comparison was made of two areas to test the significance of a geographical isolate of persons. To test for a possible genetic component of the excess, an analysis was made of the frequencies of family names. To test for a possible environmental component an analysis was made of standard measurements of drinking water quality.
The survey data were derived from all 1985 and 1986 deaths in the province of Newfoundland.
Based on the current census population, the prevalence of dementia at death for 1985 and 1986 was 34 and 37/100,000. For both years there was a significant excess of persons originating from a small area (95% CI, 1.1-20.7%, and 2.5-20.4%). This excess could not be explained by differences in age, sex, ethnic origin, or by variation in mobility patterns. The study area has a high concentration of aluminium in the drinking water. An analysis of the family names gave inconclusive evidence of a clustering among the dementia cases.
If all contributing causes of death are recorded and the birthplace of individuals is noted, mortality statistics can reveal regional differences in dementia rates. This shows the need to examine areas smaller than census districts to identify subpopulation variation in the prevalence of dementia. Environmental influences can vary substantially in areas relatively close together, as evidenced in measurements of drinking water chemistry. Genetic influences are more likely to be revealed from the birthplace of individuals, which may indicate a common ancestry.
Notes
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PubMed ID
1795153 View in PubMed
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[Dental caries and the local immunity of the oral cavity in Zn deficiency in the environment].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225425
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1991 Nov-Dec;(6):51-2
Publication Type
Article
Author
G D Ovrutskii
V M Smirnov
Iu N Kazhlaev
Source
Stomatologiia (Mosk). 1991 Nov-Dec;(6):51-2
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
DMF Index
Dental Caries - epidemiology - etiology - immunology
Environmental health
Female
Humans
Immunity
Male
Mouth - immunology
Oral Hygiene Index
Russia - epidemiology
Zinc - deficiency
Abstract
Caries incidence, oral hygiene and local immunity were studied in children living in the areas with soil deficient for zinc and with that with the normal levels of this metal. Higher DCL index, elevated values of the Fedorov-Volodkina oral hygiene index, and lowered levels of salivary secretory IgA and lysozyme were revealed in those living in the areas with soils deficient for zinc.
PubMed ID
1839477 View in PubMed
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3904 records – page 1 of 196.