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Sex differences after all those years? Heritability of cognitive abilities in old age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76492
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006 May;61(3):P137-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2006
Author
Read Sanna
Pedersen Nancy L
Gatz Margaret
Berg Stig
Vuoksimaa Eero
Malmberg Bo
Johansson Boo
McClearn Gerald E
Author Affiliation
Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, PO Box 1026, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden. sata@hhj.hj.se
Source
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006 May;61(3):P137-43
Date
May-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption - psychology
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging - genetics
Cognition
Comparative Study
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - genetics
Humans
Intelligence - genetics
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Characteristics
Social Environment
Statistics
Sweden
Twins - genetics - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology
Abstract
We investigated sex differences in genetic and environmental effects on cognitive abilities among older adult twins. We drew participants from the Swedish Twin Registry; our sample included 647 twin pairs. Our cognitive measures included Synonyms, Block Design, Digit Span, Thurstone's Picture Memory, Symbol Digit, and general cognitive ability tests. Higher age was related to lower performance in all cognitive measures, except synonyms. For digit span forward, symbol digit, and general cognitive ability tasks, there was a Sex x Age interaction, with greater deficits in the performance of women compared with those of men at higher ages. We found no sex-specific genetic influences. In other words, the same genetic effects were operating for men and women. Furthermore, the magnitude of genetic effect was similar for men and women.
PubMed ID
16670182 View in PubMed
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Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76059
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2006;13(1):51-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Karin M Lindblom
Steven J Linton
Cecilia Fedeli
Ing-Liss Bryngelsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro Medical Center, Orebro, Sweden. karin.lindblom@orebroll.se
Source
Int J Behav Med. 2006;13(1):51-9
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Burnout, Professional - epidemiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - psychology
Employment - psychology
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.
PubMed ID
16503841 View in PubMed
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Occupational magnetic field exposure and the risk of acoustic neuroma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature76134
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2006 Feb;49(2):112-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Ulla M Forssén
Stefan Lönn
Anders Ahlbom
David A Savitz
Maria Feychting
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. forssen@email.unc.edu
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2006 Feb;49(2):112-8
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Electromagnetic fields - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Neuroma, Acoustic - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupations - classification
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Acoustic neuroma is the intracranial tumor subtype showing the highest relative risk in relation to ionizing radiation but other environmental risk factors are largely unknown. This study was performed to investigate the effect of power frequency magnetic fields. METHOD: A total of 793 cases between 1987 and 1999 were identified through the Swedish cancer registry and 101,762 controls were randomly selected from the total population. Information about occupation was obtained from censuses and linked to gender specific job-exposure matrices based on actual measurements of 50 Hz magnetic field exposure. RESULT: We investigated time-weighted average, peak values, and rate of change of magnetic field exposure considering several different time windows in relation to cancer diagnosis. We found no increases in risks regardless of exposure metric or time window of exposure. CONCLUSION: This study is the largest ever on acoustic neuroma and the first study to evaluate this tumor subtype specifically in relation to extremely low frequency magnetic fields. The results do not support the hypothesis that 50 Hz magnetic fields increase the risk of acoustic neuroma.
PubMed ID
16374820 View in PubMed
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[The interplay between environment and genetics determines who gets diabetes].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99792
Source
Lakartidningen. 2010 Nov 10-16;107(45):2792-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
Claes-Göran Ostenson
Author Affiliation
Institutionen för molekylär medicin och kirurgi, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm. claes-goran.ostenson@ki.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2010 Nov 10-16;107(45):2792-5
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
World Health
PubMed ID
21179863 View in PubMed
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Exposure to toxic metals and persistent organic pollutants in Inuit children attending childcare centers in Nunavik, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126138
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4614-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-17-2012
Author
Huguette Turgeon O'Brien
Rosanne Blanchet
Doris Gagné
Julie Lauzière
Carole Vézina
Emilie Vaissière
Pierre Ayotte
Serge Déry
Author Affiliation
Groupe d'études en nutrition publique, Département des sciences des aliments et de nutrition, Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada. huguette.turgeon-obrien@fsaa.ulaval.ca
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Apr 17;46(8):4614-23
Date
Apr-17-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Fluorocarbons - blood
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - blood
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Infant
Inuits
Lead - blood
Male
Mercury - blood
Pesticides - blood
Quebec
Abstract
Arctic populations are exposed to substantial levels of environmental contaminants that can negatively affect children's health and development. Moreover, emerging contaminants have never been assessed in Inuit children. In this study, we document the biological exposure to toxic metals and legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of 155 Inuit children (mean age 25.2 months) attending childcare centers in Nunavik. Blood samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of mercury, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, brominated flame retardants [e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] and perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances [PFASs; e.g. perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctane (PFOA)]. Lead [geometric mean (GM) 0.08 µmol/L], PCB-153 (GM 22.2 ng/g of lipid), BDE-47 (GM 184 ng/g of lipid), PFOS (GM 3369 ng/L), and PFOA (GM 1617 ng/L) were detected in all samples. Mercury (GM 9.8 nmol/L) was detected in nearly all blood samples (97%). Levels of metals and legacy POPs are consistent with the decreasing trend observed in Nunavik and in the Arctic. PBDE levels were higher than those observed in many children and adolescents around the world but lower than those reported in some U.S. cities. PFOS were present in lower concentrations than in Nunavimmiut adults. There is a clear need for continued biomonitoring of blood contaminant levels in this population, particularly for PBDEs and PFASs.
Notes
Erratum In: Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jul 17;46(14):7926
PubMed ID
22420632 View in PubMed
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Does income matter for troublesome neck pain? A population-based study on risk and prognosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126215
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Nov;66(11):1063-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Lina Palmlöf
Eva Skillgate
Lars Alfredsson
Eva Vingård
Cecilia Magnusson
Michael Lundberg
Lena W Holm
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. lina.palmlof@ki.se
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012 Nov;66(11):1063-70
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Case-Control Studies
Female
Humans
Income
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Neck Pain - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Pain Measurement
Population Surveillance
Prognosis
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Stress, Psychological
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies have shown associations between higher income and better health, but income has not been studied in relation to neck pain. The aims of this cohort study were to assess the sex-specific role of disposable income for onset and prognosis of neck pain in the general population and if economic stress influences such potential associations.
Two subcohorts were identified in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort with data from 2002. Cohort I (risk cohort) included persons without neck pain (n=8348). Cohort II (prognostic cohort) included persons with occasional neck pain during the previous 6 months (n=10?523). Both cohorts were assessed for long duration troublesome neck pain (LDNP) in 2007. Individual income was defined as aggregated annual family income in 2002 with each family member assigned a weighted consumption share, based on salary, pensions and social benefits. LDNP in 2007 was defined as having had troublesome neck pain lasting for three or more consecutive months the previous 5 years. Association between income and LDNP, considering potential confounding, was investigated by multivariable logistic regression. Economic stress was tested as effect modifier between income and LDNP.
In both cohorts, associations were found between lower income and a higher risk for LDNP. The results were similar between the sexes. Economic stress modified the associations in both cohorts.
Low income may be a risk as well as prognostic factor for developing LDNP. Furthermore, the results indicate that economic stress may be an underlying factor to consider when studying associations between income and neck pain.
PubMed ID
22412154 View in PubMed
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Reuse and refurbish: a cost savings delivery model for specialized seating.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126230
Source
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Jul;93(7):1286-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Rodney S Li Pi Shan
Wendy M Chrusch
Angelo G Linassi
Rajini Sankaran
Jeanine Munchinsky
Author Affiliation
Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Rodney.lipishan@albertahealthservices.ca
Source
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Jul;93(7):1286-8
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Alberta
Child
Child, Preschool
Cost Savings
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Disability Evaluation
Disabled Children
Equipment Reuse - economics
Female
Humans
Infant
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Economic
Retrospective Studies
Self-Help Devices - economics
Wheelchairs - economics
Abstract
To describe a unique specialized seating delivery model for children with disabilities that focuses on cost containment and environmental preservation. To determine whether this delivery model achieves cost containment.
A retrospective cost analysis using data from billing records and annual statistical reports of the specialized seating program, for the 2004 to 2009 billing period.
The specialized seating program is a service provided on a referral basis by the Saskatchewan Abilities Council, which is under contract to Saskatchewan Health.
Pediatric patients (N=40) with physical disabilities (cerebral palsy, developmental delay, acquired brain injury, spinal cord injury, Down syndrome, other) who were referred, assessed, and met inclusion criteria.
Not applicable.
Relative cost (in Canadian dollars) of providing units with recycled components compared with purchasing new units.
The average cost of a used wheelchair was Can $698.11. The average cost of a new chair was $2143.69, leading to an average savings per chair of $1445.58. Of the 49 chairs issued, this resulted in a total cost savings of $85,393.97. When labor costs were taken into account ($50,060.26), the savings amounted to $35,333.71. Overall cost reduction was 41.3%.
A retrospective analysis shows evidence of cost containment. Long-term sustainability of the program requires ongoing analysis of the cost and environmental advantages of a recycling program and review of benefits provided in relation to the ability to meet patient needs. This delivery model does incorporate accountability and a policy framework, which could serve as a model for other centers.
PubMed ID
22410182 View in PubMed
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Community SES, perceived environment, and physical activity during home-based cardiac rehabilitation: is there a need to consider the urban vs. rural distinction?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126295
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Chris Blanchard
Daniel Rainham
Jill McSweeney
John Spence
Lisa McDonnell
Ryan Rhodes
Robert Reid
Kerry McGannon
Nancy Edwards
Author Affiliation
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. chris.blanchard@dal.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environment
Exercise
Female
Home Care Services - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Patient Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Physical activity (MVPA) levels during home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remain problematic. Consequently, the present study examined the association between MVPA and urban vs. rural residential status and the perceived environment in patients attending home-based CR. A total of 280 patients completed a questionnaire assessing demographic, clinical, MVPA, and perceived environmental variables measured at baseline and 3 months later. Patient addresses were geocoded and linked to the 2006 Canadian census to establish the urban/rural distinction. Results showed that urban and rural patients had similar baseline MVPA and improvements in MVPA by 3 months. Several perceived environmental variables were significantly related to MVPA throughout home-based CR that were common and urban/rural-specific. Therefore, although there does not appear to be an urban vs. rural advantage in MVPA levels during home-based CR, there does appear to be environmental/MVPA-specific relationships specific to urban and rural patients that may warrant attention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22402918 View in PubMed
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Legacy and current-use flame retardants in house dust from Vancouver, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126299
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Mahiba Shoeib
Tom Harner
Glenys M Webster
Ed Sverko
Yu Cheng
Author Affiliation
Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mahiba.Shoeib@ec.gc.ca
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Flame Retardants - adverse effects - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Young Adult
Abstract
Fifteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eighteen non-PBDEs were measured in 116 dust samples collected from homes in Vancouver, Canada during 2007-2008 as part of the Chemicals Health and Pregnancy (CHirP) study. The highest concentrations of PBDEs in house dust were observed for BDE 209, with a median concentration of 1350 ng/g. This is about two times greater than the median concentration of the PentaBDE (represented by the most abundant compounds in this formulation, SBDE 47, 99 and 100). In the case of non-PBDE FRs, a detection frequency between 81% and 100% was observed for nine analytes including: HBCD, BTBPE, BEHTBP, EHTBB, HBB, PBTO, PBBe, ATE and DP. The high detection of new FRs in indoor environments reflects their ubiquitous presence in indoor environment due to regulation of the PBDEs. Exposure to FRs are estimated based on these data for adults and toddlers.
PubMed ID
22402458 View in PubMed
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Exploring bikeability in a metropolitan setting: stimulating and hindering factors in commuting route environments.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126313
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:168
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Lina Wahlgren
Peter Schantz
Author Affiliation
The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Åstrand Laboratory, GIH - The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:168
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Bicycling
Environment Design
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
Route environments may influence people's active commuting positively and thereby contribute to public health. Assessments of route environments are, however, needed in order to better understand the possible relationship between active commuting and the route environment. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the potential associations between perceptions of whether the route environment on the whole hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and perceptions of environmental factors.
The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters' perceptions of their route environments in the inner urban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. Bicycle commuters (n = 827) were recruited by advertisements in newspapers. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relation between predictor variables (such as levels of exhaust fumes, noise, traffic speed, traffic congestion and greenery) and the outcome variable (hindering - stimulating route environments). Two models were run, (Model 1) without and (Model 2) with the item traffic: unsafe or safe included as a predictor.
Overall, about 40% of the variance of hindering - stimulating route environments was explained by the environmental predictors in our models (Model 1, R2 = 0.415, and Model 2, R 2= 0.435). The regression equation for Model 1 was: y = 8.53 + 0.33 ugly or beautiful + 0.14 greenery + (-0.14) course of the route + (-0.13) exhaust fumes + (-0.09) congestion: all types of vehicles (p = 0.019). The regression equation for Model 2 was y = 6.55 + 0.31 ugly or beautiful + 0.16 traffic: unsafe or safe + (-0.13) exhaust fumes + 0.12 greenery + (-0.12) course of the route (p = 0.001).
The main results indicate that beautiful, green and safe route environments seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting in inner urban areas. On the other hand, exhaust fumes, traffic congestion and low 'directness' of the route seem to be hindering factors. Furthermore, the overall results illustrate the complexity of a research area at the beginning of exploration.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22401492 View in PubMed
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Phthalates and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid in human amniotic fluid: temporal trends and timing of amniocentesis in pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126355
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jun;120(6):897-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Morten Søndergaard Jensen
Bent Nørgaard-Pedersen
Gunnar Toft
David M Hougaard
Jens Peter Bonde
Arieh Cohen
Ane Marie Thulstrup
Richard Ivell
Ravinder Anand-Ivell
Christian H Lindh
Bo A G Jönsson
Author Affiliation
Danish Ramazzini Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. morten@sondergaard-jensen.dk
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Jun;120(6):897-903
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis
Amniocentesis - methods
Amniotic Fluid - chemistry
Chromatography, Liquid
Denmark
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis
Gestational Age
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Pregnancy
Abstract
Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability.
We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis.
We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models.
We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity.
Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22398305 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pesticide use, immunologic conditions, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Canadian men in six provinces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126391
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2012
Author
Manisha Pahwa
Shelley A Harris
Karin Hohenadel
John R McLaughlin
John J Spinelli
Punam Pahwa
James A Dosman
Aaron Blair
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Date
Dec-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - complications - immunology
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Gasoline - poisoning
Herbicides - poisoning
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications - immunology
Incidence
Insecticides - poisoning
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - chemically induced - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pesticides - poisoning
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - complications - immunology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Pesticide exposures and immune suppression have been independently associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but their joint effect has not been well explored. Data from a case-control study of men from six Canadian provinces were used to evaluate the potential effect modification of asthma, allergies, or asthma and allergies and hay fever combined on NHL risk from use of: (i) any pesticide; (ii) any organochlorine insecticide; (iii) any organophosphate insecticide; (iv) any phenoxy herbicide; (v) selected individual pesticides [1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene]; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), malathion, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); and (vi) from the number of potentially carcinogenic pesticides. Incident NHL cases (n = 513) diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were recruited from provincial cancer registries and hospitalization records and compared to 1,506 controls. A stratified analysis was conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, province, proxy respondent, and diesel oil exposure. Subjects with asthma, allergies, or hay fever had non-significantly elevated risks of NHL associated with use of MCPA (OR = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-7.93) compared to subjects without any of these conditions (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.39-1.70). Conversely, those with asthma, allergies, or hay fever who reported use of malathion had lower risks of NHL (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.69-2.26) versus subjects with none of these conditions (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.65-3.61). Similar effects were observed for asthma and allergies evaluated individually. Although there were some leads regarding effect modification by these immunologic conditions on the association between pesticide use and NHL, small numbers, measurement error and possible recall bias limit interpretation of these results.
PubMed ID
22396152 View in PubMed
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Genetic susceptibility to burnout in a Swedish twin cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126454
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Mar;27(3):225-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Victoria Blom
Gunnar Bergström
Lennart Hallsten
Lennart Bodin
Pia Svedberg
Author Affiliation
Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Mar;27(3):225-31
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Burnout, Professional - genetics
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Health Surveys
Heredity
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Models, Statistical
Questionnaires
Registries
Sweden
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology
Abstract
Most previous studies of burnout have focused on work environmental stressors, while familial factors so far mainly have been overlooked. The aim of the study was to estimate the relative importance of genetic influences on burnout (measured with Pines Burnout Measure) in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) Swedish twins. The study sample consisted of 20,286 individuals, born 1959-1986 from the Swedish twin registry who participated in the cross-sectional study of twin adults: genes and environment. Probandwise concordance rates (the risk for one twin to be affected given that his/her twin partner is affected by burnout) and within pair correlations were calculated for MZ and DZ same--and opposite sexed twin pairs. Heritability coefficients i.e. the proportion of the total variance attributable to genetic factors were calculated using standard biometrical model fitting procedures. The results showed that genetic factors explained 33% of the individual differences in burnout symptoms in women and men. Environmental factors explained a substantial part of the variation as well and are thus important to address in rehabilitation and prevention efforts to combat burnout.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22388765 View in PubMed
Less detail

Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126487
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:154
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Allan Toomingas
Mikael Forsman
Svend Erik Mathiassen
Marina Heiden
Tohr Nilsson
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden. allan.toomingas@ki.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:154
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Extremities - physiology
Female
Health Services Research
Humans
Information Centers
Male
Middle Aged
Muscle Stretching Exercises
Occupational Health
Postural Balance - physiology
Proprioception
Sex Distribution
Sweden
Telephone
Time and Motion Studies
User-Computer Interface
Walking - physiology
Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract
The dose and time-pattern of sitting has been suggested in public health research to be an important determinant of risk for developing a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to assess the time-pattern of seated and standing/walking postures amongst male and female call centre operators, on the basis of whole-shift posture recordings, analysed and described by a number of novel variables describing posture variation.
Seated vs. standing/walking was recorded using dichotomous inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analysed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of and switches between seated and standing/walking, posture similarity across the day, and compliance with standard recommendations for computer work.
The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture with an average of 10.4 switches/hour between seated and standing/walking or vice versa. Females spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; males 4.6% (p = 0.013). Only 38% and 11% of the operators complied with standard recommendations of getting an uninterrupted break from seated posture of at least 5 or 10 minutes, respectively, within each hour of work. Two thirds of all investigated variables showed coefficients of variation between subjects above 0.5. Since work tasks and contractual break schedules were observed to be essentially similar across operators and across days, this indicates that sedentary behaviours differed substantially between individuals.
The extensive occurrence of uninterrupted seated work indicates that efforts should be made at call centres - and probably in other settings in the office sector - to introduce more physical variation in terms of standing/walking periods during the work day. We suggest the metrics used in this study for quantifying variation in sedentary behaviour to be of interest even for other dichotomous exposures relevant to occupational and public health, for instance physical activity/inactivity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22385536 View in PubMed
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Children's health and its association with indoor environments in Danish homes and daycare centres - methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126493
Source
Indoor Air. 2012 Dec;22(6):467-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
G. Clausen
A. Høst
J. Toftum
G. Bekö
C. Weschler
M. Callesen
S. Buhl
M B Ladegaard
S. Langer
B. Andersen
J. Sundell
C-G Bornehag
T. Sigsgaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Civil Engineering, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark. gc@byg.dtu.dk
Source
Indoor Air. 2012 Dec;22(6):467-75
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child Day Care Centers - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Male
Questionnaires
Abstract
The principle objective of the Danish research program 'Indoor Environment and Children's Health' (IECH) was to explore associations between various exposures that children experience in their indoor environments (specifically their homes and daycare centers) and their well-being and health. The targeted health endpoints were allergy, asthma, and certain respiratory symptoms. The study was designed with two stages. In the first stage, a questionnaire survey was distributed to more than 17,000 families with children between the ages of 1 and 5. The questionnaire focused on the children's health and the environments within the homes they inhabited and daycare facilities they attended. More than 11,000 questionnaires were returned. In the second stage, a subsample of 500 children was selected for more detailed studies, including an extensive set of measurements in their homes and daycare centers and a clinical examination; all clinical examinations were carried out by the same physician. In this study, the methods used for data collection within the IECH research program are presented and discussed. Furthermore, initial findings are presented regarding descriptors of the study population and selected characteristics of the children's dwellings and daycare centers.
This study outlines methods that might be followed by future investigators conducting large-scale field studies of potential connections between various indoor environmental factors and selected health endpoints. Of particular note are (i) the two-stage design - a broad questionnaire-based survey followed by a more intensive set of measurements among a subset of participants who have been selected based on their responses to the questionnaire; (ii) the case-base approach utilized in the stage 2 in contrast to the more commonly used case-control approach; (iii) the inclusion of the children's daycare environment when conducting intensive sampling to more fully capture the children's total indoor exposure; and (iv) all clinical examinations conducted by the same physician. We recognize that future investigators are unlikely to fully duplicate the methods outlined in this study, but we hope that it provides a useful starting point in terms of factors that might be considered when designing such a study.
PubMed ID
22385284 View in PubMed
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Individual neuropsychological profiles at age 5½ years in children born preterm in relation to medical risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126498
Source
Child Neuropsychol. 2013;19(3):313-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Aiko Lundequist
Birgitta Böhm
Ann-Charlotte Smedler
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. aiko.lundequist@ki.se
Source
Child Neuropsychol. 2013;19(3):313-31
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Development
Cluster analysis
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight - psychology
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature - psychology
Male
Neuropsychological Tests
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
Follow-up studies of preterm children have reported a range of cognitive deficits, particularly in executive functions, visuospatial abilities, and learning. However, few researchers have adopted a person-oriented approach, exploring individual neuropsychological profiles. The aim of this study was to identify typical neuropsychological profiles among preterm children and control children, respectively. A second aim was to investigate if neuropsychological profiles at age 5½ might be associated with perinatal medical risk factors. As part of the longitudinal Stockholm Neonatal Project, NEPSY for 4- to 7-year-old children ( Korkman, 1990 ), WPPSI-R, and Movement ABC were administered at age 5½ years to 145 preterm (mean gestational age 28 weeks) and 117 control children born at term. For the present study, the NEPSY results of each child were transformed into summary z scores for each of 5 neuropsychological domains: attention, memory, sensory-motor, verbal, and visuospatial functions. Subsequently, Ward's cluster analysis was performed for the preterm and control groups separately, identifying 5 neuropsychological profiles in both groups explaining around 56% and 57% of the variance, respectively. Overall, preterm children had lower neuropsychological results but also more diverging profiles compared to controls. The variability in outcome could not be sufficiently explained by birth weight, gestational age, or medical risks. The results suggest that prematurity interacts dynamically with genetic, medical, and environmental factors in neuropsychological development.
PubMed ID
22384932 View in PubMed
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Eczema among adults: prevalence, risk factors and relation to airway diseases. Results from a large-scale population survey in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126618
Source
Br J Dermatol. 2012 Jun;166(6):1301-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
E P Rönmark
L. Ekerljung
J. Lötvall
G. Wennergren
E. Rönmark
K. Torén
B. Lundbäck
Author Affiliation
Krefting Research Centre, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 424, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. erik.ronmark@gu.se
Source
Br J Dermatol. 2012 Jun;166(6):1301-8
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Asthma - complications - epidemiology
Eczema - complications - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Respiratory Tract Diseases - complications - epidemiology
Rhinitis - complications - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In contrast to asthma and rhinitis, few studies among adults investigating the prevalence and risk factors of eczema have been published.
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of eczema among adults in West Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between asthma, rhinitis and eczema.
A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed in 2008 to 30,000 randomly selected subjects in West Sweden aged 16-75 years; 62% responded. The questionnaire included questions about eczema, respiratory symptoms and diseases and their possible determinants. A subgroup of 669 subjects underwent skin prick testing against common airborne allergens.
'Eczema ever' was reported by 40·7% and 'current eczema' by 11·5%. Both conditions were significantly more common among women. The prevalence decreased with increasing age. The coexistence of both asthma and rhinitis with eczema was common. The main risk factors were family history of allergy and asthma. The dominant environmental risk factor was occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes. Smoking increased the risk. Eczema was associated with urbanization, while growing up on a farm was associated with a decreased risk. Added one by one to the multivariate model, asthma, allergic rhinitis and any positive skin prick test were associated with eczema.
Eczema among adults is a common disease with more women than men having and having had eczema. Eczema is associated with other atopic diseases and with airway symptoms. Hereditary factors and exposure to gas, dust and fumes are associated with eczema.
PubMed ID
22372948 View in PubMed
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A photovoice documentation of the role of neighborhood physical and social environments in older adults' physical activity in two metropolitan areas in North America.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126691
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2012 Apr;74(8):1180-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Atiya Mahmood
Habib Chaudhury
Yvonne L Michael
Michael Campo
Kara Hay
Ann Sarte
Author Affiliation
Department of Gerontology, Simon Fraser University, 2800-515 W. Hastings St., Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3, Canada. amahmood@sfu.ca
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2012 Apr;74(8):1180-92
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
British Columbia
Community-Based Participatory Research - methods
Environment Design - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Male
Motor Activity
Oregon
Photography
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Social Environment
Urban health
Abstract
A substantial body of evidence indicates that regular engagement in moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week is sufficient for older adults to achieve positive health outcomes. Although there is a growing body of literature that examines the affect of neighborhood environment on physical activity in older adults, the research tends to overlook social aspects that potentially shape the relationship between physical environment and physical activity. This article presents qualitative themes related to the role of the physical and social environments in influencing physical activity among older adults as identified through the photovoice method with sixty-six older adults in eight neighborhoods in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Greater Portland, Oregon, USA. The photovoice data generated seven themes: being safe and feeling secure, getting there, comfort in movement, diversity of destinations, community-based programs, peer support and intergenerational/volunteer activities. Although the majority of these themes have explicit or implicit physical and social aspects, certain themes are primarily based on physical environmental aspects (e.g., safe and feeling secure, comfort in movement), while a few themes are more oriented to social context (e.g., peer support, intergenerational activity/volunteering). The themes are discussed with a focus on how the neighborhood physical and social environmental aspects interplay to foster or hinder older adults in staying active in both everyday activities and intentional physical activities. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.
PubMed ID
22365935 View in PubMed
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Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) among elderly men and women from Sweden: results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126747
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Sep;44:59-67
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Samira Salihovic
Erik Lampa
Gunilla Lindström
Lars Lind
P Monica Lind
Bert van Bavel
Author Affiliation
MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. samira.salihovic@oru.se
Source
Environ Int. 2012 Sep;44:59-67
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Dioxins - blood
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Hexachlorobenzene
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Male
Pesticides - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Sex Factors
Sweden
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - blood
Abstract
Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are a huge group of chemicals that have been linked to various adverse health effects in humans. Large epidemiological studies investigating gender differences in levels of POPs in the elderly are limited and the results from these are not always consistent. The present study was undertaken to examine the background levels of a broad range of POPs in human plasma samples among elderly men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender. Levels of 23 POPs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (50.2% women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). Measurements were performed using high resolution gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) and the POPs studied were 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, and one brominated flame retardant. The concentrations of the selected POPs were found similar, or comparable, to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations from Sweden and Europe. Differences in levels of POPs between men and women were assessed by using Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test. Significant (p
PubMed ID
22361238 View in PubMed
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Mortality attributable to occupational exposure in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126760
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013 Jan;39(1):106-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Bengt Järvholm
Christina Reuterwall
Jennie Bystedt
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. bengt.jarvholm @envmed.umu.se
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2013 Jan;39(1):106-11
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology - mortality
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - mortality
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of this study was to estimate the mortality from cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases attributable to occupational exposure in Sweden.
Estimates were calculated for men and women separately, and we considered only deaths between 25-74 years of age. We considered cancer exposures/sites classified as I or 2a according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Acute myocardial infarction was the only included cardiovascular disease. Respiratory diseases comprised chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) asthma, pneumoconiosis and alveolitis. All deaths of pneumoconiosis and alveolitis were considered work-related. Estimates were based on the Swedish mortality in 2007.
In total, we estimate that there are about 800 work-related deaths per year in the studied causes. The majority are due to acute myocardial infarction, with 126 deaths among women and 337 deaths among men attributable to job strain, shift work, exhaust gases, combustion products, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There are 99 respiratory disease-related deaths, the vast majority from COPD (N=92). In total, 270 cancer deaths are estimated to be work-related. For men, half of the cases are attributed to asbestos exposure.
Our results indicate that preventive measures to decrease occupational mortality should consider factors associated with myocardial infarction such as job strain, shift work and exhaust gases from vehicles and combustion products. Exposures to factors associated with COPD, such as dust, also seem important to prevent.
PubMed ID
22358144 View in PubMed
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