Skip header and navigation

Refine By

345 records – page 1 of 18.

Marginal structural model to evaluate the joint effect of socioeconomic exposures on the risk of developing end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes: a longitudinal study based on data from the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Study Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290217
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 08; 27(8):479-484
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
08-2017
Author
Laura Pazzagli
Anna Möllsten
Ingeborg Waernbaum
Author Affiliation
Division of Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address: laura.pazzagli@stat.unipg.it.
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 08; 27(8):479-484
Date
08-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Diabetic Nephropathies - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Kidney Failure, Chronic - diagnosis - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Risk factors
Social Determinants of Health
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Unemployment
Abstract
Diabetic nephropathy is a severe complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D) that may lead to renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) demanding dialysis and transplantation. The etiology of diabetic nephropathy is multifactorial and both genes and environmental and life style-related factors are involved. In this study, we investigate the effect of the socioeconomic exposures, unemployment and receiving income support, on the development of ESRD in T1D patients, using a marginal structural model (MSM) in comparison with standard logistic regression models.
The study is based on the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register which in 1977 started to register patients developing T1D before 15 years of age. In the analyses, we include patients born between 1965 and 1979, developing diabetes between 1977 and 1994, and followed until 2013 (n = 4034). A MSM was fitted to adjust for both baseline and time-varying confounders.
The main results of the analysis indicate that being unemployed for more than 1 year and receiving income support are risk factors for the development of ESRD. Multiple exposures over time to these risk factors increase the risk associated with the disease.
Using a MSM is an advanced method well suited to investigate the effect of exposures on the risk of complications of a chronic disease with longitudinal data. The results show that socioeconomic disadvantage increases the risk of developing ESRD in patients with T1D.
PubMed ID
28935026 View in PubMed
Less detail

Smoking as a confounder in case-control studies of occupational bladder cancer in women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20995
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1999 Jul;36(1):75-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
A. 't Mannetje
M. Kogevinas
J. Chang-Claude
S. Cordier
C A González
M. Hours
K H Jöckel
U. Bolm-Audorff
E. Lynge
S. Porru
F. Donato
U. Ranft
C. Serra
A. Tzonou
P. Vineis
J. Wahrendorf
P. Boffetta
Author Affiliation
Respiratory and Environmental Health Research Unit, IMIM, Barcelona, Spain.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1999 Jul;36(1):75-82
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Confidence Intervals
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupations - classification - statistics & numerical data
Odds Ratio
Research Design - standards
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Women's health
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In studies in men, risk estimates on occupation and bladder cancer are distorted by about 10% when not adjusting for smoking. We examined the degree to which occupational risk estimates for bladder cancer in women are confounded by smoking, and the degree of residual confounding by inadequate control of this effect. METHODS: Primary data of 11 case-control studies on occupation and bladder cancer from Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, and Spain were pooled. Information for smoking and lifetime occupational history for 700 female cases and 2,425 female controls ages 30-79 was abstracted and recoded. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) by occupation, applying five models which differed in their degree of adjustment for smoking. RESULTS: In major occupational groups, risk estimates were distorted by less than 10% when not adjusting for smoking. A statistically significant excess risk for bladder cancer was found in 13 specific occupations and industries. In most occupations, adjustment for smoking led the ORs towards the null value, but all statistically significant associations were maintained after adjustment. In three occupations (lathe operators, field crop workers, and wood manufacturers), a statistically significant excess risk was masked when not adjusting for smoking. In six occupations, estimates were distorted by more than 10% (-22% up to +40%). In occupations where smoking acted as a positive confounder, the proportion of confounding removed using a dichotomous smoking variable (ever/never) was around 60%. In one occupation (buyers), controlling for smoking status (ever, never) led to over-adjustment, because the percentage of smokers was high but the quantity smoked was low.
PubMed ID
10361590 View in PubMed
Less detail

A randomized controlled trial of the effect of pertussis vaccines on atopic disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15715
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Aug;152(8):734-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
L. Nilsson
N I Kjellman
B. Björkstén
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Aug;152(8):734-8
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child, Preschool
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine - administration & dosage
Double-Blind Method
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology
Incidence
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Pertussis Vaccine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Skin Tests
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Whooping Cough - prevention & control
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pertussis vaccination in infancy has been suggested to increase the risk for development of asthma and allergy. OBJECTIVE: To assess sensitization rates and development of atopic diseases in a prospective randomized controlled trial of pertussis vaccine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 669 children were randomized to 1 of 4 vaccine groups (2-component acellular pertussis, 5-component acellular pertussis, whole-cell pertussis vaccines, and placebo [diphtheria and tetanus toxoids]). Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were also given to the children in the pertussis vaccine groups. The children were evaluated by means of questionnaires at age 2 months, 7 months, and 2 1/2 years; skin prick tests at age 7 months and 2 1/2 years; and blinded clinical investigation at age 2 1/2 years. The families were contacted at regular intervals to assess possible adverse effects after the vaccinations and symptoms of whooping cough. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of atopic diseases was 30% and incidence rates were similar in the 4 groups after adjusting for family history. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and home dampness did not confound these results. The frequency of adverse effects did not differ appreciably between atopic and nonatopic children, with the exception that a nodule at the vaccination site was more frequent after whole-cell pertussis vaccination in the nonatopic children. Among 47 children with proven pertussis, atopic disease appeared in 19 (40%). Of these 47 children, 9 (19%) developed asthma, as compared with 58 (9%) noninfected children (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found no support for a drastic increase in allergic manifestations after pertussis vaccination. There was a positive association between whooping cough and asthma by 2 1/2 years of age. There seems to be little reason to withhold pertussis vaccination from infants, irrespective of family history of allergy.
PubMed ID
9701130 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood asthma in four regions in Scandinavia: risk factors and avoidance effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15791
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Jun;26(3):610-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
B. Forsberg
J. Pekkanen
J. Clench-Aas
M B Mårtensson
N. Stjernberg
A. Bartonova
K L Timonen
S. Skerfving
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Umeå University, Sweden.
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Jun;26(3):610-9
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Air Pollution, Indoor - statistics & numerical data
Asthma - epidemiology
Child
Confidence Intervals
Cough - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Family Health
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The high and increasing prevalence of childhood asthma is a major public health issue. Various risk factors have been proposed in local studies with different designs. METHODS: We have made a questionnaire study of the prevalence of childhood asthma, potential risk factors and their relations in four regions in Scandinavia (Umeå and Malmö in Sweden, Kuopio in eastern Finland and Oslo, Norway). One urban and one less urbanized area were selected in each region, and a study group of 15962 children aged 6-12 years was recruited. RESULTS: The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of asthma varied considerably between different areas (dry cough 8-19%, asthma attacks 4-8%, physician-diagnosed asthma 4-9%), as did the potential risk factors. Urban residency was generally not a risk factor. However, dry cough was common in the most traffic polluted area. Exposure to some of the risk factors. such as smoking indoors and moisture stains or moulds at home during the first 2 years of life, resulted in an increased risk. However, current exposure was associated with odds ratios less than one. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings were probably due to a combination of early impact and later avoidance of these risk factors. The effects of some risk factors were found to differ significantly between regions. No overall pattern between air pollution and asthma was seen, but air pollution differed less than expected between the areas.
PubMed ID
9222787 View in PubMed
Less detail

Traffic-related air pollution: exposure and health effects in Copenhagen street cleaners and cemetery workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15918
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1995 May-Jun;50(3):207-13
Publication Type
Article
Author
O. Raaschou-Nielsen
M L Nielsen
J. Gehl
Author Affiliation
Occupational Health Service Center of the Municipality of Copehnhagen, Denmark.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1995 May-Jun;50(3):207-13
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Asthma - chemically induced
Bronchitis - chemically induced
Carbon Monoxide - analysis
Comparative Study
Confidence Intervals
Cough - chemically induced
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nitric Oxide - analysis
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Odds Ratio
Ozone - analysis
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
This questionnaire-based study found a significantly higher prevalence of chronic bronchitis, asthma, and several other symptoms in 116 Copenhagen street cleaners who were exposed to traffic-related air pollution at levels that were slightly lower than the 1987 World Health Organization-recommended threshold values, compared with 115 Copenhagen cemetery workers exposed to lower pollution levels. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and smoking, was conducted, and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to be 2.5 for chronic bronchitis (95% confidence interval = 1.2-5.1), 2.3 for asthma (95% confidence interval = 1.0-5.1), and 1.8-7.9 for other symptoms (95% confidence interval = 1.0-28.2). Except for exposure to air pollution, the two groups were comparable, i.e., they had similar terms of employment and working conditions. The exposure ranges during an 8-h work day, averaged from readings taken at five monitored street positions, were: 41-257 ppb nitric oxide (1-h max: 865 ppb); 23-43 ppb nitrogen dioxide (1-h max: 208 ppb); 1.0-4.3 ppm carbon monoxide (8-h max: 7.1 ppm); 14-28 ppb sulfur dioxide (1-h max: 112 ppb); and 10-38 ppb ozone (1-h max: 72 ppb).
PubMed ID
7542442 View in PubMed
Less detail

Vasospasm in the feet in workers assessed for HAVS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138190
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2011 Mar;61(2):115-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
R. House
D. Jiang
A. Thompson
T. Eger
K. Krajnak
J. Sauvé
M. Schweigert
Author Affiliation
Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M7, Canada. houser@smh.toronto.on.ca
Source
Occup Med (Lond). 2011 Mar;61(2):115-20
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Cold Temperature - diagnostic use
Cross-Sectional Studies
Foot - blood supply
Hand - blood supply
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome - complications - epidemiology - physiopathology
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - complications
Occupational Exposure
Plethysmography - methods
Prevalence
Risk factors
Vascular Diseases - complications - epidemiology
Vibration - adverse effects
Abstract
Previous studies have suggested that the presence of the vascular component of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) in the hands increases the risk of cold-induced vasospasm in the feet.
To determine if objectively measured cold-induced vasospasm in the hands is a risk factor for objectively measured cold-induced vasospasm in the feet in workers being assessed for HAVS.
The subjects were 191 male construction workers who had a standardized assessment for HAVS including cold provocation digital photocell plethysmography of the hands and feet to measure cold-induced vasospasm. Bivariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the association between plethysmographic findings in the feet and predictor variables including years worked in construction, occupation, current smoking, cold intolerance in the feet, the Stockholm vascular stage and plethysmographic findings in the hands.
Sixty-one (32%) subjects had non-severe vasospasm and 59 (31%) had severe vasospasm in the right foot with the corresponding values being 57(30%) and 62 (32%) in the left foot. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that the only statistically significant predictor of severe vasospasm in the feet was the presence of severe vasospasm in the hands (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.60-10.6, P
PubMed ID
21196472 View in PubMed
Less detail

Noise sensitivity and hearing disability.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138473
Source
Noise Health. 2011 Jan-Feb;13(50):51-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Marja Heinonen-Guzejev
Tapani Jauhiainen
Heikki Vuorinen
Anne Viljanen
Taina Rantanen
Markku Koskenvuo
Kauko Heikkilä
Helena Mussalo-Rauhamaa
Jaakko Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, The Hjelt Institute, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. marja.heinonen@helsinki.fi
Source
Noise Health. 2011 Jan-Feb;13(50):51-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Audiometry
Case-Control Studies
Ear Protective Devices - utilization
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Finland
Hearing Disorders - etiology - prevention & control
Humans
Hypertension - etiology
Logistic Models
Loudness Perception - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Noise - adverse effects
Self Report
Stress, Psychological - etiology - psychology
Twin Studies as Topic
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of noise sensitivity with self-reported hearing disability and hearing levels, with consideration of the role of self-reported history of noise exposure and use of hearing protectors. The study is based on the Finnish Twin Cohort. In 1988, a noise questionnaire was sent to 1005 twin pairs, 1495 individuals (688 men, 807 women) replied. The age range was 31-88 years. Information on some potential confounders was obtained from the questionnaire in 1981 for the same individuals. A subsample of thirty-eight elderly women with noise sensitivity response from 1988 had audiometry data from 2000 to 2001. Noise sensitivity was associated with self-reported hearing disability among all subjects [odds ratio (OR) 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.12] and among women (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.04), but no-more significantly among men (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.86-1.98). The association was primarily seen among younger subjects (50 years or less). The difference between noise sensitive and non-noise sensitive elderly women in the average of thresholds at frequencies of 0.5-4 kHz in the better ear was not significant (Pr = 0.18). Noise sensitivity did not modify the association of hearing disability with the self-reported history of occupational noise exposure. Noise sensitivity was associated with the use of hearing protectors at work. The study shows the importance of recognizing the noise sensitive in noise effect studies, since sensitivity in annoyance has implications in most of the effect categories.
PubMed ID
21173487 View in PubMed
Less detail

Water and sewage systems, socio-demographics, and duration of residence associated with endemic intestinal infectious diseases: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138596
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:767
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Kay Teschke
Neil Bellack
Hui Shen
Jim Atwater
Rong Chu
Mieke Koehoorn
Ying C MacNab
Hans Schreier
Judith L Isaac-Renton
Author Affiliation
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kay.teschke@ubc.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2010;10:767
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology
Endemic Diseases
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Intestinal Diseases - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario
Residence Characteristics
Sewage
Social Class
Water Microbiology
Water Supply - standards
Young Adult
Abstract
Studies of water-related gastrointestinal infections are usually directed at outbreaks. Few have examined endemic illness or compared rates across different water supply and sewage disposal systems. We conducted a cohort study of physician visits and hospitalizations for endemic intestinal infectious diseases in a mixed rural and urban community near Vancouver, Canada, with varied and well-characterized water and sewage systems.
Cohort members and their disease events were defined via universal health insurance data from 1995 through 2003. Environmental data were derived from municipal, provincial, and federal government sources. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between disease events and water and sewage systems, socio-demographic characteristics, and temporal factors.
The cohort included 126,499 individuals and approximately 190,000,000 person-days. Crude incidence rates were 1,353 physician visits and 33.8 hospitalizations for intestinal infectious diseases per 100,000 person-years. Water supply chlorination was associated with reduced physician visit incidence (OR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.85-1.0). Two water systems with the highest proportions of surface water had increased incidence (ORs: 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.78; and 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64). Private well water and well depth were not associated with increased risk, likely because of residents' awareness of and attention to water quality. There was increased crude incidence with increasing precipitation in the population served by surface water supplies, but this trend did not remain with adjustment for other variables. Municipal sewer systems were associated with increased risk (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.38). Most socio-demographic variables had predicted associations with risk: higher rates in females, in the very young and the elderly, and in residents of low income areas. Increased duration of area residence was associated with reduced risk (OR, duration = 6 years: 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.80 vs.
Notes
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1993 Jun;167(6):1391-58501329
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Feb 15;40(4):e32-415712068
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 1995 Aug;115(1):15-227641828
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Jan;54(1):45-5110692962
Cites: Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(12):1466-7311196499
Cites: Can Commun Dis Rep. 2000 Dec 15;26(24):211-411211600
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2001 Aug;91(8):1194-911499103
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Nov 8;65(21):1635-82312433311
Cites: Int J Environ Health Res. 2002 Dec;12(4):355-6012590783
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Feb;32(1):99-10512690019
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Jul;42(7):2944-5115243043
Cites: Epidemiol Infect. 2004 Oct;132(5):967-7615473161
Cites: Epidemiology. 1997 Nov;8(6):615-209345659
Cites: Epidemiology. 1998 May;9(3):264-709583417
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1998 Jul-Aug;89(4):270-39735524
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2005 Mar 1;191(5):809-1415688300
Cites: Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37(2):101-1015764201
Cites: Can J Public Health. 2005 Jul-Aug;96(4):254-816625790
Cites: J Water Health. 2006;4 Suppl 2:201-4016895092
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Aug;36(4):873-8017389718
Cites: MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008 Sep 12;57(9):39-6218784643
Cites: J Water Health. 2009 Jun;7(2):332-4319240359
Cites: J Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 15;199(4):467-7619281302
Cites: Int J Med Inform. 2009 Jun;78(6):417-2419195926
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 1;49(7):1025-3519708796
Cites: J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010 Jan;20(1):19-2818941478
Cites: Health Rep. 2009 Dec;20(4):55-6420108606
Cites: BMC Public Health. 2010;10:4820113516
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1994 Jul 21;331(3):161-77818640
PubMed ID
21162734 View in PubMed
Less detail

The relationship of home smoking bans to the physical and mental health of smokers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138891
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Feb;13(2):70-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Mark Asbridge
Jenny Cartwright
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, 5790 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7, Canada. mark.asbridge@dal.ca
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Feb;13(2):70-7
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Canada
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Behavior
Health Policy
Housing
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Smoking - prevention & control - psychology
Smoking Cessation
Social Environment
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - prevention & control
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine whether the adoption of home smoking bans is associated with the physical and mental health of smokers. Two potential pathways that link home smoking bans to smoker's health are analyzed. The first argues that home smoking bans are positively related to physical health by encouraging smoking cessation while reducing daily cigarette consumption. The second suggests that home smoking bans have a negative relationship to smokers' mental health by increasing marginalization and social isolation.
Data on 28,887 Canadian smokers were analyzed from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a nationally representative sample of Canadians adults. Logistic regression models analyzed the impact of home smoking bans on subjective assessments of smoker's physical and mental health. Separate analyses were conducted on daily and occasional smokers, and additional analyses tested interactions between the presence of a home smoking ban and key socioeconomic (gender and low household income) and structural (dwelling ownership, living alone, and dwelling type) covariates.
Home smoking bans were not associated with smoker's physical health and were positively associated with smokers' mental health. These findings were consistent for daily smokers and occasional smokers. No significant interactions between smoking bans and socioeconomic or structural covariates were observed.
Findings are considered with respect to the internal and external constraints that shape smoker's behavior, particularly the influence of social norms around environmental tobacco smoke exposure and good citizenship and the role of family relationships. The implications of study findings are considered with respect to public health policy.
PubMed ID
21127028 View in PubMed
Less detail

Respiratory virus infection and risk of invasive meningococcal disease in central Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139091
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e15493
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Ashleigh R Tuite
Laura M Kinlin
Stefan P Kuster
Frances Jamieson
Jeffrey C Kwong
Allison McGeer
David N Fisman
Author Affiliation
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2010;5(11):e15493
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity - trends
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Influenza A virus - isolation & purification
Influenza B virus - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Logistic Models
Male
Meningococcal Infections - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses - isolation & purification
Respiratory Tract Infections - chemically induced - epidemiology
Seasons
Young Adult
Abstract
In temperate climates, invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) incidence tends to coincide with or closely follow peak incidence of influenza virus infection; at a seasonal level, increased influenza activity frequently correlates with increased seasonal risk of IMD.
We evaluated 240 cases of IMD reported in central Ontario, Canada, from 2000 to 2006. Associations between environmental and virological (influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)) exposures and IMD incidence were evaluated using negative binomial regression models controlling for seasonal oscillation. Acute effects of weekly respiratory virus activity on IMD risk were evaluated using a matched-period case-crossover design with random directionality of control selection. Effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression.
Multivariable negative binomial regression identified elevated IMD risk with increasing influenza A activity (per 100 case increase, incidence rate ratio?=?1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.31). In case-crossover models, increasing weekly influenza A activity was associated with an acute increase in the risk of IMD (per 100 case increase, odds ratio (OR) ?=?2.03, 95% CI: 1.28 to 3.23). Increasing weekly RSV activity was associated with increased risk of IMD after adjusting for RSV activity in the previous 3 weeks (per 100 case increase, OR?=?4.31, 95% CI: 1.14, 16.32). No change in disease risk was seen with increasing influenza B activity.
We have identified an acute effect of influenza A and RSV activity on IMD risk. If confirmed, these finding suggest that influenza vaccination may have the indirect benefit of reducing IMD risk.
Notes
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2000;21:193-22110884952
Cites: JAMA. 2010 Mar 10;303(10):943-5020215608
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2001 May 3;344(18):1378-8811333996
Cites: Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;26(3):212-812141615
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(2):181-715074574
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1972 Jul 6;287(1):5-94623954
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1991 Jan 15;133(2):144-531985444
Cites: Lancet. 1991 Aug 31;338(8766):554-71678811
Cites: Int J Biometeorol. 1992 Mar;36(1):18-291582720
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1992 Sep;166(3):542-51500737
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Jul;17(1):126-328353232
Cites: FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999 Feb;23(2):115-2410076908
Cites: Infect Immun. 1999 Jun;67(6):3082-610338524
Cites: J Indian Med Assoc. 1963 Feb 1;40:113-513928180
Cites: PLoS Med. 2005 Jan;2(1):e615696216
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(6):465-816835720
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2007;28:127-4317222079
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 27;104(13):5692-717369367
Cites: Ann Epidemiol. 2007 Sep;17(9):654-6217555986
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Mar 1;169(5):588-9519164421
Cites: Vaccine. 2009 Mar 10;27(11):1735-4019186206
Cites: Ecohealth. 2008 Dec;5(4):482-9019370300
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Jul;117(7):1049-5219654911
Cites: Infect Immun. 2009 Sep;77(9):3588-9519528219
Cites: Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;19(10):681-9119700344
Cites: Science. 2009 Sep 25;325(5948):1705-819696313
Cites: BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:19619961583
Cites: Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Feb;10(2):112-2420113980
Cites: Epidemiology. 2001 Mar;12(2):186-9211246579
PubMed ID
21103353 View in PubMed
Less detail

Individual and workplace factors that influence psychiatric nursing staff's participation in clinical supervision: a survey study and prospective longitudinal registration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97344
Source
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 May;31(5):345-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Henrik Gonge
Niels Buus
Author Affiliation
Arhus University Hospital, Risskov, 8240 Denmark. henrik@gonge.dk
Source
Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2010 May;31(5):345-54
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Attitude of Health Personnel
Clinical Competence
Denmark
Female
Health Facility Environment
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nursing Methodology Research
Nursing Staff - education - organization & administration - psychology
Nursing, Supervisory - organization & administration
Personnel Staffing and Scheduling - organization & administration
Prospective Studies
Psychiatric Nursing - education - organization & administration
Questionnaires
Workload - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - organization & administration - psychology
Abstract
This paper reports findings from a survey of 239 psychiatric nursing staff. This study aimed to investigate how often psychiatric nursing staff participates in clinical supervision and any possible associations among individual and workplace factors in relation to participation. The survey findings are followed by a prospective longitudinal registration of participants in clinical supervision. The registration revealed that participation varies considerably and large numbers of the staff may not participate in clinical supervision at all. Characteristics of the workplace, including organisational location, work shift, and work-environmental factors, are related to participation and, consequently, may affect the outcome of clinical supervision.
PubMed ID
20394481 View in PubMed
Less detail

Indoor environment in three North European cities in relationship to atopy and respiratory symptoms.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97660
Source
Clin Respir J. 2009 Apr;3(2):85-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2009
Author
María Ingibjörg Gunnbjörnsdóttir
Dan Norbäck
Eythor Björnsson
Argo Soon
Deborah Jarvis
Rain Jõgi
David Gislason
Thorarinn Gislason
Christer Janson
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. mariaig@landspitali.is
Source
Clin Respir J. 2009 Apr;3(2):85-94
Date
Apr-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Analysis of Variance
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Estonia
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Iceland
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Probability
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Severity of Illness Index
Sex Distribution
Sweden
Urban Population
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I, the lowest prevalence of asthma and atopy was found in Reykjavík (Iceland) and Tartu (Estonia). The aim of this study was to compare home environments in Reykjavík and Tartu to a town with a higher prevalence of asthma and atopy (Uppsala, Sweden) in an attempt to identify factors in the indoor environment that could explain these differences. METHOD: A random sample of 129 ECRHS II participants was included in this analysis at each of the three study centres. The subjects answered a questionnaire, blood was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E, a methacholine test was performed and home indoor measurements were taken. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was 11.9% in Reykjavík, 35.5% in Uppsala and 28.2% in Tartu (P
PubMed ID
20298383 View in PubMed
Less detail

Factors affecting the severity of injuries among young motorcyclists--a Swedish nationwide cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81394
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2006 Jun;7(2):143-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Zambon Francesco
Hasselberg Marie
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden. zambon@pediatria.unipd.it
Source
Traffic Inj Prev. 2006 Jun;7(2):143-9
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking
Chi-Square Distribution
Cohort Studies
Databases
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Injury Severity Score
Logistic Models
Male
Motorcycles - legislation & jurisprudence
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Wounds and Injuries - diagnosis - epidemiology - mortality
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To determine factors affecting the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash. METHODS: This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970-1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16-30. All subjects whose records indicated an injury as a motorcycle driver in the Swedish National Road Administration Accident Database were selected, and constituted the study population (n = 1,748). Factors related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash were considered as exposure measures, whereas the outcome measure was the level of injury severity, based on assessments made on-site by police officers, in two categories: fatal/severe and minor. Associations between individual, environmental, vehicle and crash factors and injury severity were measured, using Chi-square, and through univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression. RESULTS: Factors such as alcohol consumption, traffic environment, speed limit, and type of crash were significantly associated (p 1.0) with the likelihood of being severely injured. On modeling all the variables together through stepwise logistic regression, positive suspicion of alcohol emerged as the strongest determinant (adjusted OR = 2.7) of a severe outcome. CONCLUSIONS. Motorcycle crashes still place a heavy burden on young drivers. Increased efforts are needed to prevent alcohol-related crashes-through law enforcement and a multiplicity of policies at local and national levels.
PubMed ID
16854708 View in PubMed
Less detail

Adverse birth outcomes associated with open dumpsites in Alaska Native Villages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81448
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15;164(6):518-28
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2006
Author
Gilbreath Susan
Kass Philip H
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Sep 15;164(6):518-28
Date
Sep-15-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology
Adult
Alaska - epidemiology
Arctic Regions
Birth weight
Chi-Square Distribution
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Fetal Growth Retardation - epidemiology
Gestational Age
Hazardous Waste - adverse effects
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Inuits
Logistic Models
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Refuse Disposal
Retrospective Studies
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study evaluated adverse birth outcomes in infants whose birth records indicated maternal residence in villages containing dumpsites potentially hazardous to health and environment. Birth records from 1997 to 2001 identified 10,073 eligible infants born to mothers in 197 Alaska Native villages. Outcomes included low or very low birth weight, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth retardation. Infants from mothers in villages with intermediate (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.84) and high (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.28, 3.32) hazard dumpsites had a higher proportion of low birth weight infants than did infants from mothers in the referent category. More infants born to mothers from intermediate (OR = 4.38, 95% CI: 2.20, 8.77) and high (OR = 3.98, 95% CI: 1.93, 8.21) hazard villages suffered from intrauterine growth retardation. On average, infants weighed 36 g less (95% CI: -71.2, -0.8) and 55.4 g less (95% CI: -95.3, -15.6) when born to highly exposed mothers than did infants in the intermediate and low exposure groups, respectively, an effect even larger in births to Alaska Native mothers only. No differences in incidence were detected across exposure levels for other outcomes. This is the first study to evaluate adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with open dumpsites in Alaska Native villages.
PubMed ID
16840520 View in PubMed
Less detail

Active and passive surveillance and phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi elucidate the process of Lyme disease risk emergence in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143987
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):909-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Nicholas H Ogden
Catherine Bouchard
Klaus Kurtenbach
Gabriele Margos
L Robbin Lindsay
Louise Trudel
Soulyvane Nguon
François Milord
Author Affiliation
Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada. nicholas_ogden@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):909-14
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Borrelia burgdorferi - classification - genetics
Cluster analysis
Communicable Diseases, Emerging - epidemiology - microbiology
Demography
Genetic Variation
Humans
Ixodes - microbiology
Logistic Models
Lyme Disease - epidemiology - microbiology
Phylogeny
Population Surveillance - methods
Quebec - epidemiology
Rodentia - parasitology
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Tick Infestations - epidemiology - veterinary
Abstract
Northward expansion of the tick Ixodes scapularis is driving Lyme disease (LD) emergence in Canada. Information on mechanisms involved is needed to enhance surveillance and identify where LD risk is emerging.
We used passive and active surveillance and phylogeographic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi to investigate LD risk emergence in Quebec.
In active surveillance, we collected ticks from the environment and from captured rodents. B. burgdorferi transmission was detected by serological analysis of rodents and by polymerase chain reaction assays of ticks. Spatiotemporal trends in passive surveillance data assisted interpretation of active surveillance. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of B. burgdorferi in ticks identified likely source locations of B. burgdorferi.
In active surveillance, we found I. scapularis at 55% of sites, and we were more likely to find them at sites with a warmer climate. B. burgdorferi was identified at 13 I. scapularis-positive sites, but infection prevalence in ticks and animal hosts was low. Low infection prevalence in ticks submitted in passive surveillance after 2004-from the tick-positive regions identified in active surveillance-coincided with an exponential increase in tick submissions during this time. MLST analysis suggested recent introduction of B. burgdorferi from the northeastern United States.
These data are consistent with I. scapularis ticks dispersed from the United States by migratory birds, founding populations where the climate is warmest, and then establishment of B. burgdorferi from the United States several years after I. scapularis have established. These observations provide vital information for public health to minimize the impact of LD in Canada.
Notes
Cites: Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Jul;39(1):105-93400797
Cites: Microbiology. 2004 Jun;150(Pt 6):1741-5515184561
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1994 Dec 15;740:146-567840446
Cites: J Med Entomol. 1997 Jan;34(1):52-59086711
Cites: J Wildl Dis. 1997 Oct;33(4):766-759391960
Cites: Infect Immun. 1999 Jul;67(7):3518-2410377134
Cites: J Med Entomol. 2004 Sep;41(5):842-5215535611
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 28;101(52):18159-6415608069
Cites: Int J Parasitol. 2005 Apr 1;35(4):375-8915777914
Cites: Int J Parasitol. 2006 Jan;36(1):63-7016229849
Cites: J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar;43(2):166-7616619595
Cites: J Med Entomol. 2006 May;43(3):600-916739422
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Dec;44(12):4407-1317035489
Cites: Stat Med. 2007 Mar 30;26(7):1594-60716795130
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Mar;74(6):1780-9018245258
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2008;7:2418498647
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 24;105(25):8730-518574151
Cites: CMAJ. 2009 Jun 9;180(12):1221-419506281
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 1;106(35):15013-819706476
Cites: CMAJ. 1991 Jun 15;144(12):1627-322054769
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2002 Feb;8(2):115-2111897061
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jul;118(7):A30520601318
PubMed ID
20421192 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure to dental amalgam restorations in pregnant women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144092
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;38(5):460-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Gunvor Bentung Lygre
Lars Björkman
Kjell Haug
Rolv Skjaerven
Vigdis Helland
Author Affiliation
Dental Biomaterials Adverse Reaction Unit, Uni Health, Bergen, Norway. Gunvor.Lygre@odont.uib.no
Source
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;38(5):460-9
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Dental Amalgam - adverse effects
Dental Restoration, Permanent - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Smoking - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) started in 1999 to identify environmental factors that could be involved in mechanisms leading to disease. Questions have been raised about potential risks to the fetus from prenatal exposure to mercury from amalgam fillings in pregnant women. The aim of the present study was to identify factors potentially associated with amalgam fillings in pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). An additional aim was to obtain information about dental treatment in the cohort.
Total of 67,355 pregnancies from the MoBa study were included in the present study. Information regarding age, education, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, weight, and height for the women was obtained from a questionnaire that was filled in at the 17th week of pregnancy. In another questionnaire, which was sent to all participants in the 30th week of pregnancy, the women reported types of dental treatment during pregnancy, total number of teeth, and number of teeth with amalgam fillings. The self-assessed number of teeth and number of teeth with amalgam fillings were validated in an external sample of 97 women of childbearing age.
Odds ratio for having more than 12 teeth with amalgam fillings increased considerably with age. Other significant risk factors for having high exposure to amalgam were low education, high body mass index (BMI), and smoking during pregnancy. Women with the lowest levels of education had a twofold increased odds ratio of having more than 12 teeth filled with amalgam compared with women who had more than 4 years of university studies. According to the results from the validation of self-assessed number of teeth with amalgam fillings, the information obtained was reliable.
Age, education, smoking habits, and BMI were associated with amalgam exposure.
Notes
Comment In: J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2011 Sep;11(3):162-321855822
PubMed ID
20406270 View in PubMed
Less detail

Biological, social, and environmental correlates of preschool development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195378
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2001 Mar;27(2):187-200
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
T. To
S M Cadarette
Y. Liu
Author Affiliation
Population Health Sciences, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. teresa.to@sickkids.on.ca
Source
Child Care Health Dev. 2001 Mar;27(2):187-200
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Canada - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Developmental Disabilities - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Male
Odds Ratio
Parents - psychology
Risk factors
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Baseline data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY, a population-based study of child health, development and well-being), were used to determine biological, social and environmental correlates of poor development among preschool children. A total weighted sample of 1233 500 (n = 6982 unweighted) children aged from birth to 3 years were studied. Developmental attainment was measured by the motor, social and development (MSD) scale. Children scoring amongst the lowest 15% for their age group were categorized as having poor developmental attainment (PDA). Correlates of PDA were determined using logistic regression. The MSD scale may not be discriminatory enough to identify PDA in children aged
PubMed ID
11251617 View in PubMed
Less detail

Social predictors of adult asthma: a co-twin case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195980
Source
Thorax. 2001 Mar;56(3):234-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
E. Huovinen
J. Kaprio
L A Laitinen
M. Koskenvuo
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. elisa.huovinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Thorax. 2001 Mar;56(3):234-6
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Social Environment
Abstract
Environmental factors are needed to explain the observed increase in the prevalence of asthma during recent decades, despite the existence of a recognised genetic component in asthma. A co-twin case-control study was undertaken to examine possible social risk factors for asthma.
Asthma diagnoses were based on register data of reimbursed asthma medication. During 17 years follow up of the Finnish twin cohort, 262 twin pairs discordant for incident asthma were identified. Conditional logistic regression for 1-1 matched data was used for risk calculation.
The atopic twin had an increased risk of asthma compared with the non-atopic co-twin (RR 2.91, 95% CI 1.81 to 4.68). The more educated twin had a decreased risk of asthma compared with his/her twin sibling with less education (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.86), and the twin who participated in conditioning exercise had a decreased risk of asthma compared with the more sedentary co-twin (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.88).
In addition to allergic diseases, educational level and physical activity are associated with adult onset asthma, which indicates a role for factors associated with life style.
Notes
Cites: Eur Respir J. 1999 Jan;13(1):2-410836314
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Dec;22(6):976-828144310
Cites: BMJ. 1996 May 11;312(7040):1195-98634562
Cites: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998 Nov;102(5):722-69819287
Cites: Thorax. 1997 Jan;52(1):49-549039240
Cites: JAMA. 1998 Feb 11;279(6):440-49466636
Cites: Thorax. 1996 Mar;51(3):288-928779133
PubMed ID
11182018 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between particulate- and gas-phase components of urban air pollution and daily mortality in eight Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184322
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2000;12 Suppl 4:15-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
R T Burnett
J. Brook
T. Dann
C. Delocla
O. Philips
S. Cakmak
R. Vincent
M S Goldberg
D. Krewski
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, and Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. rick_burnett@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Inhal Toxicol. 2000;12 Suppl 4:15-39
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Cities
Humans
Logistic Models
Mortality - trends
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Weather
Abstract
Although some consensus has emerged among the scientific and regulatory communities that the urban ambient atmospheric mix of combustion related pollutants is a determinant of population health, the relative toxicity of the chemical and physical components of this complex mixture remains unclear. Daily mortality rates and concurrent data on size-fractionated particulate mass and gaseous pollutants were obtained in eight of Canada's largest cities from 1986 to 1996 inclusive in order to examine the relative toxicity of the components of the mixture of ambient air pollutants to which Canadians are exposed. Positive and statistically significant associations were observed between daily variations in both gas- and particulate-phase pollution and daily fluctuations in mortality rates. The association between air pollution and mortality could not be explained by temporal variation in either mortality rates or weather factors. Fine particulate mass (less than 2.5 microns in average aerometric diameter) was a stronger predictor of mortality than coarse mass (between 2.5 and 10 microns). Size-fractionated particulate mass explained 28% of the total health effect of the mixture, with the remaining effects accounted for by the gases. Forty-seven elemental concentrations were obtained for the fine and coarse fraction using nondestructive x-ray fluorescence techniques. Sulfate concentrations were obtained by ion chromatography. Sulfate ion, iron, nickel, and zinc from the fine fraction were most strongly associated with mortality. The total effect of these four components was greater than that for fine mass alone, suggesting that the characteristics of the complex chemical mixture in the fine fraction may be a better predictor of mortality than mass alone. However, the variation in the effects of the constituents of the fine fraction between cities was greater than the variation in the mass effect, implying that there are additional toxic components of fine particulate matter not examined in this study whose concentrations and effects vary between locations. One of these components, carbon, represents half the mass of fine particulate matter. We recommend that measurements of elemental and organic carbon be undertaken in Canadian urban environments to examine their potential effects on human health.
PubMed ID
12881885 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sick building syndrome in relation to air exchange rate, CO(2), room temperature and relative air humidity in university computer classrooms: an experimental study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93686
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Oct;82(1):21-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2008
Author
Norbäck Dan
Nordström Klas
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. dan.norback@medsci.uu.se
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008 Oct;82(1):21-30
Date
Oct-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Carbon Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Computers
Cross-Over Studies
Fatigue - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Humans
Humidity
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Sick Building Syndrome - epidemiology - etiology
Students
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Universities
Ventilation
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of ventilation and temperature changes in computer classrooms on symptoms in students. METHODS: Technical university students participated in a blinded study. Two classrooms had higher air exchange (4.1-5.2 ac/h); two others had lower (2.3-2.6 ac/h) air exchange. After 1 week, ventilation conditions were interchanged between the rooms. The students reported symptoms during the last hour, on a seven-step rating scale. Room temperature, relative air humidity (RH) carbon dioxide (CO(2)), PM10 and ultra-fine particles (UFP) were measured simultaneously (1 h). Illumination, air velocity, operative temperature, supply air temperature, formaldehyde, NO(2) and O(3) were measured. Multiple logistic regression was applied in cross-sectional analysis of the first answer (N = 355). Those participating twice (N = 121) were analysed longitudinally. RESULTS: Totally 31% were females, 2.9% smokers and 3.8% had asthma. Mean CO(2) was 993 ppm (674-1,450 ppm), temperature 22.7 degrees C (20-25 degrees C) and RH 24% (19-35%). Lower and higher air exchange rates corresponded to a personal outdoor airflow of 7 l/s*p and 10-13 L/s*P, respectively. Mean PM10 was 20 microg/m(3) at lower and 15 microg/m(3) at higher ventilation flow. Ocular, nasal and throat symptoms, breathlessness, headache and tiredness were significantly more common at higher CO(2) and temperature. After mutual adjustment, ocular (OR = 1.52 per 1 degrees C), nasal (OR = 1.62 per 1 degrees C) and throat symptoms (OR = 1.53 per 1 degrees C), headache (OR = 1.51 per 1 degrees C) and tiredness (OR = 1.54 per 1 degrees C) were significantly associated with temperature; headache was associated only with CO(2) (OR = 1.19 per 100 ppm CO(2)). Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that increased room temperature was related to tiredness (P
PubMed ID
18246367 View in PubMed
Less detail

345 records – page 1 of 18.