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[The informativeness of indices of the heart rate variability for the identification of the adverse effects of environmental factors on the health of adolescent girls].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264390
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):121-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
I V Myl'nikova
N V Efimova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):121-4
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Circadian Rhythm - physiology
Electrocardiography
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental health
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - physiopathology
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Incidence
Risk Assessment - methods
Rural Population
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
There was performed an investigation of informativeness of indices of the heart rate variability at rest and during orthostatic testing in the adolescent girls residing in the industrial town and in the village. The influence of unfa- vorable environmental factors was established to be reflected by the indices of the spectral analysis and cardioin- tervalography. In urban girls there was noted the marked increase of the centralization of heart rhythm control on the background of the increased activity of the sympathetic compartment and the reduction of the influence of the parasympathetic compartment of the autonomous nervous system on the sinus node. In rural adolescent girls the func- tional state of the autonomic nervous system being the optimal is characterized by an adequate response to the active orthostatic test of the parasympathetic and sympathetic compartments with the moderate involvement of mechanisms of the central control of the cardiac rhythm. Results of the study have an important significance for the diagnosis of the early disorders of health in adolescent girls.
PubMed ID
26031057 View in PubMed
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[Scientific rationale for basic directions of the optimization of the population health in the development of municipal environmental programs].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264391
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):117-20
Publication Type
Article
Author
M Iu Iakusheva
O V Astaf'eva
S E Deriagina
M B Sergeeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):117-20
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Health - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Local Government
Program Evaluation
Public Health
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
For the solution of ecological problems in the framework of the preparation of the municipal ecological program in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma (Sverdlovskaya Oblast) there was peiformed the assessment of the state of population health, the evaluation of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risk from chemicals that pollute the air and drinking water Atmospheric air was established to be the main environment cause for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. The obtained results served as the basis for the development of technological, sanitary and hygienical measures of the program aimed at optimizing of the population health.
PubMed ID
26031056 View in PubMed
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An Ecological and Human Biomonitoring Investigation of Mercury Contamination at the Aamjiwnaang First Nation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289980
Source
Ecohealth. 2016 12; 13(4):784-795
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
12-2016
Author
Diana Cryderman
Lisa Letourneau
Fiona Miller
Niladri Basu
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Source
Ecohealth. 2016 12; 13(4):784-795
Date
12-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollution
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Mercury - analysis
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants - analysis
Abstract
The Aamjiwnaang First Nations community is located in Canada's 'Chemical Valley' situated in southwest Ontario near Sarnia. Mercury pollution in the region has been known since the 1940s but little is known about levels in the environment and area residents. The current study, using ecological and human exposure assessment methods, was conducted at the community's request to help fill these gaps. First, Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory and the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory were queried to investigate mercury releases from area facilities. In 2010, 700 pounds of mercury were emitted into the air, 25 pounds were released into water bodies, and 93 thousand pounds were disposed of on-site via underground injections or into landfills, and together these show continued releases into the region. Second, mercury levels were measured in stream sediment and nearby soil from sites at Aamjiwnaang (n = 4) and off Reserve (n = 19) in Canada and the U.S. during three seasons that spanned 2010-2011. Total mercury in sediment across all sites and sampling seasons ranged from 5.0 to 398.7 µg/kg, and in soils ranged from 1.2 to 696.2 µg/kg. Sediment and soil mercury levels at Aamjiwnaang were higher than the reference community, and Aamjiwnaang's Talfourd Creek site had the highest mercury levels. Third, a biomonitoring study was performed with 43 mother-child pairs. Hair (mean ± SD of all participants: 0.18 ± 0.16 µg/g) and blood (1.6 ± 2.0 µg/L) mercury levels did not differ between participants studied on- and off-Reserve, likely because of limited seafood intake (
Notes
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PubMed ID
27645755 View in PubMed
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Increased Cancer Incidence in the Local Population Around Metal-Contaminated Glassworks Sites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290247
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2017 May; 59(5):e84-e90
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2017
Author
Fredrik Nyqvist
Ingela Helmfrid
Anna Augustsson
Gun Wingren
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden (Nyqvist, Helmfrid, Dr Wingren); and Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Linneaus University, Kalmar, Sweden (Dr Augustsson).
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2017 May; 59(5):e84-e90
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Cause of Death
Digestive System Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology - mortality
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Glass
Humans
Incidence
Male
Manufacturing and Industrial Facilities
Metals, Heavy - toxicity
Prostatic Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Registries
Respiratory Tract Diseases - mortality
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms - mortality
Sex Factors
Soil - chemistry
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine mortality causes and cancer incidence in a population cohort that have resided in close proximity to highly metal-contaminated sources, characterized by contamination of, in particular, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb).
Data from Swedish registers were used to calculate standardized mortality and cancer incidence ratios. An attempt to relate cancer incidence to metal contamination levels was made.
Significantly elevated cancer incidences were observed for overall malignant cancers in both genders, cancer in the digestive system, including colon, rectum, and pancreas, and cancers in prostate among men. Dose-response relationships between Cd and Pb levels in soil and cancer risks were found.
Cancer observations made, together with previous studies of metal uptake in local vegetables, may imply that exposure to local residents have occurred primarily via oral intake of locally produced foodstuffs.
PubMed ID
28437293 View in PubMed
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Modelling geographic variations in West Nile virus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166406
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Sep-Oct;97(5):374-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Nikolaos W Yiannakoulias
Donald P Schopflocher
Lawrence W Svenson
Author Affiliation
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton. nwy@ualberta.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 Sep-Oct;97(5):374-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - epidemiology
Animals
Birds
Ecology
Humans
Incidence
Linear Models
Poisson Distribution
Regression Analysis
Rural Health
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Urban health
West Nile Fever - epidemiology
Abstract
This paper applies a method for modelling the spatial variation of West Nile virus (WNv) in humans using bird, environmental and human testing data.
We used data collected from 503 Alberta municipalities. In order to manage the effects of residual spatial autocorrelation, we used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to model the incidence of infection.
There were 275 confirmed cases of WNv in the 2003 calendar year in Alberta. Our spatial model indicates that living in the grasslands natural region and levels of human testing are significant positive predictors of WNv; living in an urban area is a significant negative predictor.
Infected bird data contribute little to our model. The variability of West Nile virus incidence in Alberta may be partly confounded by the variations in the rate of testing in different parts of the province. However, variation in infection is also associated with known environmental risk factors. Our findings are consistent with existing knowledge of WNv in North America.
PubMed ID
17120875 View in PubMed
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Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166603
Source
Theriogenology. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):188-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2007
Author
H P S Kochhar
B R Evans
Author Affiliation
Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ont, Canada. hkochhar@inspection.gc.ca
Source
Theriogenology. 2007 Jan 1;67(1):188-97
Date
Jan-1-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animal Welfare - legislation & jurisprudence
Animals
Animals, Genetically Modified
Biotechnology - legislation & jurisprudence
Canada
Commerce
Consumer Product Safety
Humans
Risk assessment
Abstract
Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations.
PubMed ID
17097725 View in PubMed
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Addressing the linkage between exposure to pesticides and human health effects--research trends and priorities for research.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166662
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):441-56
Publication Type
Article
Author
L. Ritter
N C I Goushleff
Tye Arbuckle
Donald Cole
Mark Raizenne
Author Affiliation
Canadian Network of Toxicology Centres and Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. Iritter@uoguelph.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;9(6):441-56
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Humans
Pesticides - toxicity
Public Health
Public Policy
Research Design
Risk assessment
Abstract
In recent years, there has been escalating concern over the possible association between exposure to pesticides and adverse human health effects by a number of non-governmental organizations, professional and public interest groups. Recognizing the need to document the scientific basis of these concerns as a foundation for initiating a research theme devoted to linkages between exposures to pesticides and human health effects, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) requested a summary of recent research trends that address these linkages. Experts across Canada in the field of pesticide regulation and research were invited to participate in the review. The review summarizes the limitations of past and current studies related to pesticides and human health effects research and makes suggestions for future research priorities and proposed study designs that will improve the assessment of pesticide exposure, the associated health risks, and improved methodology for regulatory decision making.
PubMed ID
17090482 View in PubMed
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Occurrence of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from different aquatic ecosystems within the St. Clair River and Detroit River areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166734
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jan;73(2):477-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2007
Author
Katia Hamelin
Guillaume Bruant
Abdel El-Shaarawi
Stephen Hill
Thomas A Edge
John Fairbrother
Josée Harel
Christine Maynard
Luke Masson
Roland Brousseau
Author Affiliation
Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Ave., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4P 2R2.
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jan;73(2):477-84
Date
Jan-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Canada
Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
Ecosystem
Escherichia coli - classification - drug effects - isolation & purification - pathogenicity
Escherichia coli Infections - microbiology
Humans
Michigan
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Phylogeny
Rivers - microbiology
Virulence - genetics
Virulence Factors - genetics
Abstract
Although the number of Escherichia coli bacteria in surface waters can differ greatly between locations, relatively little is known about the distribution of E. coli pathotypes in surface waters used as sources for drinking or recreation. DNA microarray technology is a suitable tool for this type of study due to its ability to detect high numbers of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes simultaneously. Pathotype, phylogenetic group, and antimicrobial resistance gene profiles were determined for 308 E. coli isolates from surface water samples collected from diverse aquatic ecosystems at six different sites in the St. Clair River and Detroit River areas. A higher frequency (48%) of E. coli isolates possessing virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes was observed in an urban site located downstream of wastewater effluent outfalls than in the other examined sites (average of 24%). Most E. coli pathotypes were extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) pathotypes and belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D. The ExPEC pathotypes were found to occur across all aquatic ecosystems investigated, including riverine, estuarine, and offshore lake locations. The results of this environmental study using DNA microarrays highlight the widespread distribution of E. coli pathotypes in aquatic ecosystems and the potential public health threat of E. coli pathotypes originating from municipal wastewater sources.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17085696 View in PubMed
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[Ambient air benz[a]pyrene and cancer morbidity in Kemerovo].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166782
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):28-30
Publication Type
Article
Author
S A Mun
S A Larin
V V Brailovskii
A F Lodzia
S F Zinchuk
A N Glushkov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 Jul-Aug;(4):28-30
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air - analysis
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Benzopyrenes - analysis
Catchment Area (Health)
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Prevalence
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
A statistically significant direct strong correlation was found between the annual average daily concentrations of air benz[a]pyrene and the lung and the gastric cancer morbidity rates in males and females, skin, thyroid, and ovarian cancer in females. The certain interval of the measured concentration of benz[a]pyrene and the recorded morbidity rate was shown to be characteristic of each of the above-mentioned tumors.
PubMed ID
17078289 View in PubMed
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Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Canada: a longitudinal study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166959
Source
Lancet Neurol. 2006 Nov;5(11):932-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Sarah-Michelle Orton
Blanca M Herrera
Irene M Yee
William Valdar
Sreeram V Ramagopalan
A Dessa Sadovnick
George C Ebers
Author Affiliation
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Source
Lancet Neurol. 2006 Nov;5(11):932-6
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sex ratio
Abstract
Incidence of multiple sclerosis is thought to be increasing, but this notion has been difficult to substantiate. In a longitudinal population-based dataset of patients with multiple sclerosis obtained over more than three decades, we did not show a difference in time to diagnosis by sex. We reasoned that if a sex-specific change in incidence was occurring, the female to male sex ratio would serve as a surrogate of incidence change.
Since environmental risk factors seem to act early in life, we calculated sex ratios by birth year in 27 074 Canadian patients with multiple sclerosis identified as part of a longitudinal population-based dataset.
The female to male sex ratio by year of birth has been increasing for at least 50 years and now exceeds 3.2:1 in Canada. Year of birth was a significant predictor for sex ratio (p
Notes
Comment In: Lancet Neurol. 2007 Jan;6(1):5-617166789
PubMed ID
17052660 View in PubMed
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Novel design and controls for focused DNA microarrays: applications in quality assurance/control and normalization for the Health Canada ToxArray.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166960
Source
BMC Genomics. 2006;7:266
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Carole L Yauk
Andrew Williams
Sherri Boucher
Lynn M Berndt
Gu Zhou
Jenny L Zheng
Andrea Rowan-Carroll
Hongyan Dong
Iain B Lambert
George R Douglas
Craig L Parfett
Author Affiliation
Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Program, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0L2, Canada. carole_yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
BMC Genomics. 2006;7:266
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arabidopsis - genetics
Artifacts
Canada
False Negative Reactions
False Positive Reactions
Gene Expression Profiling
Humans
Mice
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - instrumentation - methods - standards
Quality Control
RNA, Complementary - genetics
RNA, Messenger - genetics
Rats
Reproducibility of Results
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Abstract
Microarray normalizations typically apply methods that assume absence of global transcript shifts, or absence of changes in internal control features such as housekeeping genes. These normalization approaches are not appropriate for focused arrays with small sets of genes where a large portion may be expected to change. Furthermore, many microarrays lack control features that can be used for quality assurance (QA). Here, we describe a novel external control series integrated with a design feature that addresses the above issues.
An EC dilution series that involves spike-in of a single concentration of the A. thaliana chlorophyll synthase gene to hybridize against spotted dilutions (0.000015 to 100 microM) of a single complimentary oligonucleotide representing the gene was developed. The EC series is printed in duplicate within each subgrid of the microarray and covers the full range of signal intensities from background to saturation. The design and placement of the series allows for QA examination of frequently encountered problems in hybridization (e.g., uneven hybridizations) and printing (e.g., cross-spot contamination). Additionally, we demonstrate that the series can be integrated with a LOWESS normalization to improve the detection of differential gene expression (improved sensitivity and predictivity) over LOWESS normalization on its own.
The quality of microarray experiments and the normalization methods used affect the ability to measure accurate changes in gene expression. Novel methods are required for normalization of small focused microarrays, and for incorporating measures of performance and quality. We demonstrate that dilution of oligonucleotides on the microarray itself provides an innovative approach allowing the full dynamic range of the scanner to be covered with a single gene spike-in. The dilution series can be used in a composite normalization to improve detection of differential gene expression and to provide quality control measures.
Notes
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PubMed ID
17052352 View in PubMed
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Associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke in Edmonton, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166990
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Paul J Villeneuve
Li Chen
Dave Stieb
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Environmental Contaminants Bureau, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave. W. 3rd Floor, 3-022 PL4903C, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1A 0K9. Paul_Villeneuve@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(9):689-700
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Canada
Carbon Monoxide - toxicity
Cerebral Hemorrhage - chemically induced
Emergency Medical Services - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Departments
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - toxicity
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Seasons
Stroke - chemically induced - epidemiology - etiology
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Inconsistent results have been obtained from studies that have examined the relationship between air pollution and hospital visits for stroke. We undertook a time-stratified case-crossover study to evaluate associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for stroke among the elderly according to stroke type, season, and sex. Analyses are based on a total of 12,422 stroke visits among those 65 years of age and older in Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for SO(2), NO(2), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO and O(3) were estimated using data from fixed-site monitoring stations. Particulate matter data were only available from 1998 onwards. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals in relation to an increase in the interquartile range (IQR) of each pollutant. ORs were adjusted for the effects of temperature and relative humidity. We found no association between outdoor measures of air pollution and all stroke visits. In contrast, elevated risks were observed between levels of air pollution and acute ischemic stroke between April and September. During this season, the ORs associated with an increase in the IQR of the 3-day average for CO and NO(2) were 1.32 (95% CI = 1.09-1.60) and 1.26 (95% CI = 1.09-1.46), respectively. CO exposures in the same season, lagged 1 day, were associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke with ORs was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.00-1.43). Our results suggest it is possible that vehicular traffic, which produces increased levels of NO(2) and CO, contributes to an increased incidence of emergency department visits for stroke.
PubMed ID
17048082 View in PubMed
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Incidents in a psychiatric forensic setting: association with patient and staff characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167053
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2006 Sep;38(3):68-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Michael W Decaire
Michel Bédard
Julie Riendeau
Rylan Forrest
Author Affiliation
Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Can J Nurs Res. 2006 Sep;38(3):68-80
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aggression - psychology
Attitude of Health Personnel
Burnout, Professional - psychology
Canada
Female
Forensic Psychiatry - organization & administration
Health Facility Environment - organization & administration
Hospitals, Psychiatric
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Mental Disorders - nursing - psychology
Middle Aged
Nurse-Patient Relations
Nursing Methodology Research
Nursing Staff, Hospital - organization & administration - psychology
Organizational Culture
Personality Inventory
Prisoners - psychology
Psychiatric Nursing - organization & administration
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk Management - organization & administration
Violence - prevention & control - psychology
Abstract
Patient-related incidents are of particular concern for those working with forensic psychiatric populations. Evidence suggests that personality, stress, and burnout of nursing staff are predictive of incidents. However, the exact relationship of these factors with staff-patient interactions and the incidents that occur within these interactions have not been thoroughly explored. The authors collected data on the nature of incidents on a forensic unit within a psychiatric hospital over a 1-year period, as well as data on the characteristics of 13 staff members. They found that 10% of patients were responsible for 58% of the incidents. Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were disproportionately involved in incidents. The frequency of non-violent incidents varied among nursing teams to an extent greater than that expected by chance. A relationship between incidents and some staff characteristics was also found. These results highlight the need for further research into the incidents that occur in situations where patient attributes, nurse attributes, and environmental factors produce complex interactions.
PubMed ID
17037114 View in PubMed
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Indoor ultrafine particle exposures and home heating systems: a cross-sectional survey of Canadian homes during the winter months.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167097
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007 May;17(3):288-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Scott Weichenthal
Andre Dufresne
Claire Infante-Rivard
Lawrence Joseph
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Québec, Canada. sweich@po-box.mcgill.ca
Source
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007 May;17(3):288-97
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Canada
Data Collection
Environmental monitoring
Heating
Housing
Humans
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis
Seasons
Ventilation
Abstract
Exposure to airborne particulate matter has a negative effect on respiratory health in both children and adults. Ultrafine particle (UFP) exposures are of particular concern owing to their enhanced ability to cause oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs. In this investigation, our objective was to examine the contribution of home heating systems (electric baseboard heaters, wood stoves, forced-air oil/natural gas furnace) to indoor UFP exposures. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 36 homes in the cities of Montréal, Québec, and Pembroke, Ontario. Real-time measures of indoor UFP concentrations were collected in each home for approximately 14 h, and an outdoor UFP measurement was collected outside each home before indoor sampling. A home-characteristic questionnaire was also administered, and air exchange rates were estimated using carbon dioxide as a tracer gas. Average UFP exposures of 21,594 cm(-3) (95% confidence interval (CI): 14,014, 29,174) and 6660 cm(-3) (95% CI: 4339, 8982) were observed for the evening (1600-2400) and overnight (2400-0800) hours, respectively. In an unadjusted comparison, overnight baseline UFP exposures were significantly greater in homes with electric baseboard heaters as compared to homes using forced-air oil or natural gas furnaces, and homes using wood stoves had significantly greater overnight baseline UFP exposures than homes using forced-air natural gas furnaces. However, in multivariate models, electric oven use (beta=12,253 cm(-3), 95% CI: 3524, 20,982), indoor relative humidity (beta=1136 cm(-3) %, 95% CI: 372, 1899), and indoor smoking (beta=18,192 cm(-3), 95% CI: 2073, 34,311) were the only significant determinants of mean indoor UFP exposure, whereas air exchange rate (beta=4351 cm(-3) h(-1), 95% CI: 1507, 7195) and each 10,000 cm(-3) increase in outdoor UFPs (beta=811 cm(-3), 95% CI: 244,1377) were the only significant determinants of overnight baseline UFP exposures. In general, our findings suggest that home heating systems are not important determinants of indoor UFP exposures.
PubMed ID
17033678 View in PubMed
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Community SES, perceived environment, and physical activity during home-based cardiac rehabilitation: is there a need to consider the urban vs. rural distinction?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126295
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Chris Blanchard
Daniel Rainham
Jill McSweeney
John Spence
Lisa McDonnell
Ryan Rhodes
Robert Reid
Kerry McGannon
Nancy Edwards
Author Affiliation
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. chris.blanchard@dal.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environment
Exercise
Female
Home Care Services - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Patient Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Physical activity (MVPA) levels during home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remain problematic. Consequently, the present study examined the association between MVPA and urban vs. rural residential status and the perceived environment in patients attending home-based CR. A total of 280 patients completed a questionnaire assessing demographic, clinical, MVPA, and perceived environmental variables measured at baseline and 3 months later. Patient addresses were geocoded and linked to the 2006 Canadian census to establish the urban/rural distinction. Results showed that urban and rural patients had similar baseline MVPA and improvements in MVPA by 3 months. Several perceived environmental variables were significantly related to MVPA throughout home-based CR that were common and urban/rural-specific. Therefore, although there does not appear to be an urban vs. rural advantage in MVPA levels during home-based CR, there does appear to be environmental/MVPA-specific relationships specific to urban and rural patients that may warrant attention.
Notes
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Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Sep;54(9):667-7210942445
PubMed ID
22402918 View in PubMed
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Legacy and current-use flame retardants in house dust from Vancouver, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126299
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Mahiba Shoeib
Tom Harner
Glenys M Webster
Ed Sverko
Yu Cheng
Author Affiliation
Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mahiba.Shoeib@ec.gc.ca
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Flame Retardants - adverse effects - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Young Adult
Abstract
Fifteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eighteen non-PBDEs were measured in 116 dust samples collected from homes in Vancouver, Canada during 2007-2008 as part of the Chemicals Health and Pregnancy (CHirP) study. The highest concentrations of PBDEs in house dust were observed for BDE 209, with a median concentration of 1350 ng/g. This is about two times greater than the median concentration of the PentaBDE (represented by the most abundant compounds in this formulation, SBDE 47, 99 and 100). In the case of non-PBDE FRs, a detection frequency between 81% and 100% was observed for nine analytes including: HBCD, BTBPE, BEHTBP, EHTBB, HBB, PBTO, PBBe, ATE and DP. The high detection of new FRs in indoor environments reflects their ubiquitous presence in indoor environment due to regulation of the PBDEs. Exposure to FRs are estimated based on these data for adults and toddlers.
PubMed ID
22402458 View in PubMed
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Pesticide use, immunologic conditions, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Canadian men in six provinces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126391
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2012
Author
Manisha Pahwa
Shelley A Harris
Karin Hohenadel
John R McLaughlin
John J Spinelli
Punam Pahwa
James A Dosman
Aaron Blair
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Date
Dec-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - complications - immunology
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Gasoline - poisoning
Herbicides - poisoning
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications - immunology
Incidence
Insecticides - poisoning
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - chemically induced - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pesticides - poisoning
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - complications - immunology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Pesticide exposures and immune suppression have been independently associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but their joint effect has not been well explored. Data from a case-control study of men from six Canadian provinces were used to evaluate the potential effect modification of asthma, allergies, or asthma and allergies and hay fever combined on NHL risk from use of: (i) any pesticide; (ii) any organochlorine insecticide; (iii) any organophosphate insecticide; (iv) any phenoxy herbicide; (v) selected individual pesticides [1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene]; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), malathion, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); and (vi) from the number of potentially carcinogenic pesticides. Incident NHL cases (n = 513) diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were recruited from provincial cancer registries and hospitalization records and compared to 1,506 controls. A stratified analysis was conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, province, proxy respondent, and diesel oil exposure. Subjects with asthma, allergies, or hay fever had non-significantly elevated risks of NHL associated with use of MCPA (OR = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-7.93) compared to subjects without any of these conditions (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.39-1.70). Conversely, those with asthma, allergies, or hay fever who reported use of malathion had lower risks of NHL (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.69-2.26) versus subjects with none of these conditions (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.65-3.61). Similar effects were observed for asthma and allergies evaluated individually. Although there were some leads regarding effect modification by these immunologic conditions on the association between pesticide use and NHL, small numbers, measurement error and possible recall bias limit interpretation of these results.
PubMed ID
22396152 View in PubMed
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