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Community SES, perceived environment, and physical activity during home-based cardiac rehabilitation: is there a need to consider the urban vs. rural distinction?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126295
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Chris Blanchard
Daniel Rainham
Jill McSweeney
John Spence
Lisa McDonnell
Ryan Rhodes
Robert Reid
Kerry McGannon
Nancy Edwards
Author Affiliation
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. chris.blanchard@dal.ca
Source
J Urban Health. 2012 Apr;89(2):285-95
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environment
Exercise
Female
Home Care Services - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Patient Satisfaction - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Rural Population - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Physical activity (MVPA) levels during home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remain problematic. Consequently, the present study examined the association between MVPA and urban vs. rural residential status and the perceived environment in patients attending home-based CR. A total of 280 patients completed a questionnaire assessing demographic, clinical, MVPA, and perceived environmental variables measured at baseline and 3 months later. Patient addresses were geocoded and linked to the 2006 Canadian census to establish the urban/rural distinction. Results showed that urban and rural patients had similar baseline MVPA and improvements in MVPA by 3 months. Several perceived environmental variables were significantly related to MVPA throughout home-based CR that were common and urban/rural-specific. Therefore, although there does not appear to be an urban vs. rural advantage in MVPA levels during home-based CR, there does appear to be environmental/MVPA-specific relationships specific to urban and rural patients that may warrant attention.
Notes
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Cites: J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2010 Jul-Aug;30(4):240-520216322
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2002 Apr;22(3):188-9911897464
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002 Oct;34(10):1544-5012370553
Cites: Prev Med. 2002 Dec;35(6):601-1112460528
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003 Jan;57(1):29-3512490645
Cites: Ann Behav Med. 2004 Aug;28(1):20-815249256
Cites: Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2004 Aug;11(4):313-915292765
Cites: Can J Appl Sport Sci. 1985 Sep;10(3):141-64053261
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993 Jan;25(1):81-918423759
Cites: Am J Health Promot. 1997 May-Jun;11(5):363-510167371
Cites: Res Q Exerc Sport. 1997 Dec;68(4):345-519421846
Cites: Int J Health Geogr. 2007;6:4117883870
Cites: Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Jul;40(7 Suppl):S550-6618562973
Cites: Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):155-919565683
Cites: Am J Prev Med. 2009 Sep;37(3):207-1319595554
Cites: Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009 Oct;16(5):515-2619293716
Cites: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Sep;54(9):667-7210942445
PubMed ID
22402918 View in PubMed
Less detail

Legacy and current-use flame retardants in house dust from Vancouver, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126299
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Mahiba Shoeib
Tom Harner
Glenys M Webster
Ed Sverko
Yu Cheng
Author Affiliation
Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Mahiba.Shoeib@ec.gc.ca
Source
Environ Pollut. 2012 Oct;169:175-82
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Canada
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Flame Retardants - adverse effects - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Infant
Male
Young Adult
Abstract
Fifteen polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eighteen non-PBDEs were measured in 116 dust samples collected from homes in Vancouver, Canada during 2007-2008 as part of the Chemicals Health and Pregnancy (CHirP) study. The highest concentrations of PBDEs in house dust were observed for BDE 209, with a median concentration of 1350 ng/g. This is about two times greater than the median concentration of the PentaBDE (represented by the most abundant compounds in this formulation, SBDE 47, 99 and 100). In the case of non-PBDE FRs, a detection frequency between 81% and 100% was observed for nine analytes including: HBCD, BTBPE, BEHTBP, EHTBB, HBB, PBTO, PBBe, ATE and DP. The high detection of new FRs in indoor environments reflects their ubiquitous presence in indoor environment due to regulation of the PBDEs. Exposure to FRs are estimated based on these data for adults and toddlers.
PubMed ID
22402458 View in PubMed
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Pesticide use, immunologic conditions, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Canadian men in six provinces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126391
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2012
Author
Manisha Pahwa
Shelley A Harris
Karin Hohenadel
John R McLaughlin
John J Spinelli
Punam Pahwa
James A Dosman
Aaron Blair
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Date
Dec-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - complications - immunology
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Gasoline - poisoning
Herbicides - poisoning
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications - immunology
Incidence
Insecticides - poisoning
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - chemically induced - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pesticides - poisoning
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - complications - immunology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Pesticide exposures and immune suppression have been independently associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but their joint effect has not been well explored. Data from a case-control study of men from six Canadian provinces were used to evaluate the potential effect modification of asthma, allergies, or asthma and allergies and hay fever combined on NHL risk from use of: (i) any pesticide; (ii) any organochlorine insecticide; (iii) any organophosphate insecticide; (iv) any phenoxy herbicide; (v) selected individual pesticides [1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene]; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), malathion, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); and (vi) from the number of potentially carcinogenic pesticides. Incident NHL cases (n = 513) diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were recruited from provincial cancer registries and hospitalization records and compared to 1,506 controls. A stratified analysis was conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, province, proxy respondent, and diesel oil exposure. Subjects with asthma, allergies, or hay fever had non-significantly elevated risks of NHL associated with use of MCPA (OR = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-7.93) compared to subjects without any of these conditions (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.39-1.70). Conversely, those with asthma, allergies, or hay fever who reported use of malathion had lower risks of NHL (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.69-2.26) versus subjects with none of these conditions (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.65-3.61). Similar effects were observed for asthma and allergies evaluated individually. Although there were some leads regarding effect modification by these immunologic conditions on the association between pesticide use and NHL, small numbers, measurement error and possible recall bias limit interpretation of these results.
PubMed ID
22396152 View in PubMed
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Human health risks of Pb and As exposure via consumption of home garden vegetables and incidental soil and dust ingestion: a probabilistic screening tool.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126467
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2012 Apr 15;423:27-38
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-15-2012
Author
Chris Bacigalupo
Beverley Hale
Author Affiliation
Intrinsik Environmental Sciences Inc., Mississauga, ON, Canada.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2012 Apr 15;423:27-38
Date
Apr-15-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arsenic - analysis
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lead - analysis
Monte Carlo Method
Probability
Risk assessment
Soil - chemistry
United States
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
The consumption of home grown vegetables may represent a significant exposure pathway for arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) relative to direct incidental ingestion of soil, thus a probabilistic screening tool for estimating these exposures was developed using regression models relating co-located soil and home garden (HG) vegetable concentrations of Pb and As established from multiple independent studies and 2-dimensional Monte Carlo analyses. For high-quantity consumers of HG vegetables (i.e., the upper 95th percentile of consumers in the general population), the HG consumption pathway can be as significant as incidental soil and dust ingestion for inorganic As and, therefore, should be considered when developing generic health-based soil criteria in residential settings. Predicted Pb Hazard Quotient (HQ) estimates among young children resulting from HG consumption were 4- to 10-fold lower than exposures resulting from direct incidental soil and dust ingestion. The difference in soil/dust ingestion rates used to characterize young children (the 95th percentile of 202 mg/d) versus a lifetime residential receptor (the 95th percentile of 30 mg/d) was a primary factor contributing to the relative differences observed between HQ and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from these two exposure pathways for lead Pb and inorganic arsenic As, respectively.
PubMed ID
22386683 View in PubMed
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The aging population in Sweden: can declining incidence rates in MI, stroke and cancer counterbalance the future demographic challenges?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126839
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;27(2):139-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Karin Modig
Sven Drefahl
Tomas Andersson
Anders Ahlbom
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. karin.modig@ki.se
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;27(2):139-45
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Population Dynamics
Registries
Stroke - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
It is often taken for granted that an ageing population will lead to an increased burden for the health care sector. However, for several diseases of big public health impact the rates have actually come down for a substantial period of time. In this study we investigate how much the incidence rates for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer will have to decline in order to counterbalance future demographic changes (changes in population size and age structure) and compare these figures with observed historical trends. Information on incidence rates were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare and referred to the total Swedish population. Population projections were obtained from Statistics Sweden. We projected the number of MI events to increase 50-60% between 2010 and 2050. The decline in incidence rates that is required to keep the number of events constant over time is, on average, 1.2%/year for men and 0.9%/year for women, somewhat higher than the trend for the past 10 years. For stroke the corresponding figures were 1.3% (men) and 1% (women), well in line with historical trends. For cancer the results indicate an increasing number of events in the future. Population ageing is more important than population growth when projecting future number of MI, stroke and cancer events. The required changes in incidence rates in order to counterbalance the demographic changes are well in line with historical figures for stroke, almost in line regarding MI, but not in line regarding cancer. For diseases with age dependence similar to these diseases, a reduction of incidence rates in the order of 1-2% is sufficient to offset the challenges of the ageing population. These are changes that have been observed for several diseases indicating that the challenges posed by the ageing population may not be as severe as they may seem when considering the demographic component alone.
PubMed ID
22350145 View in PubMed
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The Canadian interprofessional patient safety competencies: their role in health-care professionals' education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126885
Source
J Patient Saf. 2012 Mar;8(1):30-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Judy King
Cathy M Anderson
Author Affiliation
Physiotherapy Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. jking@uottawa.ca
Source
J Patient Saf. 2012 Mar;8(1):30-5
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Health Personnel - education
Humans
Interprofessional Relations
Medical Errors - prevention & control
Professional Competence
Safety Management
Abstract
Ensuring the safe care of patients in any health-care setting is paramount for all health-care professionals. Recent research has shown that there are thousands of preventable adverse events happening each year in health care. As a result of these findings, the Canadian Patient Safety Institute was established in 2003 with a mandate to ensure the safety of health care in Canada.
One strategy to assist with this goal was the development of an interprofessional competences framework to help improve patient safety across the health-care continuum.
This paper will report on the framework development process, which resulted in the identification of 6 domains that represent overall patient safety competencies. The domains are as follows: (1) contribute to a culture of patient safety; (2) work in teams for patient safety; (3) communicate effectively for patient safety; (4) manage safety risks; (5) optimize human and environmental factors; and (6) recognize, respond to, and disclose adverse events.
The intent of this framework is that these domains, including the underlying knowledge, skills, and attitude competencies, can be applied to all health-care professionals in any setting. In addition, as one explores each competency, it is evident that an interprofessional approach is essential to ensuring patient safety.
PubMed ID
22343801 View in PubMed
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Public health research involving aboriginal peoples: research ethics board stakeholders' reflections on ethics principles and research processes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126948
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):19-22
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sarah Flicker
Catherine A Worthington
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, ON.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):19-22
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Attitude
Canada
Community-Based Participatory Research - ethics
Cultural Competency
Ethics Committees, Research
Human Experimentation - ethics
Humans
Informed Consent - ethics
Trust
Abstract
The second edition (2010) of the Tri-Council Policy Statement on Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS2) prescribes a set of principles and provisions for engagement with Aboriginal communities. The objective of this study was to explore research ethics board (REB) stakeholder perspectives on the principles and processes of reviewing and conducting public health research with Aboriginal populations and communities.
Twenty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with REB staff, chairs, members (academic, community and student), and ethics policy key informants with knowledge of the ethics review process, including four Aboriginal participants. Interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using NVivo 8 qualitative data management software.
Three dominant themes emerged specific to ethical research practices with Aboriginal communities: 1) the importance of understanding Aboriginal research as a distinct form of research; 2) the unique nature and complexity of negotiating community consent; and 3) the importance of trust and relationship-building in the research process.
Thematic results highlight the most prominent issues that REB participants encountered in reviewing research involving Aboriginal peoples. Continued attention needs to be paid to acknowledging and respecting issues of diversity in research involving diverse First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples. While specific to Aboriginal peoples, the TCPS2 guidelines also illustrate processes and practices that may assist in the development of respectful, collaborative public health research relationships with other historically marginalized populations.
PubMed ID
22338323 View in PubMed
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High body mass index before age 20 is associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis in both men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127063
Source
Mult Scler. 2012 Sep;18(9):1334-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Anna K Hedström
Tomas Olsson
Lars Alfredsson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. anna.hedstrom@ki.se
Source
Mult Scler. 2012 Sep;18(9):1334-6
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body mass index
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Overweight - diagnosis - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In a Swedish population-based case-control study (1571 cases, 3371 controls), subjects with different body mass indices (BMIs) were compared regarding multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subjects whose BMI exceeded 27 kg/m(2) at age 20 had a two-fold increased risk of developing MS compared with normal weight subjects. Speculatively, the obesity epidemic may explain part of the increasing MS incidence as recorded in some countries. Measures taken against adolescent obesity may thus be a preventive strategy against MS.
PubMed ID
22328681 View in PubMed
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Functional outcomes of nursing home residents in relation to features of the environment: validity of the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127078
Source
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012 Jun;13(5):487.e1-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Susan E Slaughter
Debra G Morgan
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Nursing, Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. susan.slaughter@ualberta.ca
Source
J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2012 Jun;13(5):487.e1-7
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Cohort Studies
Dementia
Eating
Environment Design
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Nursing Homes
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Psychometrics
Walking
Abstract
The aim of this article was to examine associations between specific dimensions of nursing home environments and the functional ability (walking and eating) of residents with dementia, and to contribute to the ongoing psychometric development of the Professional Environmental Assessment Protocol (PEAP).
One-year prospective cohort study.
Fifteen nursing homes in a western Canadian province.
Convenience sample of 120 nursing home residents with middle-stage dementia.
Every 2 weeks we observed residents' abilities to walk to the dining room and to feed themselves. At the end of a year of observation and immediately following a brief interview with the unit managers, we used the PEAP to measure the extent to which 9 specific dimensions of nursing home environments support the ability of residents with dementia to walk and to eat. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effect of specific environmental features on residents' walking and eating disability.
"Support of functional ability" was associated with a reduced hazard of both walking and eating disability. The environmental dimensions of "maximizing awareness and orientation" and better "quality of stimulation" were associated specifically with reduced hazard of walking disability, whereas the dimensions of the nursing home environment specifically associated with a reduced hazard of eating disability included improved "safety and security," "opportunities for personal control," and "regulation of stimulation." The Cox proportional hazards models using the 13-point PEAP scale were not significantly different from nested models using the 5-point PEAP scale, indicating that the 2 scales did not differ in their ability to discriminate between more and less supportive environments for residents with dementia.
Specific dimensions of the nursing home environment reduced the hazard of walking disability, whereas others reduced the hazard of eating disability. Modifying specific features of nursing home environments may reduce disability in nursing home residents with dementia. The 5-point PEAP scale is able to discriminate between nursing home environments as well as the 13-point scale.
PubMed ID
22326948 View in PubMed
Less detail

Grand Challenges Canada: inappropriate emphasis and missed opportunities in global health research?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134236
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):149-51
Publication Type
Article
Author
Charles P Larson
Slim Haddad
Anne-Emanuelle Birn
Donald C Cole
Ronald Labonte
Janet Hatcher Roberts
Ted Schrecker
Daniel Sellen
David Zakus
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC. clarson@cw.bc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):149-51
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biomedical Research - economics - standards
Canada
Health Services Research - economics - standards
Humans
Research Support as Topic
World Health
Abstract
In May 2010, Grand Challenges Canada (GCC) was launched with the mandate to identify global challenges in health that could be supported through the Government of Canada's Development Innovations Fund (DIF: $225 million over five years). The GCC offers a potentially excellent mechanism for taking Canada's participation in global health challenges "to a higher level". Recent GCC announcements raise new questions about the emphasis being placed on technological discovery or "catalytic" research. Missing so far are opportunities that the Fund could offer in order to support innovative research addressing i) health systems strengthening, ii) more effective delivery of existing interventions, and iii) policies and programs that address broader social determinants of health. The Canadian Grand Challenges announced to date risk pushing to the sidelines good translational and implementation science and early career-stage scientists addressing important social, environmental and political conditions that affect disease prevalence, progress and treatment; and the many unresolved challenges faced in bringing to scale proven interventions within resource-constrained health systems. We wish to register our concern at the apparent prioritization of biotechnical innovation research and the subordination of the social, environmental, economic and political context in which human health is either protected or eroded.
Notes
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2011 Jul-Aug;102(4):29321913586
PubMed ID
21608389 View in PubMed
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Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134242
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):118-21
Publication Type
Article
Author
Prabjit Barn
Tom Kosatsky
Author Affiliation
The National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health, 400 East Tower, 555 West 12" Avenue, Vancouver, BC V5Z 3X7. prabjit.barn@bccdc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):118-21
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Child
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Humans
Lead Poisoning - etiology - prevention & control
Ontario
Schools - standards
Water Pollution, Chemical - adverse effects - prevention & control
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.
PubMed ID
21608383 View in PubMed
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A holistic model for the selection of environmental assessment indicators to assess the impact of industrialization on indigenous health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134243
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):112-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Julie A Kryzanowski
Lynn McIntyre
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, 3rd Floor, TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4Z6. jakryzan@ucalgary.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2011 Mar-Apr;102(2):112-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cultural Competency
Health Promotion - methods - standards
Health Status Indicators
Holistic Health
Humans
Indians, North American - psychology
Industry - trends
Models, Psychological
Abstract
Mainstream environmental assessment (EA) methodologies often inadequately address health, social and cultural impacts of concern for Canadian indigenous communities affected by industrialization. Our objective is to present a holistic, culturally-appropriate framework for the selection of indigenous health indicators for baseline health assessment, impact prediction, or monitoring of impacts over time.
We used a critical population health approach to explore the determinants of health and health inequities in indigenous communities and conceptualize the pathways by which industrialization affects these determinants. We integrated and extended key elements from three indigenous health frameworks into a new holistic model for the selection of indigenous EA indicators.
The holistic model conceptualizes individual and community determinants of health within external social, economic and political contexts and thus provides a comprehensive framework for selecting indicators of indigenous health. Indigenous health is the product of interactions among multiple determinants of health and contexts. Potential applications are discussed using case study examples involving indigenous communities affected by industrialization.
Industrialization can worsen indigenous health inequities by perpetuating the health, social and cultural impacts of historic environmental dispossession. To mitigate impacts, EA should explicitly recognize linkages between environmental dispossession and the determinants of health and health inequities and meaningfully involve indigenous communities in the process.
PubMed ID
21608382 View in PubMed
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[Scientific and methodological rationale for the pathomorphism of Lamblia infection in children during chemical contamination of the biosphere].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134283
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Mar-Apr;(2):67-72
Publication Type
Article
Author
N V Zaitseva
O Iu Ustinova
A I Aminova
A A Akatova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Mar-Apr;(2):67-72
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Chemical Industry
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Illness - chemically induced - complications - epidemiology
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Giardia - pathogenicity
Giardiasis - complications - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper analyzes the clinical and laboratory features of Lamblia infection in children living under long-term low-dose chemical load. The scientific search methodology comprised the meticulous examination of the patients randomized by the presence or absence of protozoonosis and the statistical processing and expert analysis of the results. The comprehensive approach could define the main signs of the pathomorphism of lambliosis in the areas with high anthropogenic loads and identify immunological disorders, intoxication, and hepatobiliary dysfunctions. The impact of environmentally induced chemical contamination of the biosphere on the natural history of protozoonosis should be borne in mind when evaluating the biological hazard and risk of environmental biological factors on the population health and when scheduling and implementing hygienic and sanitary-and-epidemiological measures to prevent lambliosis in the high anthropogenic load areas.
PubMed ID
21604395 View in PubMed
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Climate change and future temperature-related mortality in 15 Canadian cities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134335
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2012 Jul;56(4):605-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Sara Lauretta Martin
Sabit Cakmak
Christopher Alan Hebbern
Mary-Luyza Avramescu
Neil Tremblay
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, HECSB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2012 Jul;56(4):605-19
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Cities
Climate change
Humans
Models, Theoretical
Mortality
Temperature
Abstract
The environmental changes caused by climate change represent a significant challenge to human societies. One part of this challenge will be greater heat-related mortality. Populations in the northern hemisphere will experience temperature increases exceeding the global average, but whether this will increase or decrease total temperature-related mortality burdens is debated. Here, we use distributed lag modeling to characterize temperature-mortality relationships in 15 Canadian cities. Further, we examine historical trends in temperature variation across Canada. We then develop city-specific general linear models to estimate change in high- and low-temperature-related mortality using dynamically downscaled climate projections for four future periods centred on 2040, 2060 and 2080. We find that the minimum mortality temperature is frequently located at approximately the 75th percentile of the city's temperature distribution, and that Canadians currently experience greater and longer lasting risk from cold-related than heat-related mortality. Additionally, we find no evidence that temperature variation is increasing in Canada. However, the projected increased temperatures are sufficient to change the relative levels of heat- and cold-related mortality in some cities. While most temperature-related mortality will continue to be cold-related, our models predict that higher temperatures will increase the burden of annual temperature-related mortality in Hamilton, London, Montreal and Regina, but result in slight to moderate decreases in the burden of mortality in the other 11 cities investigated.
PubMed ID
21597936 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jul;65(7):562-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011

Public health and components of particulate matter: the changing assessment of black carbon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104093
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2014 Jun;64(6):620-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Thomas J Grahame
Rebecca Klemm
Richard B Schlesinger
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2014 Jun;64(6):620-60
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - analysis
Canada
Carbon - analysis
Coal
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Europe
Humans
Incineration
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis
Public Health - methods
Soot - analysis
United States
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Abstract
In 2012, the WHO classified diesel emissions as carcinogenic, and its European branch suggested creating a public health standard for airborne black carbon (BC). In 2011, EU researchers found that life expectancy could be extended four to nine times by reducing a unit of BC, vs reducing a unit of PM2.5. Only recently could such determinations be made. Steady improvements in research methodologies now enable such judgments. In this Critical Review, we survey epidemiological and toxicological literature regarding carbonaceous combustion emissions, as research methodologies improved over time. Initially, we focus on studies of BC, diesel, and traffic emissions in the Western countries (where daily urban BC emissions are mainly from diesels). We examine effects of other carbonaceous emissions, e.g., residential burning of biomass and coal without controls, mainly in developing countries. Throughout the 1990s, air pollution epidemiology studies rarely included species not routinely monitored. As additional PM2.5. chemical species, including carbonaceous species, became more widely available after 1999, they were gradually included in epidemiological studies. Pollutant species concentrations which more accurately reflected subject exposure also improved models. Natural "interventions"--reductions in emissions concurrent with fuel changes or increased combustion efficiency; introduction of ventilation in highway tunnels; implementation of electronic toll payment systems--demonstrated health benefits of reducing specific carbon emissions. Toxicology studies provided plausible biological mechanisms by which different PM species, e.g, carbonaceous species, may cause harm, aiding interpretation of epidemiological studies. Our review finds that BC from various sources appears to be causally involved in all-cause, lung cancer and cardiovascular mortality, morbidity, and perhaps adverse birth and nervous system effects. We recommend that the US. EPA rubric for judging possible causality of PM25. mass concentrations, be used to assess which PM2.5. species are most harmful to public health.
Black carbon (BC) and correlated co-emissions appear causally related with all-cause, cardiovascular, and lung cancer mortality, and perhaps with adverse birth outcomes and central nervous system effects. Such findings are recent, since widespread monitoring for BC is also recent. Helpful epidemiological advances (using many health relevant PM2.5 species in models; using better measurements of subject exposure) have also occurred. "Natural intervention" studies also demonstrate harm from partly combusted carbonaceous emissions. Toxicology studies consistently find biological mechanisms explaining how such emissions can cause these adverse outcomes. A consistent mechanism for judging causality for different PM2.5 species is suggested.
PubMed ID
25039199 View in PubMed
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Development of a guide to applying precaution in local public health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104136
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2014 Apr-Jun;20(2):174-84
Publication Type
Article
Author
Monica Hau
Donald Cole
Loren Vanderlinden
Ronald MacFarlane
Carol Mee
Josephine Archbold
Monica Campbell
Source
Int J Occup Environ Health. 2014 Apr-Jun;20(2):174-84
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - standards
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Local Government
Public Health Practice - standards
Abstract
The precautionary principle (PP) urges actions to prevent harm even in the face of scientific uncertainty. Members of Toronto Public Health (TPH) sought guidance on applying precaution.
We searched five bibliographic databases (yield 60 articles from 1996 to 2009 and 8 from 2009 to 2011) and Google (yield 11 gray literature sources) for material relevant to local public health. From these sources, we extracted questions until saturation was reached (n?=55). We applied these questions retrospectively to eight case studies where TPH felt precaution was applied. We ranked questions for their importance in applying precaution.
Our final guide included 35 questions in five domains: context, assessment, alternative interventions, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. Importance rankings varied across cases, but the role of stakeholders in driving precautionary action was consistent. Monitoring and evaluation components could have been strengthened across cases.
The TPH guide can assist municipal environmental health practitioners in applying precaution in a more transparent manner.
PubMed ID
24999853 View in PubMed
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Source
Can Nurse. 2014 Apr;110(3):2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Lisa Brazeau
Source
Can Nurse. 2014 Apr;110(3):2
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Canada
Environmental health
Humans
Nursing Staff - psychology
PubMed ID
24822460 View in PubMed
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Environmental factors in an Ontario community with disparities in colorectal cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104417
Source
Glob J Health Sci. 2014 May;6(3):175-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Jeavana Sritharan
Rishikesan Kamaleswaran
Ken McFarlan
Manon Lemonde
Clemon George
Otto Sanchez
Author Affiliation
University of Ontario Institute of Technology. jeavana.sritharan@mail.utoronto.ca.
Source
Glob J Health Sci. 2014 May;6(3):175-85
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Ontario - epidemiology
Pesticides
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel.
We performed a systematic review to identify established and proposed environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence, created an assessment questionnaire tool regarding these environmental exposures, and applied this questionnaire among 114 participants from the communities of Timiskaming and Peel.
We found that tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, residential use of organochlorine pesticides, and potential exposure to toxic metals were dominant factors among Timiskaming respondents. We found significant differences regarding active smoking, chronic alcohol use, reported indoor and outdoor household pesticide use, and gold and silver mining in the Timiskaming region.
This study, the first to assess environmental factors in the Timiskaming community, identified higher reported exposures to tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, and mining in Timiskaming when compared with Peel. These significant findings highlight the need for specific public health assessments and interventions regarding community environmental exposures.
PubMed ID
24762360 View in PubMed
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Adapting to the effects of climate change on Inuit health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104452
Source
Am J Public Health. 2014 Jun;104 Suppl 3:e9-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
not entirely new because humans have lived with climate variability and change for a long time. The environmental and public health fields have a tradition of assessing and managing climate-related health risks, some of which are managed well, while for others there is room for improve- ment.45,49,66
  1 document  
Author
James D Ford
Ashlee Cunsolo Willox
Susan Chatwood
Christopher Furgal
Sherilee Harper
Ian Mauro
Tristan Pearce
Author Affiliation
James D. Ford is with the Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. Ashlee Cunsolo Willox is with the Department of Community Health, Cape Breton University, Sydney, Nova Scotia. Susan Chatwood is with the Institute for Circumpolar Health Research, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Christopher Furgal is with the Department of Indigenous Environmental Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. Sherilee Harper is with the Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Ontario. Ian Mauro is with the Department of Geography, University of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Tristan Pearce is with the University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydor, Queensland, Australia.
Source
Am J Public Health. 2014 Jun;104 Suppl 3:e9-17
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
File Size
924997
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Arctic Regions
Canada
Climate change
Food Supply
Health status
Humans
Inuits
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
Climate change will have far-reaching implications for Inuit health. Focusing on adaptation offers a proactive approach for managing climate-related health risks-one that views Inuit populations as active agents in planning and responding at household, community, and regional levels. Adaptation can direct attention to the root causes of climate vulnerability and emphasize the importance of traditional knowledge regarding environmental change and adaptive strategies. An evidence base on adaptation options and processes for Inuit regions is currently lacking, however, thus constraining climate policy development. In this article, we tackled this deficit, drawing upon our understanding of the determinants of health vulnerability to climate change in Canada to propose key considerations for adaptation decision-making in an Inuit context.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24754615 View in PubMed
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