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Pesticide use, immunologic conditions, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Canadian men in six provinces.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126391
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2012
Author
Manisha Pahwa
Shelley A Harris
Karin Hohenadel
John R McLaughlin
John J Spinelli
Punam Pahwa
James A Dosman
Aaron Blair
Author Affiliation
University of Toronto, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 1;131(11):2650-9
Date
Dec-1-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - complications - immunology
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Gasoline - poisoning
Herbicides - poisoning
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications - immunology
Incidence
Insecticides - poisoning
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - chemically induced - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Pesticides - poisoning
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal - complications - immunology
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Abstract
Pesticide exposures and immune suppression have been independently associated with the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but their joint effect has not been well explored. Data from a case-control study of men from six Canadian provinces were used to evaluate the potential effect modification of asthma, allergies, or asthma and allergies and hay fever combined on NHL risk from use of: (i) any pesticide; (ii) any organochlorine insecticide; (iii) any organophosphate insecticide; (iv) any phenoxy herbicide; (v) selected individual pesticides [1,1'-(2,2,2-trichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene]; 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), malathion, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid (MCPA), mecoprop, and (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid (2,4-D); and (vi) from the number of potentially carcinogenic pesticides. Incident NHL cases (n = 513) diagnosed between 1991 and 1994 were recruited from provincial cancer registries and hospitalization records and compared to 1,506 controls. A stratified analysis was conducted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, province, proxy respondent, and diesel oil exposure. Subjects with asthma, allergies, or hay fever had non-significantly elevated risks of NHL associated with use of MCPA (OR = 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-7.93) compared to subjects without any of these conditions (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.39-1.70). Conversely, those with asthma, allergies, or hay fever who reported use of malathion had lower risks of NHL (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.69-2.26) versus subjects with none of these conditions (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.65-3.61). Similar effects were observed for asthma and allergies evaluated individually. Although there were some leads regarding effect modification by these immunologic conditions on the association between pesticide use and NHL, small numbers, measurement error and possible recall bias limit interpretation of these results.
PubMed ID
22396152 View in PubMed
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The aging population in Sweden: can declining incidence rates in MI, stroke and cancer counterbalance the future demographic challenges?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126839
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;27(2):139-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Karin Modig
Sven Drefahl
Tomas Andersson
Anders Ahlbom
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Box 210, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. karin.modig@ki.se
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Feb;27(2):139-45
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Population Dynamics
Registries
Stroke - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
It is often taken for granted that an ageing population will lead to an increased burden for the health care sector. However, for several diseases of big public health impact the rates have actually come down for a substantial period of time. In this study we investigate how much the incidence rates for myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer will have to decline in order to counterbalance future demographic changes (changes in population size and age structure) and compare these figures with observed historical trends. Information on incidence rates were obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare and referred to the total Swedish population. Population projections were obtained from Statistics Sweden. We projected the number of MI events to increase 50-60% between 2010 and 2050. The decline in incidence rates that is required to keep the number of events constant over time is, on average, 1.2%/year for men and 0.9%/year for women, somewhat higher than the trend for the past 10 years. For stroke the corresponding figures were 1.3% (men) and 1% (women), well in line with historical trends. For cancer the results indicate an increasing number of events in the future. Population ageing is more important than population growth when projecting future number of MI, stroke and cancer events. The required changes in incidence rates in order to counterbalance the demographic changes are well in line with historical figures for stroke, almost in line regarding MI, but not in line regarding cancer. For diseases with age dependence similar to these diseases, a reduction of incidence rates in the order of 1-2% is sufficient to offset the challenges of the ageing population. These are changes that have been observed for several diseases indicating that the challenges posed by the ageing population may not be as severe as they may seem when considering the demographic component alone.
PubMed ID
22350145 View in PubMed
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High body mass index before age 20 is associated with increased risk for multiple sclerosis in both men and women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127063
Source
Mult Scler. 2012 Sep;18(9):1334-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2012
Author
Anna K Hedström
Tomas Olsson
Lars Alfredsson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. anna.hedstrom@ki.se
Source
Mult Scler. 2012 Sep;18(9):1334-6
Date
Sep-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body mass index
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Incidence
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Overweight - diagnosis - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
In a Swedish population-based case-control study (1571 cases, 3371 controls), subjects with different body mass indices (BMIs) were compared regarding multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Subjects whose BMI exceeded 27 kg/m(2) at age 20 had a two-fold increased risk of developing MS compared with normal weight subjects. Speculatively, the obesity epidemic may explain part of the increasing MS incidence as recorded in some countries. Measures taken against adolescent obesity may thus be a preventive strategy against MS.
PubMed ID
22328681 View in PubMed
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[Scientific and methodological rationale for the pathomorphism of Lamblia infection in children during chemical contamination of the biosphere].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134283
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Mar-Apr;(2):67-72
Publication Type
Article
Author
N V Zaitseva
O Iu Ustinova
A I Aminova
A A Akatova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Mar-Apr;(2):67-72
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Chemical Industry
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Illness - chemically induced - complications - epidemiology
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects
Giardia - pathogenicity
Giardiasis - complications - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper analyzes the clinical and laboratory features of Lamblia infection in children living under long-term low-dose chemical load. The scientific search methodology comprised the meticulous examination of the patients randomized by the presence or absence of protozoonosis and the statistical processing and expert analysis of the results. The comprehensive approach could define the main signs of the pathomorphism of lambliosis in the areas with high anthropogenic loads and identify immunological disorders, intoxication, and hepatobiliary dysfunctions. The impact of environmentally induced chemical contamination of the biosphere on the natural history of protozoonosis should be borne in mind when evaluating the biological hazard and risk of environmental biological factors on the population health and when scheduling and implementing hygienic and sanitary-and-epidemiological measures to prevent lambliosis in the high anthropogenic load areas.
PubMed ID
21604395 View in PubMed
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Environmental factors in an Ontario community with disparities in colorectal cancer incidence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104417
Source
Glob J Health Sci. 2014 May;6(3):175-85
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2014
Author
Jeavana Sritharan
Rishikesan Kamaleswaran
Ken McFarlan
Manon Lemonde
Clemon George
Otto Sanchez
Author Affiliation
University of Ontario Institute of Technology. jeavana.sritharan@mail.utoronto.ca.
Source
Glob J Health Sci. 2014 May;6(3):175-85
Date
May-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - epidemiology
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Ontario - epidemiology
Pesticides
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel.
We performed a systematic review to identify established and proposed environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence, created an assessment questionnaire tool regarding these environmental exposures, and applied this questionnaire among 114 participants from the communities of Timiskaming and Peel.
We found that tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, residential use of organochlorine pesticides, and potential exposure to toxic metals were dominant factors among Timiskaming respondents. We found significant differences regarding active smoking, chronic alcohol use, reported indoor and outdoor household pesticide use, and gold and silver mining in the Timiskaming region.
This study, the first to assess environmental factors in the Timiskaming community, identified higher reported exposures to tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, and mining in Timiskaming when compared with Peel. These significant findings highlight the need for specific public health assessments and interventions regarding community environmental exposures.
PubMed ID
24762360 View in PubMed
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Increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women with pregnancy complications and poor self-rated health: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104580
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Aug;53(8):1513-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Kristian Tore Jørgensen
Maria C Harpsøe
Søren Jacobsen
Tine Jess
Morten Frisch
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital and Department of Rheumatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital and Department of Rheumatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. kristian.tore.joergensen@regionh.dk.
Source
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Aug;53(8):1513-9
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arthritis, Rheumatoid - epidemiology - etiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Risk
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
This study assessed the suggested association between pregnancy-associated hypertensive disorders, hyperemesis and subsequent risk of RA using a cohort with information about pre-pregnancy health.
Self-reported information on pre-pregnancy health, pregnancy course, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and hyperemesis was available from 55 752 pregnant women included in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about pregnancy-related factors and lifestyle was obtained by interviews twice during pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Women were followed for RA hospitalizations identified in the Danish National Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Women with RA and non-specific musculoskeletal problems at the time of pregnancy were excluded.
On average, women were followed for 11 years after childbirth and 169 cases of RA were identified. The risk of RA was increased in women with pre-eclampsia (n = 11, HR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.06, 3.63), a poor self-rated pregnancy course (n = 32, HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.11, 2.39) and fair or poor self-rated pre-pregnancy health (fair health: n = 86, HR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.11, 2.09; poor health: n = 14, HR = 3.24, 95% CI 1.82, 5.76). Hyperemesis was not associated with risk of RA.
We confirmed the previously suggested increased risk of RA in women with pre-eclampsia and also found an inverse association between self-rated pre-pregnancy health and risk of RA. These results suggest that the clinical onset of RA is preceded by a prolonged subclinical phase that may interfere with women's general well-being and pregnancy course or that some women carry a shared predisposition to pre-eclampsia and RA.
PubMed ID
24692576 View in PubMed
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Seasonal variation of acute gastro-intestinal illness by hydroclimatic regime and drinking water source: a retrospective population-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature104695
Source
J Water Health. 2014 Mar;12(1):122-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Lindsay P Galway
Diana M Allen
Margot W Parkes
Tim K Takaro
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, 11830 Blusson Hall, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC, Canada E-mail: lpg@sfu.ca.
Source
J Water Health. 2014 Mar;12(1):122-35
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Climate
Drinking Water
Female
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Seasons
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and an important public health problem. Despite the fact that AGI is currently responsible for a huge burden of disease throughout the world, important knowledge gaps exist in terms of its epidemiology. Specifically, an understanding of seasonality and those factors driving seasonal variation remain elusive. This paper aims to assess variation in the incidence of AGI in British Columbia (BC), Canada over an 11-year study period. We assessed variation in AGI dynamics in general, and disaggregated by hydroclimatic regime and drinking water source. We used several different visual and statistical techniques to describe and characterize seasonal and annual patterns in AGI incidence over time. Our results consistently illustrate marked seasonal patterns; seasonality remains when the dataset is disaggregated by hydroclimatic regime and drinking water source; however, differences in the magnitude and timing of the peaks and troughs are noted. We conclude that systematic descriptions of infectious illness dynamics over time is a valuable tool for informing disease prevention strategies and generating hypotheses to guide future research in an era of global environmental change.
PubMed ID
24642439 View in PubMed
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Cancer risks in parents who had a child with a congenital malformation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116188
Source
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Apr;98(2):154-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Yuelian Sun
Kim Overvad
Wei Jin Zhou
Jin Liang Zhu
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. ys@soci.au.dk
Source
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2013 Apr;98(2):154-63
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Chromosome Aberrations
Cohort Studies
Congenital Abnormalities - genetics - pathology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Gene-Environment Interaction
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Parents
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Abstract
Cancer risk in parents may be related to congenital malformations (CMs) in their children if they share genetic susceptibility or environmental exposure that may be teratogenic and carcinogenic. We conducted a population-based cohort study based on Danish register data. We identified 795,607 mothers and 781,424 fathers who had all their children between 1977 and 2007 in Denmark. Information on CM was obtained from the Danish Hospital Registry and information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. Parents were followed from the birth of their first child until the diagnosis of cancer, death, emigration, or December 31, 2007. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer including cancer in specific organs in mothers and fathers. Overall, 75,701 (9.5%) mothers and 72,724 (9.3%) fathers had at least one child diagnosed with CMs within the first year of life. Neither mothers (HR=1.04; 95% CI: 0.99-1.04) nor fathers (HR=1.03; 95% CI: 0.98-1.09) who had a child with a CM had a higher overall risk of cancer. Mothers (HR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-1.00) or fathers (HR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.66-1.19) who had a child with a chromosomal malformation had a lower overall cancer risk. The findings also showed a higher risk for some specific types of cancer in parents who had children with a CM in the specific system. Some, or perhaps all, of these findings may be due to chance caused by multiple comparisons. We present all results on paper or online to provide clues for further research and to avoid publication bias.
PubMed ID
23424158 View in PubMed
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The impact of pre- and postnatal exposures on allergy related diseases in childhood: a controlled multicentre intervention study in primary health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116477
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:123
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Christian Kvikne Dotterud
Ola Storrø
Melanie Rae Simpson
Roar Johnsen
Torbjørn Øien
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), N-7489, Trondheim, Norway. christian.dotterud@gmail.com
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:123
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hypersensitivity - complications
Incidence
Infant
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Primary Health Care
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Environmental factors such as tobacco exposure, indoor climate and diet are known to be involved in the development of allergy related diseases. The aim was to determine the impact of altered exposure to these factors during pregnancy and infancy on the incidence of allergy related diseases at 2 years of age.
Children from a non-selected population of mothers were recruited to a controlled, multicenter intervention study in primary health care. The interventions were an increased maternal and infant intake of n-3 PUFAs and oily fish, reduced parental smoking, and reduced indoor dampness during pregnancy and the children's first 2 years of life. Questionnaires on baseline data and exposures, and health were collected at 2 years of age.
The prevalence of smoking amongst the mothers and fathers was approximately halved at 2 years of age in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. The intake of n-3 PUFA supplement and oily fish among the children in the intervention cohort was increased. There was no significant change for indoor dampness. The odds ratio for the incidence of asthma was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93; NNTb 53), and 0.75 for the use of asthma medication (95% CI, 0.58-0.96). The odds ratio for asthma among girls was 0.41 (95% CI 0.24-0.70; NNTb 32), and for boys 0.93 (95% CI 0.68-1.26). There were no significant change for wheeze and atopic dermatitis.
Reduced tobacco exposure and increased intake of oily fish during pregnancy and early childhood may be effective in reducing the incidence of asthma at 2 years of age. The differential impact in boys and girls indicates that the pathophysiology of asthma may depend on the sex of the children.
Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28090297.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23394141 View in PubMed
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Pre-natal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances may be associated with altered vaccine antibody levels and immune-related health outcomes in early childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116879
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2013 Oct-Dec;10(4):373-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Berit Granum
Line S Haug
Ellen Namork
Solvor B Stølevik
Cathrine Thomsen
Ingeborg S Aaberge
Henk van Loveren
Martinus Løvik
Unni C Nygaard
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health , Oslo , Norway.
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2013 Oct-Dec;10(4):373-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood
Alkenes - toxicity
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Caprylates - blood
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Common Cold - epidemiology - immunology
Female
Fluorocarbons - adverse effects - blood - toxicity
Follow-Up Studies
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - immunology
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - immunology
Immunosuppression
Incidence
Male
Norway
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology - immunology
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Treatment Outcome
Vaccines
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are suggested to have immunosuppressive effects; exposure in utero and in the first years of life is of special concern as fetuses and small children are highly vulnerable to toxicant exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-natal exposure to PFAS on responses to pediatric vaccines and immune-related health outcomes in children up to 3 years of age. In the prospective birth-cohort BraMat, a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), pregnant women from Oslo and Akershus, Norway, were recruited during 2007-2008. Three annual questionnaire-based follow-ups were performed. Blood samples were collected from the mothers at the time of delivery and from the children at the age of 3 years. As a measure of pre-natal exposure to PFAS, the concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were determined in maternal blood from 99 BraMat participants. Main outcome measures were anti-vaccine antibody levels, common infectious diseases and allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes in the children up to the age of 3 years. There was an inverse association between the level of anti-rubella antibodies in the children's serum at age 3 years and the concentrations of the four PFAS. Furthermore, there was a positive association between the maternal concentrations of PFOA and PFNA and the number of episodes of common cold for the children, and between PFOA and PFHxS and the number of episodes of gastroenteritis. No associations were found between maternal PFAS concentrations and the allergy- and asthma-related health outcomes investigated. The results indicate that pre-natal exposure to PFAS may be associated with immunosuppression in early childhood.
PubMed ID
23350954 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in an urban community: an historical cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229510
Source
Can J Public Health. 1990 Mar-Apr;81(2):161-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
N. Kreiger
L A Spielberg
L. Dodds
L. Elinson
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology and Statistics, Ontario Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Toronto.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1990 Mar-Apr;81(2):161-5
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Incidence
Industry
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Ontario
Risk factors
Urban Population
Abstract
This historical cohort study tested the hypothesis that residents of an industrialized urban community were at higher risk of cancer than residents of a comparable, but non-industrialized, community. The exposed (C1) and the unexposed (C2) cohorts resided in their respective neighbourhoods between 1952 and 1956. All incident cancers were identified through linkage with the Ontario Cancer Registry for 1964-1982. Cancer incidence rates in the two cohorts were 7.0 and 7.3 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Relative risk estimates for all cancers, lung cancer and cancers associated with environmental exposure, were not significantly different from 1.0. Only colorectal cancers were significantly more frequent in the C1 than the C2 cohort, and these only in one sub-analysis. Overall, we conclude that if there was increased risk of cancer related to environmental pollution in the industrially exposed community, it was less than a two-fold increase.
PubMed ID
2331657 View in PubMed
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Microscopic haematuria as a predictor of urological diseases among steel workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229610
Source
J Soc Occup Med. 1990;40(2):47-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
B C Choi
J A Farmilo
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Health Unit, University of Toronto, Canada.
Source
J Soc Occup Med. 1990;40(2):47-52
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Environmental Exposure
Hematuria - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Reagent Strips
Risk
Steel - adverse effects
Urologic Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
A cohort of 501 workers in a steel mill in Ontario, Canada was followed up from 1974 to 1986 for 13 years. Results indicate that the 13-year cumulative incidence of urological diseases among workers who had a positive urinalysis result of microscopic haematuria at the beginning of the follow-up period (1974) was 1.3 times that of those who had a negative urinalysis result (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.8). This relative risk remained the same after adjusting for age and smoking. This indicates that there is a possibility that urinary screening for microscopic haematuria could be a useful predictor of urological disease occurrence. However, the benefits of early detection and management were difficult to demonstrate. Serious urological diseases, particularly urinary cancers, were not detected earlier as a result of the urinary screening test in this study. Several studies have been done to validate the test in the past. More work to validate the test and to determine the predictive accuracy is recommended.
PubMed ID
2381171 View in PubMed
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Is the incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss increasing? A retrospective register-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286676
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Nov;96(11):1365-1372
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2017
Author
Emma Rasmark Roepke
Leif Matthiesen
Rebecca Rylance
Ole Bjarne Christiansen
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2017 Nov;96(11):1365-1372
Date
Nov-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - epidemiology
Adolescent
Adult
Female
Humans
Incidence
Pregnancy
Prevalence
Registries
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The prevalence of RPL defined as three or more consecutive miscarriages before gestation week 22, is often stated to be 1%. To our knowledge no study has estimated the incidence of RPL, which might be more informative and clinically relevant than the prevalence.
This retrospective register-based study was conducted from 2003 until 2012 in Sweden with data provided by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. In all, 6852 women were registered with the diagnoses of RPL in the National Patient Register. The incidence of RPL is the number of new women receiving the RPL diagnosis per year in the numerator and population at risk in the denominator.
For each year, from 2003 to 2012, the incidence was calculated in two different risk populations: [1] all women aged 18-42 years, and [2] all women registered as being pregnant (deliveries or miscarriages). The average incidence in the study period was 53 per 100 000 (0.05%) in women aged 18-42 years and 650 per 100 000 (0.65%) in women who had achieved pregnancy in the period. The incidence of RPL in the two risk populations increased by 74 and 58%, respectively, during the study period.
This study suggests that the incidence of RPL increased during the 10-year period studied. Causes can only be speculated upon in this study design, but might be associated with environmental changes, as the increase was fairly rapid.
PubMed ID
28832895 View in PubMed
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Comparison of heritability of Cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimates of kidney function and their relation to heritability of cardiovascular disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272096
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan;4(1):e001467
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Johannes Arpegård
Alexander Viktorin
Zheng Chang
Ulf de Faire
Patrik K E Magnusson
Per Svensson
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan;4(1):e001467
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Creatinine - blood
Cystatin C - blood - genetics
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Genome-Wide Association Study
Glomerular Filtration Rate - genetics
Humans
Incidence
Kidney Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Decreased renal function is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Causal mechanisms between estimates of renal function and CVD are intricate and investigation of the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors for the variability of these phenotypes could provide new knowledge.
Cystatin C and creatinine levels in 12 313 twins were analyzed. Uni- and bivariate heritability for these traits and CVD was estimated through structured equation modelling and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) in order to independently confirm additive genetic effects. Twin model-estimated heritability of Cystatin C was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.60) in men, 0.63 (0.59 to 0.66) in women, and 0.60 (0.56 to 0.63) in both sexes combined. For creatinine, heritability estimates were in the same range. Heritability of CVD was 0.39 (0.02 to 0.67) in men and 0.20 (0.00 to 0.61) in women. The phenotypic correlation between Cystatin C and CVD correlation was 0.16 (0.12 to 0.20) in men and 0.17 (0.13 to 0.21) in women, whereas the genetic correlation in males was 0.41 (0.21 to 0.62) while it was non-significant in females. Trough GCTA, the heritability of Cystatin C and creatinine in both sexes combined was estimated to 0.40 (SE 0.07, P=8E(-9)) and 0.19 (SE 0.07, P=0.003), respectively.
Twin model-based heritability of Cystatin C was higher compared to previous studies. Co-variation between Cystatin C and CVD in males was partly explained by additive genetic components, indicating that Cystatin C and CVD share genetic influences. The GCTA provided independent evidence for significant contribution of additive genetics to trait variance of Cystatin C.
Notes
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Erratum In: J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jul;4(7). pii: e000720. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.115.00072026175356
PubMed ID
25589536 View in PubMed
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Two Phenotypes of Traditional Serrated Adenomas Nationwide Survey in Iceland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272229
Source
Anticancer Res. 2015 Sep;35(9):4929-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Carlos A Rubio
Jón G Jónasson
Source
Anticancer Res. 2015 Sep;35(9):4929-33
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenoma - epidemiology - pathology
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - pathology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Phenotype
Abstract
Iceland has a total population of 300,000 inhabitants. All patients consulting for symptoms of the lower digestive tract during a four-year period (2003-2006) were subjected to a colonoscopic examination; all polyps were endoscopically removed. Out of the total 3,037 colorectal adenomas (CRAs), 308 (10.2%) were traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs). TSAs were divided according the predominant histological phenotype (>50%) into those with ectopic crypt formations (ECF), and those with unlocked serrations (US). ECF-TSA accounted for 5.9% (178/3037) and US-TSA for 4.3% (130/3037). The majority of patients with ECF-TSA and US-TSA were = 60 years of age (74.1% and 76.2%, respectively). Notwithstanding, when patients having advanced adenomas (with high-grade dysplasia, with or without intramucosal carcinoma) were listed by age, those with ECF-TSA were significantly younger than those with US-TSA (p
PubMed ID
26254390 View in PubMed
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Moulds, bacteria and cancer among Finns: an occupational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature160186
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Jul;65(7):489-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
A. Laakkonen
P K Verkasalo
A. Nevalainen
T. Kauppinen
P. Kyyrönen
E I Pukkala
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland. aarne.laakkonen@kolumbus.fi
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2008 Jul;65(7):489-93
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Bacteria
Cohort Studies
Colony Count, Microbial
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Fungi
Humans
Incidence
Lip Neoplasms - etiology
Lung Neoplasms - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure
Occupations
Registries
Risk
Risk Assessment - methods
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - etiology
Abstract
Some environmental moulds and bacteria produce carcinogenic toxins.
To study associations between work-related exposure to moulds and bacteria and cancers in Finland.
A cohort of all economically active Finns in the population census in 1970 were followed-up for 30 million person-years. Subsequent cancer cases were identified through record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry. Observed and expected numbers of cancer cases were calculated by occupation, sex, birth cohort and period of observation. Exposures to moulds of agricultural and industrial origin and to bacteria of non-human origin were estimated with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix.
Men with the highest mould and bacterial exposure had a reduced relative risk for lung cancer (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.9 for moulds and RR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 1.0 for bacteria). Women in the highest mould and bacterial exposure category had RRs of 3.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 9.2) and 2.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.7) for cervical cancer, respectively. The respective RRs for lip cancer were 2.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.2).
Exposures at the investigated concentrations to either moulds or bacteria are unlikely to be major risk factors of cancer, although suggestions of risk increases were observed for some cancer types. It has been suggested previously that the decreased risk for lung cancer is due to the protective effect of endotoxins.
PubMed ID
18032534 View in PubMed
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[Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96865
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):21-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
M A Kreimer
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):21-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Public Health - standards
Quality of Life
Risk factors
Sanitation - methods - standards
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.
PubMed ID
20496488 View in PubMed
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Trends in survival of patients diagnosed with cancer of the digestive organs in the Nordic countries 1964-2003 followed up to the end of 2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96895
Source
Acta Oncol. 2010 Jun;49(5):578-607
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Asa Klint
Gerda Engholm
Hans H Storm
Laufey Tryggvadóttir
Mette Gislum
Timo Hakulinen
Freddie Bray
Author Affiliation
Swedish Cancer Registry, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Acta Oncol. 2010 Jun;49(5):578-607
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Biliary Tract Neoplasms - mortality
Denmark - epidemiology
Digestive System Neoplasms - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - mortality - therapy
Environmental Exposure
Esophageal Neoplasms - mortality
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Intestinal Neoplasms - mortality
Liver Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Norway - epidemiology
Pancreatic Neoplasms - mortality
Registries
Risk factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects
Stomach Neoplasms - mortality
Survival Analysis
Survival Rate - trends
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Cancers of the digestive organs (including the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas) constitute one-fifth of all cancer cases in the Nordic countries and is a group of diseases with diverse time trends and varying consequences for public health. In this study we examine trends in relative survival in relation to the corresponding incidence and mortality rates in the Nordic countries during the period 1964-2003. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were retrieved from the NORDCAN database for the period 1964 to 2003, grouped into eight 5-year periods of diagnosis. The patients were followed up until the end of 2006. Analysis comprised trends in 5-year relative survival, excess mortality and age-specific relative survival. RESULTS: Survival following cancers of the colon and rectum has increased continuously over the observed period, yet Danish patients fall behind those in the other Nordic countries. The largest inter-country variation is seen for the rare cancers in the small intestine. There has been little increase in prognosis for patients diagnosed with cancers of the liver, gallbladder or pancreas; 5-year survival is generally below 15%. Survival also remains consistently low for patients with oesophageal cancer, while minor increases in survival are seen among stomach cancer patients in all countries except Denmark. The concomitant incidence and mortality rates of stomach cancer have steadily decreased in each Nordic country at least since 1964. CONCLUSION: While the site-specific variations in mortality and survival largely reflect the extent of changing and improving diagnostic and clinical practices, the incidence trends highlight the importance of risk factor modification. Alongside the ongoing clinical advances, effective primary prevention measures, including the control of alcohol and tobacco consumption as well as changing dietary pattern, will reduce the incidence and mortality burden of digestive cancers in the Nordic countries.
PubMed ID
20491524 View in PubMed
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[Reduction of a risk of the deleterious effects of persistent toxic substances on the health of the far north population]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96899
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):28-35
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Dudarev
V N Mizerniuk
V S Chupakhin
G B Lebedev
V P Chashchin
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Mar-Apr;(2):28-35
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper presents the general principles and procedure of the development and implementation of measures to decrease and prevent environmental pollution with persistent toxic substances (PTS) in the Russian Arctic and, accordingly, to reduce a risk of the deleterious effects of PTS on human health. Based on the results of a study of PTS in the Russian Arctic (from the Kola Peninsula to Chukotka), the authors first systematized the basic lines and actions and formulated specific measures to reduce the North population's exposure to PTSs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, organic chlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, etc.), and heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium). A package of measures is aimed at maximally reducing the presence of PTS-containing objects and materials in the north (via detection, collection, and extermination), at neutralizing the soils in settlement lands, at setting up safe water consumption systems, at organizing effective control over the safe use of chemicals and the levels of PTS in raw food materials and foodstuffs, and at working out recommendations on safe procedures for food purchase, storage, and cooking.
PubMed ID
20491265 View in PubMed
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[Mercurial pollution of air in Blagoveshensk (regional center of Amur area) and health of the citizens]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96943
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2010;(3):33-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
V M Katola
V I Radomskaia
S M Radomskii
Source
Med Tr Prom Ekol. 2010;(3):33-7
Date
2010
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Child
Environmental Illness - chemically induced - epidemiology - metabolism
Humans
Incidence
Mercury - adverse effects - analysis
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Total amount of natural and antropogenous mercury in ambient air of Blagoveshensk city, living area air, industrial spaces air exceeds the background values, but does not influence the level of bronchopulmonary diseases, gastro-intestinal and gall pathways disorders in children, adolescents and adults. Occupational intoxications and occupational diseases were not revealed in specialized chemical laboratory staffers.
PubMed ID
20480819 View in PubMed
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