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A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106015
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Finn Nilson
Syed Moniruzzaman
Ragnar Andersson
Author Affiliation
Division of Risk Management, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Altitude
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sunlight
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Research has shown that hip fracture risk increases with latitude; hypothetically due to reduced sunlight exposure and its effect on bone quality. Sweden, with large differences in latitude and UV radiation, is ideal to study in order to analyse the association between latitude and UV radiation on age- and sex-specific hip fracture rates among elderly.
Aggregated (2006-2008) age- and sex-specific hip fracture data was obtained for each Swedish municipality as well as the municipality's latitudinal coordinates and aggregated (2006-2008) UV radiation levels. Pearson correlations were calculated between hip fracture incidence rates, latitude and UV radiation. Independent t tests were calculated on tertile-categorized latitudinal data in order to investigate the difference in hip fracture risk between these categories.
Statistically significant correlations were seen in all groups between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation. The independent t tests showed that this correlation was mainly due to high incidence rates in high latitude municipalities.
Statistically significant correlations are seen between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation in Sweden and the northern parts of Sweden have an increased risk of hip fractures compared to the middle and southern parts. To our knowledge this is the first study using a national discharge register that shows this relationship and provides a starting point for further research to investigate why populations in northern Sweden have a higher risk of hip fractures compared to other Swedish regions.
PubMed ID
24265166 View in PubMed
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Celiac disease risk varies between birth cohorts, generating hypotheses about causality: evidence from 36 years of population-based follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258907
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Fredinah Namatovu
Olof Sandström
Cecilia Olsson
Marie Lindkvist
Anneli Ivarsson
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Causality
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a major public health problem with estimated 1-3% prevalence in the general population. In recent years an increase in CD prevalence has been reported both in Sweden and worldwide. This study aimed at examining the annual incidence rate of biopsy-proven celiac disease among children in Sweden over a 36-year period, to assess variations by age, sex and birth cohort, and to assess the clinical impact of these changes.
The National Swedish Childhood CD Register was used to identify 9107 children aged 0-14.9 years who were diagnosed with CD during the period 1973 to 2009. From 1973 to 1990 the register covered 15% of the nation, this increased to 40% during 1991-1997; a full national coverage was obtained from 1998 onwards. Estimations for the annual incidence rate, cumulative incidence and clinical impact by age groups, calendar month and birth cohorts were made.
CD incidence is continuing to increase in the child population aged 2-14.9 years. A continued variation in CD incidence was observed in children aged 0-1.9 years, characterized by a marked decrease in most recent years. The median age at diagnosis has increased from 1.0 year in the 1970s to 6.8 years in 2009. The average number of new cases has risen from ~200 during 1973-1983 to ~600 during 2004-2009. In the birth cohorts of 2000-2002 the cumulative incidence even exceeded that of the epidemic cohorts at comparable ages. The highest cumulative incidence was observed in the birth cohorts of 1985-1995 and 2000-2002.
CD risk varies between birth cohorts, suggesting cyclic environmental and/or lifestyle risk factors in CD etiology. More research on underlying risk factors is required in order to move forward with preventive strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24693975 View in PubMed
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Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3145
Source
Pages 102-111 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2001
.nary 6012001 RAPID SOCIO-CULTURAL CHANGE AND HEALTH IN THE ARCTIC Petet Bjerregaard ABSTRACT d The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profo~ inlluence on their health. History tells about devastating epideJDJCS and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have
  1 document  
Author
Bjerregaard, P
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Section for Research in Greenland, Copenhagen. p.bjerregaard@dadlnet.dk
Source
Pages 102-111 in P. Bjerregaard et al., eds. Part I, Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Harstad, Norway, June 5-9, 2000. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2001;60(2)
Date
Apr-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Keywords
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Culture
Diabetes Mellitus - epidemiology
Environmental pollution
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Status Indicators
Health Transition
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant mortality
Inuit
Male
Social Change
Suicide
Tuberculosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society. Chronic diseases are on the increase due to changing life styles, and environmental pollution with mercury and persistent organic pollutants may pose a threat to future generations of Inuit.
PubMed ID
11507959 View in PubMed
Documents
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Dementia in Newfoundland: identification of a geographical isolate?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225301
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Dec;45(4):307-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1991
Author
M F Frecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 1991 Dec;45(4):307-11
Date
Dec-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Aged
Cluster analysis
Dementia - epidemiology - mortality
Family
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Newfoundland and Labrador - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
The aims were (1) to identify from death certificates regions with an increased incidence of dementia mortality; and (2) to determine whether a previously observed excess of patients with Alzheimer disease originating from a small area could be confirmed in a survey of death certificates.
The study identified all individuals dying with dementia, recorded on death certificates as an immediate, antecedent, underlying, or contributing cause of death. Rather than the usual residence, the birthplace of these individuals was used to determine regional differences in dementia mortality. A comparison was made of two areas to test the significance of a geographical isolate of persons. To test for a possible genetic component of the excess, an analysis was made of the frequencies of family names. To test for a possible environmental component an analysis was made of standard measurements of drinking water quality.
The survey data were derived from all 1985 and 1986 deaths in the province of Newfoundland.
Based on the current census population, the prevalence of dementia at death for 1985 and 1986 was 34 and 37/100,000. For both years there was a significant excess of persons originating from a small area (95% CI, 1.1-20.7%, and 2.5-20.4%). This excess could not be explained by differences in age, sex, ethnic origin, or by variation in mobility patterns. The study area has a high concentration of aluminium in the drinking water. An analysis of the family names gave inconclusive evidence of a clustering among the dementia cases.
If all contributing causes of death are recorded and the birthplace of individuals is noted, mortality statistics can reveal regional differences in dementia rates. This shows the need to examine areas smaller than census districts to identify subpopulation variation in the prevalence of dementia. Environmental influences can vary substantially in areas relatively close together, as evidenced in measurements of drinking water chemistry. Genetic influences are more likely to be revealed from the birthplace of individuals, which may indicate a common ancestry.
Notes
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PubMed ID
1795153 View in PubMed
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Comparison of incidence of IDDM in childhood between Estonia and Finland, 1980-1988.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature225443
Source
Diabetes Care. 1991 Nov;14(11):982-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1991
Author
J. Tuomilehto
T. Podar
A. Reunanen
I. Kalits
R. Lounamaa
E. Tuomilehto-Wolf
B. Adojaan
B. Neff
R E LaPorte
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Diabetes Care. 1991 Nov;14(11):982-8
Date
Nov-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology
Estonia - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Regression Analysis
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
To compare nationwide incidence of childhood insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children aged 0-14 yr between Estonia and Finland during 1980-1988. For Estonia, which has a population genetically and linguistically related to Finland, only limited information was available. Finland has the highest incidence of IDDM in the world.
The registration of all new cases of IDDM in Estonia was conducted by the local district pediatricians who reported every newly diagnosed diabetic patient to the Republic Endocrinology Centre. Registration of all new cases of IDDM in Finland was based on the statistics of the Social Insurance Institution, which approves free-of-charge insulin treatment for diabetes. These data were validated with one or more additional data sources. The case ascertainment rate approached 100% in both countries.
The average yearly incidence of IDDM standardized for age for the years 1980-1988 in Estonia was approximately 33% of that in Finland. Among males it was 11.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-12.3) per 100,000 in Estonia and 35.1 (95% CI 33.4-36.9) per 100,000 in Finland, and among females 10.1 (95% CI 9.2-11.1) per 100,000 in Estonia and 30.4 (95% CI 28.8-32.1) per 100,000 in Finland. When the two periods 1980-1982 and 1986-1988 were compared, the age-standardized incidence in Estonia remained unchanged, whereas in Finland it increased approximately 20%.
The data between two populations who are ethnically and linguistically similar and live geographically close but in a different environment, provides further evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are contributing to the risk of IDDM.
PubMed ID
1797512 View in PubMed
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Campylobacteriosis in urban versus rural areas: a case-case study integrated with molecular typing to validate risk factors and to attribute sources of infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105426
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83731
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Simon Lévesque
Eric Fournier
Nathalie Carrier
Eric Frost
Robert D Arbeit
Sophie Michaud
Author Affiliation
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Faculté de Médecine de l'Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83731
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Campylobacter - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Prospective Studies
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Rural Population
Seasons
Sex Factors
Urban Population
Young Adult
Abstract
Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a prevalence study of Campylobacter in animal and environmental sources in the Eastern Townships, Quebec. Isolates were typed using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) to reinforce the case-case findings and to assign a source probability estimate for each human isolate. The risk of human campylobacteriosis was 1.89-fold higher in rural than urban areas. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis identified two independent risk factors associated with human Campylobacter infections acquired in rural area: occupational exposure to animals (OR = 10.6, 95% CI: 1.2-91, p = 0.032), and household water coming from a private well (OR = 8.3, 95% CI: 3.4-20.4, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
24386265 View in PubMed
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Total antioxidant capacity of the diet and risk of age-related cataract: a population-based prospective cohort of women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105487
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):247-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Susanne Rautiainen
Birgitta Ejdervik Lindblad
Ralf Morgenstern
Alicja Wolk
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;132(3):247-52
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Aging
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Cataract - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Cataract Extraction - statistics & numerical data
Diet
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food Habits
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Women's health
Abstract
To our knowledge, no previous epidemiologic study has investigated the association between all antioxidants in the diet and age-related cataract. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) concept aims to measure the capacity from all antioxidants in the diet by also taking synergistic effects into account.
To investigate the association between the TAC of the diet and the incidence of age-related cataract in a population-based prospective cohort of middle-aged and elderly women.
Questionnaire-based nutrition survey within the prospective Swedish Mammography Cohort study, which included 30,607 women (aged 49-83 years) who were observed for age-related cataract incidence for a mean of 7.7 years.
The TAC of the diet was estimated using a database of foods analyzed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay.
Information on incident age-related cataract diagnosis and extraction was collected through linkage to registers in the study area.
There were 4309 incident cases of age-related cataracts during the mean 7.7 years of follow-up (234,371 person-years). The multivariable rate ratio in the highest quintile of the TAC of the diet compared with the lowest was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.96; P for trend =?.03). The main contributors to dietary TAC in the study population were fruit and vegetables (44.3%), whole grains (17.0%), and coffee (15.1%).
Dietary TAC was inversely associated with the risk of age-related cataract. Future studies examining all antioxidants in the diet in relation to age-related cataract are needed to confirm or refute our findings.
PubMed ID
24370844 View in PubMed
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[The health status of the rural population living in the areas contiguous with industrial towns].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168567
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):19-23
Publication Type
Article
Author
A Ia Sharafutdinov
Z S Khakimova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):19-23
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Retrospective Studies
Rural Population
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
Exposed to environmental pollution with emissions from industrial enterprises, the population of their contiguous rural areas faces a high risk of their health. The studies of the health status of the population from the contiguous rural areas versus that from the non-contiguous ones have established that measurements of a risk to the children's health revealed the highest risk among the contiguous areas in the Sterlitamaksky district and the least risk among the non-contiguous ones in the Askinsky district. The markers of carcinogenic ill-being in the contiguous rural areas were the incidence of cancer of the lip, esophagus, stomach, larynx, cervix uteri, uterine appendages, and prostate and leukemia. The high risk of cancer of the lip and esophagus in the control area and in other non-contiguous rural areas may be accounted for by the bad life-style in villagers, alcohol abuse, and smoking.
PubMed ID
16808397 View in PubMed
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[Human health in the space rocket-making areas: medical and environmental aspects].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168568
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):11-5
Publication Type
Article
Author
P I Sidorov
N V Skrebtsova
S L Sovershaeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):11-5
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aviation
Environmental health
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - etiology
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The paper deals with the problems of medical and ecological escorts of space rocket-making activities. The properties of one of the highly toxic components of propellant - asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as a substance assigned to a class of ecological toxicants, are considered. The data obtained on implementing the program for a study of the health status in the population living not far from the asymmetric dimethylhydrazine-polluted areas are presented. The authors propose to consider a package of measures that can apply the systems approach to securing the safety of the population to live and work in areas under space-rocket making activities, which is based on the prevention principle provided by the Rio de Janeiro Environment and Development Declaration.
PubMed ID
16808395 View in PubMed
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[Complex characterization of the influence of environmental factors and social conditions on population health].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168711
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2006;(5):12-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
M A Pinigin
Z F Sabirova
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2006;(5):12-5
Date
2006
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - etiology
Female
Health status
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Population Surveillance
Russia
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Survival Rate - trends
Urban Population
Abstract
The study determined the overall contribution of atmospheric air pollution and socioeconomic and other factors on population health, as well as the role of medical providence in the lowering of population morbidity. The study shows that different individual factors of medical providence have different effects on medicodemographic situation. Also different is the significance of various characteristics of socioeconomic conditions. The results demonstrate that the contribution of air pollutants and their mixtures into male and female mortality in various age groups is different and depends on the cause of death and pathogenetic peculiarities of the action of the components.
PubMed ID
16789536 View in PubMed
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[The principles, criteria, and methods of evaluation of health hazards associated with short-term exposure to chemical atmospheric air pollutants].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168713
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2006;(5):3-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
S M Novikov
T A Shashina
N S Skvortsova
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2006;(5):3-7
Date
2006
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Environmental Health - methods
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The authors discuss the basic concepts of a system developed to evaluate health hazards associated with short-term exposure of different population groups to inhaled chemicals, including exposure that takes place in emergency situations. The article contains examples of acute exposition profiles for the most wide-spread air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide, developed using quantitative values of short-term exposure risk criteria.
PubMed ID
16789534 View in PubMed
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[The mental and neurological health status of the pediatric population in some regions of Ukraine after the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36010
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1994;94(4):65-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
V S Podkorytov
V S Filyk
L N Malyshko
M K Mishanova
L I Bogach
Source
Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 1994;94(4):65-7
Date
1994
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation - statistics & numerical data
Child
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology
Mental health
Nervous System Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Power Plants
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
Psychic, neurological and speech characteristics were studied in a comparative epidemiological survey of 910 schoolchildren aged 6-7 and 11-12. Of them 470 children lived in the Zhitomir region which had suffered radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident, 440 children lived in the Kharkov region which had not been exposed to radionuclide contamination. It was established that 74-79% of the children examined had borderline psychic, neurological or speech disorders. The children from the "clear" territories had more serious disturbances which say about the role of other ecological hazards in development of large-scale prevalence of borderline neuropsychic pediatric conditions. The radiation-exposed children received adequate treatment which produced positive shifts in their health.
PubMed ID
7856385 View in PubMed
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Increasing trend in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in childhood in Finland. Analysis of age, calendar time and birth cohort effects during 1965 to 1984.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226548
Source
Diabetologia. 1991 Apr;34(4):282-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1991
Author
J. Tuomilehto
M. Rewers
A. Reunanen
P. Lounamaa
R. Lounamaa
E. Tuomilehto-Wolf
H K Akerblom
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Diabetologia. 1991 Apr;34(4):282-7
Date
Apr-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Risk factors
Sex Characteristics
Abstract
The Central Drug Registry in Finland ascertained 5,920 incident cases of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus diagnosed under the age of 15 years, during 1965-1984. The incidence was higher for males 29.2/100,000 (95% confidence intervals 28.2-30.2/100,000) than for females 26.1/100,000 (25.1-27.1/100,000). A non-linear increase in incidence with age was confirmed, with peaks at ages 2, 9 and 14 years in males and at 3, 5-6 and 11 years in females. A significant temporal variation in incidence was found, adjusting for age and sex. During 1965 to 1984 the incidence rose by about 57% or by 2.4% annually. However, a non-linear curve with two incidence peaks in 1978 and 1983 would better describe the temporal pattern than a linear trend. There was no significant difference in the temporal variation between males and females. The changes in diabetes risk appeared to affect proportionally all age groups under 15 years. Two possible mechanisms were explored: a calendar period effect vs a birth cohort effect. The calendar time period effect was significant alone and also when adjusted for the birth cohort effect. One the contrary, the birth cohort effect was not significant, when adjusted for the calendar period effect. In conclusion, over the past two decades, the incidence of childhood Type 1 diabetes in Finland has increased by about 57%. The pattern of change was a steady rising background incidence superimposed by sudden outbreaks suggesting environmental causative factors.
PubMed ID
2065863 View in PubMed
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Social and environmental factors and major depression in old age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature227077
Source
Z Gerontol. 1991 Jan-Feb;24(1):17-23
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Pahkala
S L Kivelä
P. Laippala
Author Affiliation
Social Welfare and Health Department, Province of Vassa, Finland.
Source
Z Gerontol. 1991 Jan-Feb;24(1):17-23
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Attitude to Death
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - psychology
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Life Change Events
Personality Tests
Social Adjustment
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This community-based epidemiological survey is concerned with relationships between social and environmental factors and major depression in a Finnish population aged 60 years and over. The occurrence of major depression was related to advanced age, widowhood or divorce, low number of hobbies, frequently being alone, poor social participation, and many long-standing and current social-stress factors. According to the questionnaire data, subjects suffering from major depression had more frequently experienced serious illnesses and deaths among their close relatives during the five years before the beginning of this survey than had the non-depressed subjects. The log-linear model constructed for major-depressive persons revealed six interactions. The first was characterized by a low number of hobbies, high incidence of long-standing social-stress factors, and widowed or divorced status; the second by poor social participation and high incidence of long-standing and current social-stress factors, or combination of moderate level of social participation, high incidence of long-standing social-stress factors, and low incidence of current social-stress factors; the third by a low number of hobbies and high incidence of current social-stress factors; the fourth by a high incidence of current social-stress factors and widowed or divorced status; the fifth by a low number of hobbies and low level of social participation; and the sixth by a moderate level of social participation and widowhood or divorce.
PubMed ID
2038884 View in PubMed
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Risk of incident diabetes in relation to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114276
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Jul;121(7):804-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Hong Chen
Richard T Burnett
Jeffrey C Kwong
Paul J Villeneuve
Mark S Goldberg
Robert D Brook
Aaron van Donkelaar
Michael Jerrett
Randall V Martin
Jeffrey R Brook
Ray Copes
Author Affiliation
Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Jul;121(7):804-10
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - chemically induced - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis - toxicity
Remote Sensing Technology
Risk factors
Abstract
Laboratory studies suggest that fine particulate matter (= 2.5 ?m in diameter; PM(2.5)) can activate pathophysiological responses that may induce insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, epidemiological evidence relating PM2.5 and diabetes is sparse, particularly for incident diabetes.
We conducted a population-based cohort study to determine whether long-term exposure to ambient PM(2.5) is associated with incident diabetes.
We assembled a cohort of 62,012 nondiabetic adults who lived in Ontario, Canada, and completed one of five population-based health surveys between 1996 and 2005. Follow-up extended until 31 December 2010. Incident diabetes diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 was ascertained using the Ontario Diabetes Database, a validated registry of persons diagnosed with diabetes (sensitivity = 86%, specificity = 97%). Six-year average concentrations of PM2.5 at the postal codes of baseline residences were derived from satellite observations. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the associations, adjusting for various individual-level risk factors and contextual covariates such as smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and neighborhood-level household income. We also conducted multiple sensitivity analyses. In addition, we examined effect modification for selected comorbidities and sociodemographic characteristics.
There were 6,310 incident cases of diabetes over 484,644 total person-years of follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratio for a 10-?g/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21). Estimated associations were comparable among all sensitivity analyses. We did not find strong evidence of effect modification by comorbidities or sociodemographic covariates.
This study suggests that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the development of diabetes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23632126 View in PubMed
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Social inequality in chronic disease outcomes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264620
Source
Dan Med J. 2014 Nov;61(11):B4943
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Helene Nordahl
Source
Dan Med J. 2014 Nov;61(11):B4943
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Educational Status
Humans
Incidence
Prevalence
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Social Class
Socioeconomic Factors
Stroke - mortality
Abstract
Socioeconomic differences in morbidity and mortality, particularly across educational groups, are widening. Differential exposures to behavioural risk factors have been shown to play an important mediating role on the social inequality in chronic diseases such as heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. However, much less attention has been given to the potential role of interaction, where the same level of exposure to a behavioural risk factor has different effect across socioeconomic groups, creating subgroups that are more vulnerable than others. In this thesis, Paper 1 describes the unique cohort consortium which was established by pooling and harmonising prospective data from existing cohort studies in Denmark. This consortium generated a large study population with long follow-up sufficient to study power demanding questions of mechanisms underlying social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes. In Paper 2 on incidence of coronary heart disease, smoking and body mass index partially mediated the observed educational differences. This result suggested that some of the social inequality in coronary heart disease may be enhanced by differential exposure to behavioural risk factors (i.e. smoking and obesity). In Paper 3 on incidence of stroke, an observed interaction between education and smoking indicated that participants, particularly men, with low level of education may be more vulnerable to the effect of smoking than those with high level of education in terms of ischemic stroke. Finally, Paper 4 revealed that behavioural risk factors, primarily smoking, explained a considerable part of the educational differences in cause-specific mortality. Further, this paper added important knowledge about the considerable part of the mediated effect, which could be due to interaction between education and smoking. In conclusion, the research in this thesis is a practical implementation of contemporary statistical methodology, the additive hazards models, in which the potential role of behavioural risk factors can be regarded not only as mediation but also as interaction with the effect of socioeconomic position on chronic disease outcomes. The results support that two central mechanisms, differential exposure and differential vulnerability to behavioural risk factors, particularly smoking; have contributed substantially to the social inequality in chronic disease outcomes in Denmark. These mechanism are not mutually exclusive and should be regarded simultaneously. However, the findings could be non-causal associations due to, for instance, psychosocial or environmental factors. Nevertheless, research on social inequality in chronic disease outcomes should regard not only that the smoking prevalence is higher in lower socioeconomic groups (differential exposure), but also that health consequences of being a smoker seem to be worse in these subgroups (differential vulnerability).
PubMed ID
25370965 View in PubMed
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Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and diabetes incidence: a prospective study of the diet, cancer and health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264706
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Oct;122(10):1059-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner
Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg
Zorana Jovanovic Andersen
Anne Tjønneland
Steffen Loft
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Oct;122(10):1059-65
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arsenic - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus - chemically induced - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Drinking Water - chemistry
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Water Pollution, Chemical - statistics & numerical data
Water Supply - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the present epidemic. High-level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk, but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear.
We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort.
During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water-supply areas. We estimated individual exposure to arsenic using all addresses from 1 January 1971 until the censoring date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model the association between arsenic exposure and diabetes incidence, separately for two definitions of diabetes: all cases and a more strict definition in which cases of diabetes based solely on blood glucose results were excluded.
Over a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years for 52,931 eligible participants, there were a total of 4,304 (8.1%) diabetes cases, and 3,035 (5.8%) cases of diabetes based on the more strict definition. The adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) per 1-µg/L increment in arsenic levels in drinking water were as follows: IRR = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.06) and IRR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.05) for all and strict diabetes cases, respectively.
Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water may contribute to the development of diabetes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24927198 View in PubMed
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Indoor air particles in office buildings with suspected indoor air problems in the Helsinki area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114823
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2013 Mar;26(1):155-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Sanna Lappalainen
Heidi Salonen
Kari Salmi
Kari Reijula
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. sanna.lappalainen@ttl.fi
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2013 Mar;26(1):155-64
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Illness - epidemiology
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Abstract
Airborne particle concentrations can be used as quality indicators of indoor environments. The previous lack of reference data has limited the use of particle measurements in office environments. The aim of this study was to describe the concentrations of airborne particles (= 0.5 µm and = 5.0 µm) in 122 Finnish office buildings with suspected indoor air problems.
The database consisted of indoor air and supply air particle samples collected in 2001-2006 from the Helsinki area. The particle concentrations (= 0.5 µm and = 5.0 µm) were measured in the indoor air (528 samples from 122 office rooms) and in the supply air (384 samples from 105 office rooms) with an optical particle counter. Airborne particle concentrations = 0.5 µm were categorized according to the efficiency of supply air filtration and health survey data.
The mean concentrations in the indoor air equaled 1900 particles/l and in the supply air 1300 particles/l. The efficiency of supply air filtration decreased the fine particles counts in both the indoor and supply air. The counts of large particles, = 5.0 µm, were low in the indoor air. Airborne counts of = 0.5 µm particles (geometric mean) were statistically higher in the offices whose occupants had work-related symptoms (eye and/or upper respiratory symptoms or upper respiratory infections) than in the offices whose occupants had no such symptoms. However, the symptoms may also be linked to other indoor air problems or particle characteristics not studied in this work.
This study indicates typical airborne particle levels (= 0.5 µm and = 5.0 µm) in Finnish office buildings with suspected indoor air problems. The results can be used to evaluate the quality of indoor environment, possible indoor air problems, and the need for additional investigations.
PubMed ID
23576153 View in PubMed
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[Human health risk assessment of environmental pollution at the municipal level].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144387
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Jan-Feb;(1):21-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
M V Sergeeva
M Iu Iakusheva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Jan-Feb;(1):21-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Environmental Health - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Illness - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Humans
Incidence
Local Government
Program Evaluation
Risk Assessment - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Risk factors
Russia - epidemiology
Abstract
The established tense environmental situation in Krasnouralsk, Sverdlovsk Region, presents a serious threat to human health. Development of a medium-term municipal environmental program for a Krasnouralsk urban district provides solutions of environmental problems. The human health status and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks from exposure to chemical substances polluting ambient air, drinking water, and soil have been assessed within the framework of the program. The findings have served as a basis for elaborating technological and sanitary-and-hygienic measures of the environmental program to assure human environmental safety.
PubMed ID
20373708 View in PubMed
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542 records – page 1 of 28.