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Childhood tuberculosis and exposure to indoor air pollution: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269091
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
N. Jafta
P M Jeena
L. Barregard
R N Naidoo
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Male
Needs Assessment
Pediatrics
Risk assessment
Sweden
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Abstract
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and biomass fuel smoke (BMS) poses respiratory health risks, with children and women bearing the major burden.
We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between childhood tuberculosis (TB) and exposure to ETS and BMS.
We searched three databases for epidemiological studies that investigated the association of childhood TB with exposure to ETS and BMS. We calculated pooled estimates and heterogeneity for studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and stratified studies on ETS by outcome.
Five case-control and three cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and quality assessment. Pooled effect estimates showed that exposure to ETS is associated with tuberculous infection and TB disease (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.9) among exposed compared to non-exposed children. TB disease in ETS studies produced a pooled OR of 2.8 (95%CI 0.9-4.8), which was higher than the OR for tuberculous infection (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.9-2.9) for children exposed to ETS compared to non-exposed children. Studies on BMS exposure were too few and too small to permit a conclusion.
Exposure to ETS increases the risk of childhood TB disease or tuberculous infection.
PubMed ID
25868030 View in PubMed
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Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269285
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120285
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Chantel D Sloan
Rikke B Nordsborg
Geoffrey M Jacquez
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Jaymie R Meliker
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120285
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Seminoma - epidemiology
Space-Time Clustering
Spatio-Temporal Analysis
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25756204 View in PubMed
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Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269313
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Maria C Magnus
Hein Stigum
Siri E Håberg
Per Nafstad
Stephanie J London
Wenche Nystad
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - physiopathology
Body Height
Body Weight
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mothers
Norway
Sample Size
Siblings
Abstract
The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.
We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311), recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) by 36 months (n = 47,905) and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.
Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26) per standard deviation (SD) increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19) per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.
Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25635872 View in PubMed
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Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269345
Source
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug;8(8):e3116
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Rachel M Lee
Laura B Moore
Maria Elena Bottazzi
Peter J Hotez
Source
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug;8(8):e3116
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
North America - epidemiology
Risk factors
Toxocariasis - epidemiology - parasitology - prevention & control - transmission
Young Adult
Abstract
Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25166906 View in PubMed
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[Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86931
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Mar;94(3):193-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Thorlacius Sigurdur
Olafsson Stefán
Author Affiliation
Laeknadeild Háskóla Islands, Laeknagördum, Vatnsmýrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavík. sigurdth@hi.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Mar;94(3):193-8
Date
Mar-2008
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disability Evaluation
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Mental Disorders - economics - epidemiology
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Social Security - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. RESULTS: Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. CONCLUSION: Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on the growing disability rate during the last few years.
PubMed ID
18310781 View in PubMed
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Life satisfaction in 6 European countries: the relationship to health, self-esteem, and social and financial resources among people (Aged 65-89) with reduced functional capacity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86960
Source
Geriatr Nurs. 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1):48-57
Publication Type
Article
Author
Borg Christel
Fagerström Cecilia
Balducci Cristian
Burholt Vanessa
Ferring Dieter
Weber Germain
Wenger Clare
Holst Göran
Hallberg Ingalill R
Author Affiliation
School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
Source
Geriatr Nurs. 2008 Jan-Feb;29(1):48-57
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Europe
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Personal Satisfaction
Self Concept
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate how overall health, participation in physical activities, self-esteem, and social and financial resources are related to life satisfaction among people aged 65 and older with reduced activities of daily living (ADL) capacity in 6 European countries. A subsample of the European Study of Adults' Well-Being (ESAW), consisting of 2,195 people with reduced ADL capacity from Sweden, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Austria, and Italy, was included. The Older Americans' Resources Schedule (OARS), the Life Satisfaction Index Z, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used. In all national samples, overall health, self-esteem, and feeling worried, rather than ADL capacity, were significantly associated with life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of taking not only the reduction in functional capacity into account but also the individual's perception of health and self-esteem when outlining health care and nursing aimed at improving life satisfaction. The study thus suggests that personal rather than environmental factors are important for life satisfaction among people with reduced ADL capacity living in Europe.
PubMed ID
18267177 View in PubMed
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Stroke and acute myocardial infarction in the Swedish Sami population: incidence and mortality in relation to income and level of education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87016
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2008 Jan;36(1):84-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
factor patterns and their association with diet in Saami and Finnish Reindeer herders. Arctic Med Res 1994;53(Suppl 2):301–4. [6] Luoma P. Antioxidants, infections and environmental factors in health and disease in northern Finland. Int J Circumpolar Health 1998;57:109–13. [7] Hermansen R, Njølstad
  1 document  
Author
Sjölander Per
Hassler Sven
Janlert Urban
Author Affiliation
Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden. per.sjolander@vilhelmina.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2008 Jan;36(1):84-91
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
456294
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Ethnic Groups
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Reindeer
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Stroke - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the Sami have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and mortality from stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Swedish Sami population between 1985 and 2002, and to analyse the potential impact of income and level of education on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A Sami cohort of 15,914 persons (4,465 reindeer herding and 11,449 non-herding Sami) were followed up from 1985 to 2002 with regard to incidence and mortality rates of AMI, stroke, and SAH. Incidence and mortality ratios were calculated using a demographically matched non-Sami control population (DMC) as the standard (71,550 persons). RESULTS: There was no elevated risk of developing AMI among the Sami compared with the DMC. However, the mortality ratio of AMI was significantly higher for Sami women. Higher incidence rates of stroke and SAH for both Sami men and women was observed, but no differences in mortality rates. Apart from the reindeer-herding men who demonstrated lower levels of income and education, the income and education levels among Sami were similar to the DMC. CONCLUSIONS: High mortality rates from AMI rather than stroke explain the excess mortality for CVD previously shown among Sami women. The results suggest that the differences in incidence of stroke between herding and non-herding Sami men, and between Sami women and non-Sami women, are caused by behavioural and psychosocial risk factors rather than by traditional socioeconomic ones.
PubMed ID
18426788 View in PubMed
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Gene expression profiling in rat cerebellum following in utero and lactational exposure to mixtures of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87079
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2008 Jan 30;176(2):93-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-30-2008
Author
Padhi B K
Pelletier G.
Williams A.
Berndt-Weis L.
Yauk C.
Bowers W J
Chu I.
Author Affiliation
Environment and Occupational Toxicology Division, HECSB, Health Canada, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada.
Source
Toxicol Lett. 2008 Jan 30;176(2):93-103
Date
Jan-30-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Newborn
Calcium-Binding Proteins - genetics
Cerebellum - drug effects - metabolism
Cluster analysis
Environmental Pollutants - chemistry - toxicity
Extracellular Matrix Proteins - genetics
Female
Gene Expression Profiling - methods
Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors - genetics
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - chemistry - toxicity
Lactation
Male
Maternal Exposure
Methylmercury Compounds - chemistry - toxicity
Neuropeptides - genetics
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - methods
Pesticides - chemistry - classification - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - chemistry - toxicity
Pregnancy
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Ribosomal Proteins - genetics
Sex Factors
Abstract
Although human populations are continuously exposed to complex mixtures of contaminants, the effects of such exposure on the developing brain transcriptome are poorly characterized. Rats were exposed perinatally to the northern contaminant mixture (NCM) which was designed to reflect the blood contaminant profile of Canadian arctic populations, to components of the NCM administered separately (methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs)) or to the goitrogen propylthiouracyl. Post-natal day (PND) 14 cerebellum global gene expression resulting from such exposures was investigated using high-density cDNA microarrays. Fifty known genes were identified as differentially expressed between the control group and at least one other treatment group. The microarray data were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR) on a subset of 10 genes. The differentially expressed genes are involved in a variety of processes, including nerve cell differentiation, migration, myelination and synaptic transmission. The comparison of cerebellum gene expression profiles resulting from exposure to the NCM and its individual components in male and female pups revealed that (i) gender is a crucial biological variable influencing genomic response to environmental contaminants and (ii) contaminant co-exposure significantly masks the effects of individual mixture components on cerebellum gene expression.
PubMed ID
18077114 View in PubMed
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Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87164
Source
Ind Health. 2007 Dec;45(6):775-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Gunnarsson Kristina
Vingård Eva
Josephson Malin
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source
Ind Health. 2007 Dec;45(6):775-80
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Entrepreneurship - statistics & numerical data
Environment
Female
Health status
Humans
Internal-External Control
Job Satisfaction
Male
Mental Health - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Workplace - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi(2)-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.
PubMed ID
18212472 View in PubMed
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Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87225
Source
CMAJ. 2008 Mar 11;178(6):715-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-11-2008
Author
Greer Amy
Ng Victoria
Fisman David
Author Affiliation
Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont.
Source
CMAJ. 2008 Mar 11;178(6):715-22
Date
Mar-11-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Communicable Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - transmission
Disease Transmission, Horizontal
Environment
Female
Forecasting
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Incidence
Male
North America - epidemiology
Risk assessment
Abstract
Global climate change is inevitable--the combustion of fossil fuels has resulted in a buildup of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere, causing unprecedented changes to the earth's climate. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that North America will experience marked changes in weather patterns in coming decades, including warmer temperatures and increased rainfall, summertime droughts and extreme weather events (e.g., tornadoes and hurricanes). Although these events may have direct consequences for health (e.g., injuries and displacement of populations due to thermal stress), they are also likely to cause important changes in the incidence and distribution of infectious diseases, including vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, water-and food-borne diseases and diseases with environmental reservoirs (e.g., endemic fungal diseases). Changes in weather patterns and ecosystems, and health consequences of climate change will probably be most severe in far northern regions (e.g., the Arctic). We provide an overview of the expected nature and direction of such changes, which pose current and future challenges to health care providers and public health agencies.
PubMed ID
18332386 View in PubMed
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Gender differences and temporal variation in the incidence of type 1 diabetes: results of 8012 cases in the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden 1983-2002.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87253
Source
J Intern Med. 2008 Apr;263(4):386-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
Ostman J.
Lönnberg G.
Arnqvist H J
Blohmé G.
Bolinder J.
Ekbom Schnell A.
Eriksson J W
Gudbjörnsdottir S.
Sundkvist G.
Nyström L.
Author Affiliation
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm. jan.j.c.oestman@solna.mail.telia.com
Source
J Intern Med. 2008 Apr;263(4):386-94
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - economics - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Medical Records - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To establish the gender difference amongst newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients aged 15-34 years, considering age at diagnosis, temporal trend and seasonal variation at time of diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based prospective study with a mean annual population at risk of 2.3 million. SETTING: All departments of medicine, endocrinology and paediatrics and primary health care units in Sweden. SUBJECTS: Incident cases of diabetes aged 15-34 years at diagnosis 1983-2002. MEASURE INSTRUMENT: Basic characteristics of patients at diagnosis were reported by the diagnosing doctor on a standardized form. Level of ascertainment was estimated at 80-90%. RESULTS: Amongst all incident cases (n = 8012), 74% was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. The mean annual incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was 12.7/100,000, in men 16.4/100,000 and in women 8.9/100,000. The incidence of type 1 diabetes decreased slowly by increasing age but was in all age groups higher in men, yielding an overall male/female ratio of 1.8. In both genders the incidence of type 1 diabetes decreased in average of 1.0% per year. A seasonal pattern with significantly higher incidence during January-March and lower during May-July was seen in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: A clear male predominance of type 1 diabetes was seen in all ages. The temporal trend and the seasonal pattern was similar in men and women. Hence, internal factors related to the gender rather than differences in the exposure to environmental factors seem to explain the consistent male-female bias in the postpubertal risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
PubMed ID
18205768 View in PubMed
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Genetic and environmental effects on mortality before age 70 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87279
Source
Epidemiology. 2008 May;19(3):472-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2008
Author
Petersen Liselotte
Andersen Per Kragh
Sørensen Thorkild I A
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Centre for Health and Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. LLP@ncrr.dk
Source
Epidemiology. 2008 May;19(3):472-6
Date
May-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adoption
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Cause of Death
Denmark - epidemiology
Environment
Female
Genetics, Population
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Risk factors
Siblings
Abstract
BACKGROUND: There is a familial influence on risk of many diseases and on mortality in general, which, according to studies of twins, is due to a combination of genetic and environmental effects. Adoption studies, which rest on different assumptions, may also be used to estimate separately the genetic and environmental effects on rate of dying. METHODS: The genetic influence on the rate of dying before age 70 years was investigated by estimation of the associations in total and cause-specific mortality of Danish adoptees and their biologic full and half siblings. Familial environmental influences shared at the same time in life were investigated in adoptees and their adoptive siblings. The study basis is the 14,425 nonfamilial adoptions formally granted in Denmark during the period 1924 through 1947, recorded in the Danish Adoption Register. From this register we selected the 1552 "case" adoptees (who died before 01 April 1993) and 1710 "noncase" adoptees alive at that date. The siblings of the case and noncase adoptees were traced in the archives and followed forward, and the rates of dying before age 70 years were compared. RESULTS: Compared with mortality of the biologic siblings of noncase adoptees, the mortality of biologic siblings of dead adoptees was approximately 2-fold higher for death with infections and vascular causes, and around 45% increased for natural causes and for all causes. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there is a genetic effect on the rate of death with infections, vascular causes, natural causes and all causes, whereas there is no indication of an influence of shared sibling environment.
PubMed ID
18379429 View in PubMed
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Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87354
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-12-2008
Author
Catalano Ralph
Bruckner Tim
Smith Kirk R
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Date
Feb-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Longevity
Male
Sex ratio
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Abstract
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.
PubMed ID
18250336 View in PubMed
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Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87408
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Thieden Elisabeth
Author Affiliation
The Skin Clinic, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. et01@bbh.regionh.dk
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Female
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Risk-Taking
Solar System
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls received a significantly higher UVR dose than boys due to more days with risk behaviour (sunbathing or exposing shoulders outdoors). This exposure pattern, with females having more risk behaviour than males, was also found among adolescents and adults. Sunbathing or exposing shoulders (risk behaviour) outside the beach resulted in a median of 2.5 SED per day in northern Europe and 3.2 SED per day in southern Europe, while the corresponding values were 4.6 SED and 6.9 SED per day at the beach. UVR doses above 10 SED per day were connected with risk behaviour. The subjects had a median of 13 days with risk behaviour (range, 0-93 days). The subjects used sunscreen on a median of five days (range, 0-130 days), but have a median of seven days with risk behaviour without sunscreen applied (range, 0-47 days). They had a median of one sunburn per sun-year (range 0-10). Fifty percent of the UVR dose was received between 12.00 and 15.00. Only the gardeners received the main part of their UVR dose on workdays. Conclusions : - High UVR doses are connected with risk behaviour. Reduction of cumulative lifetime UVR dose could be obtained by minimizing risk behaviour. - Sunburns were highly correlated to risk behaviour. - Use of sunscreen correlated with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan", indicating that sunscreens were used to avoid sunburn during risk behaviour. - Scheduling lunch breaks and other breaks indoors at noon, where ambient UVR peaks, could reduce the occupational UVR exposure significantly. - In the winter-half-year in Denmark. the UVR dose received from solar exposure is negligible and no UVR precautions are needed. This study documented that high subject compliance rate and data reliability could be obtained in long-time UVR dosimeter study as ours by being service minded but persistent, offering dosimeter maintenance service within 24 hours and scrutinizing data for errors and mistakes just after data collection.
PubMed ID
18321444 View in PubMed
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Characterizing noise and perceived work environment in a neurological intensive care unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87437
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Ryherd Erica E
Waye Kerstin Persson
Ljungkvist Linda
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community, Göteborg University, Box 414, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. eryherd@hotmail.com
Source
J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Feb;123(2):747-56
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - statistics & numerical data
Equipment Failure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospital Design and Construction - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Intensive Care Units - statistics & numerical data
Job Satisfaction
Loudness Perception
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Middle Aged
Neurology
Noise, Occupational - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Nursing Staff, Hospital - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - standards - statistics & numerical data
Patients' Rooms - statistics & numerical data
Psychoacoustics
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
The hospital sound environment is complex. Alarms, medical equipment, activities, and ventilation generate noise that may present occupational problems as well as hinder recovery among patients. In this study, sound measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in a neurological intensive care unit. Staff completed questionnaires regarding psychological and physiological reactions to the sound environment. A-weighted equivalent, minimum, and maximum (L(Aeq),L(AFMin),L(AFMax)) and C-weighted peak (L(CPeak)) sound pressure levels were measured over five days at patient and staff locations. Acoustical descriptors that may be explored further were investigated, including level distributions, restorative periods, and spectral content. Measurements near the patients showed average L(Aeq) values of 53-58 dB. The mean length of restorative periods (L(Aeq) below 50 dB for more than 5 min) was 9 and 13 min for day and night, respectively. Ninety percent of the time, the L(AFMax) levels exceeded 50 dB and L(CPeak) exceeded 70 dB. Dosimeters worn by the staff revealed higher noise levels. Personnel perceived the noise as contributing to stress symptoms. Compared to the majority of previous studies, this study provides a more thorough description of intensive care noise and aids in understanding how the sound environment may be disruptive to occupants.
PubMed ID
18247879 View in PubMed
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Genetics and gene-environment interactions in atopic diseases. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87519
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Håberg Siri E
Nafstad Per
Nystad Wenche
Magnus Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. siri.haberg@fhi.no
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Fathers
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) aims to provide new insights in a broad variety of diseases. The goal of the study is to understand pathways in disease development, and identify preventive measures. Several designs are suitable for studying genetics in complex diseases like asthma and allergy, in MoBa. METHODS: MoBa is a prospective population based cohort of 100 000 pregnancies, following offspring into adulthood. Enrollment started in 1999, and will be completed in 2008. A biobank with samples from the mother, father and child, together with detailed questionnaires from early pregnancy and childhood constitute the basis of the study. When studying complex diseases like asthma, a design with case-parent triads is useful. Parental effects and interactions between maternal and fetal genes can be detected. Stratifying triads by environmental exposure enables assessment of gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: By July 2006, more than 73,000 pregnancies have been included, with nearly 7,000 siblings and 1,300 pairs of twins enrolled. Biological samples are processed and stored at the biobank. The first children are reaching age seven in 2006. CONCLUSION: The MoBa cohort provides an excellent basis for studying genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on complex diseases.
PubMed ID
18073489 View in PubMed
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Isocyanate exposure in bathtub refinishing: à propos a case of occupational asthma.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87541
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(3):287-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Seldén Anders I
Andersson Lennart
Barlas Georgios
Westberg Håkan
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden. anders.selden@orebroll.se
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2007;20(3):287-90
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Asthma - chemically induced
Hospitalization
Humans
Isocyanates - analysis - poisoning
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Sweden
Abstract
Work-related asthma in a bathtub refinishing technician prompted measurements of isocyanate exposure in this operation. Very high levels of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) oligomer, up to 8500 microg/m3 NCO, were found during top varnish spray-painting, whereas the levels of HDI monomer were substantially lower. The results suggest that only full-piece, self-contained respirators would suffice to protect technicians from serious pulmonary disease.
PubMed ID
17932019 View in PubMed
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Residential outdoor air pollution and lung function in schoolchildren.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87597
Source
Epidemiology. 2008 Jan;19(1):129-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Oftedal Bente
Brunekreef Bert
Nystad Wenche
Madsen Christian
Walker Sam-Erik
Nafstad Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bente.oftedal@fhi.no
Source
Epidemiology. 2008 Jan;19(1):129-37
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Child
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Lung - physiopathology
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis - toxicity
Norway - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Respiration
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution has typically been estimated on the aggregate level, and more individual measures of exposure are needed. We investigated the associations with lung function of residential outdoor air pollution in early life, total lifetime, and days before lung function test. METHODS: In 2001-2002, spirometry was performed in 2307 9- and 10-year-old children who had lived in Oslo, Norway, since birth. Outdoor air pollution exposure for each child was assessed by the EPISODE dispersion model, calculating hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) and 2.5 microm (PM2.5). We applied linear regression analysis stratified by sex. RESULTS: Early and lifetime exposures to outdoor air pollution were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and reduced forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% of forced vital capacity, especially in girls. One interquartile increase of lifetime exposure to NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 was associated with change in adjusted peak respiratory flow of, respectively, -79 mL/s (95% confidence interval = -128 to -31), -66 mL/s (-110 to -23), and -58 mL/s (-94 to -21). We also found short-term effects of NO2 that became stronger with increasing time lags, but no short-term effects of PM. When we included short- and long-term NO2 exposures simultaneously, only the long-term effect remained. We found no effect on forced volumes. Adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor diminished the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Short- and long-term residential exposures to traffic-related pollutants in Oslo were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% in 9- to 10-year-old children, especially in girls, with weaker associations after adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor.
PubMed ID
18091005 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence and mortality in a Swedish rubber tire manufacturing plant.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87623
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2007 Dec;50(12):901-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Wingren Gun
Axelson Olav
Author Affiliation
Divison of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden. gunwi@imk.liu.se
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2007 Dec;50(12):901-9
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Manufactured Materials - toxicity
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Occupational Health
Petroleum - toxicity
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Risk factors
Rubber - toxicity
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
BACKGROUND: A classification of 12 work categories was used to evaluate the cancer incidence and mortality among a cohort of Swedish rubber tire workers. METHODS: Cancer incidence and mortality in the cohort was compared with expected values from national rates. Standardized incidence and mortality ratios were calculated for the total cohort, for sub-cohorts and with the inclusion of a latency requirement. RESULTS: Among men, increased incidence and mortality risks were found for cancer in the larynx; SIR=2.10; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.05-3.76, SMR=2.08; 95% CI: 0.42-6.09. Increased risks were also seen for cancer in the trachea, bronchus, and lung; SIR=1.62; 95% CI: 1.28-2.02, SMR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.21-1.94, the incidence risk was highest among those with the longest exposure duration and among workers in compounding/mixing, milling, and maintenance. Decreased incidence risks were seen for cancer of the prostate (SIR=0.74; 95% CI: 059-0.92) and skin (SIR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.36-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of an excess of tumors in the respiratory system is in agreement with earlier findings in other studies on rubber tire workers. The results on other cancer types are compared to earlier findings and related to work processes and chemical exposures of possible causal importance.
PubMed ID
17972254 View in PubMed
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Influence of family history of diabetes on incidence and prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87690
Source
Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec;30(12):3040-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Carlsson Sofia
Midthjell Kristian
Grill Valdemar
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Stockholm Centre of Public Health and Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. sofia.carlsson@ki.se
Source
Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec;30(12):3040-5
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
C-Peptide - blood
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - epidemiology - genetics
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - genetics
Female
Humans
Incidence
Life Style
Male
Medical History Taking
Risk factors
Siblings
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family history of diabetes (FHD) and prevalence and incidence of latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA), type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The results were based on cross-sectional data from 64,498 men and women (aged >or=20 years) who were in the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Study, which included 128 cases of LADA, 1,134 cases of type 2 diabetes, and 123 cases of type 1 diabetes. In addition, prospective data on 46,210 subjects, which included 80 incident cases of LADA, observed between 1984 and 1986 and 1995 and 1997 were available. Patients with LADA had antibodies against GAD and were insulin independent at diagnosis. RESULTS: FHD was associated with a four times (odds ratio [OR] 3.92 [95% CI 2.76-5.58]) increased prevalence of LADA. Corresponding estimates for type 2 and type 1 diabetes were 4.2 (3.72-4.75) and 2.78 (1.89-4.10), respectively. Patients with LADA who had FHD had lower levels of C-peptide (541 vs. 715 pmol/l) and were more often treated with insulin (47 vs. 31%) than patients without FHD. Prospective data indicated that subjects with siblings who had diabetes had a 2.5 (1.39-4.51) times increased risk of developing LADA during the 11-year follow-up compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that FHD is a strong risk factor for LADA and that the influence of family history may be mediated through a heritable reduction of insulin secretion.
PubMed ID
17878245 View in PubMed
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