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Evidence that BMI and type 2 diabetes share only a minor fraction of genetic variance: a follow-up study of 23,585 monozygotic and dizygotic twins from the Finnish Twin Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144153
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 Jul;53(7):1314-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
M. Lehtovirta
K H Pietiläinen
E. Levälahti
K. Heikkilä
L. Groop
K. Silventoinen
M. Koskenvuo
J. Kaprio
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 41, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland. mikko.lehtovirta@helsinki.fi
Source
Diabetologia. 2010 Jul;53(7):1314-21
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - genetics
Female
Finland
Genetic Variation
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
Abstract
We investigated whether BMI predicts type 2 diabetes in twins and to what extent that is explained by common genetic factors.
This was a population-based twin cohort study. Monozygotic (n = 4,076) and dizygotic (n = 9,109) non-diabetic twin pairs born before 1958 answered a questionnaire in 1975, from which BMI was obtained. Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained by linkage to nationwide registers until 2005.
Altogether, 1,332 twins (6.3% of men, 5.1% of women) developed type 2 diabetes. The HR for type 2 diabetes increased monotonically with a mean of 1.22 (95% CI 1.20-1.24) per BMI unit and of 1.97 (95% CI 1.87-2.08) per SD of BMI. The HRs for lean, overweight, obese and morbidly obese participants were 0.59, 2.96, 6.80 and 13.64 as compared with normal weight participants. Model heritability estimates for bivariate variance due to an additive genetic component and non-shared environmental component were 75% (men) and 71% (women) for BMI, and 73% and 64%, respectively for type 2 diabetes. The correlations between genetic variance components (r (g)) indicated that one fifth of the covariance of BMI and type 2 diabetes was due to shared genetic influences. Although the mean monozygotic concordance for type 2 diabetes was approximately twice the dizygotic one, age of onset of diabetes within twin pair members varied greatly, irrespective of zygosity.
A 28-year follow-up of adult Finnish twins showed that despite high trait heritability estimates, only a fraction of covariation in BMI and incident type 2 diabetes was of genetic origin.
PubMed ID
20401462 View in PubMed
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Unmet physical activity need in old age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144173
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Apr;58(4):707-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Merja Rantakokko
Susanne Iwarsson
Mirja Hirvensalo
Raija Leinonen
Eino Heikkinen
Taina Rantanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Sciences, Finnish Centre for Interdisciplinary Gerontology, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. merja.rantakokko@jyu.fi
Source
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Apr;58(4):707-12
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged - psychology
Attitude to Health
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - psychology
Exercise - psychology
Exercise Test
Fear
Female
Finland
Geriatric Assessment
Health Services Accessibility
Health Services Needs and Demand - organization & administration
Humans
Life Style
Logistic Models
Male
Mobility Limitation
Multivariate Analysis
Musculoskeletal Diseases - psychology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Walking
Abstract
To examine which individual and environmental factors correlate with unmet physical activity need in old age and predict development of unmet physical activity need (the feeling that one's level of physical activity is inadequate and thus distinct from the recommended amount of physical activity) over a 2-year follow-up.
Observational prospective cohort study and cross-sectional analyses.
Community and research center.
A total of 643 community-living ambulatory people aged 75 to 81 took part in face-to-face interviews and examinations at baseline and 314 at the 2-year follow-up.
Unmet physical activity need and its potential individual and environmental correlates were assessed at baseline. Development of unmet physical activity need was assessed over the 2-year follow-up period.
At baseline, all participants were able to walk at least 500 m outdoors, but 14% perceived unmet physical activity need. Unmet physical activity need was more prevalent in those with musculoskeletal diseases, depressive symptoms, and mobility limitations. Hills in the nearby environment, lack of resting places, and dangerous crossroads correlated with unmet physical activity need at baseline; the association was especially strong in those with walking difficulties. Significant baseline predictors for incident unmet physical activity need (15%) included fear of moving outdoors, hills in the nearby environment, and noisy traffic.
Unmet physical activity need is common in ambulatory community-living older people who have health and mobility problems and report negative environmental features in their neighborhood. Solutions to overcome barriers to physical activity need to be developed to promote equal opportunities for physical activity participation.
PubMed ID
20398151 View in PubMed
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Birth weight of infants and mortality in their parents and grandparents: the Uppsala Birth Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144233
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;39(5):1264-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Orly Manor
Ilona Koupil
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Jerusalem, Israel. om@cc.huji.ac.il
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;39(5):1264-76
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Cardiovascular Diseases - mortality
Family
Female
Fetal Development
Gestational Age
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Parity
Prospective Studies
Sex Factors
Smoking
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Individuals who are small at birth are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. To enhance understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association we examined the link between infants' birth weight and mortality in their parents and grandparents.
We used the Uppsala birth cohort to examine all-cause and circulatory disease mortality among 14,129 mothers, 13,863 fathers, 3992 maternal and 3910 paternal grandmothers and 3896 maternal and 3798 paternal grandfathers. Follow-up time lasted up to 2002 with median of 21.6 years for parents and 47.8 years for grandparents.
Hazard models controlling for socio-demographic characteristics indicated an inverse linear association between offspring's birth weight and maternal circulatory disease mortality [hazards ratio (HR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.99]. No association was observed for fathers. The association between birth weight of grandchildren and grandparental mortality varied. No association was detected for maternal grandmothers for the whole period examined; only among grandmothers whose grandchild was born prior to 1977 was a U-shaped association observed for circulatory disease mortality. There was a U-shaped association between birth weight of grandchildren and maternal grandfather's overall and circulatory disease mortality (quadratic term: HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.09). An inverse linear relationship was found for circulatory disease mortality in paternal grandmothers (HR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85-1.00). For paternal grandfathers there was an inverse association between grandchildren's birth weight and overall mortality; for circulatory disease mortality an effect was found only for grandfathers whose grandchild was born prior to 1977.
We showed, for the first time, associations between fetal growth in one generation and mortality in the previous two generations. Genetic and/or environmental pathways accounting for these associations should be further explored.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct;39(5):1276-820591985
PubMed ID
20388693 View in PubMed
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[Rationale for a differential approach to molding a healthy lifestyle in schoolchildren].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144380
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Jan-Feb;(1):80-2
Publication Type
Article
Author
L A Davydenko
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Jan-Feb;(1):80-2
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living - psychology
Adolescent
Child
Educational Status
Female
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Retrospective Studies
Russia
Schools
Urban Population
Abstract
The lifestyle of schoolchildren in a large industrial town was studied in relation to the residence (industrial and administrative areas) and the type of an education establishment (general education schools and innovative education establishments). The spread of lifestyle defects (sleep and walk irregularities, inactivity, bad habits, employment) was shown to be higher in the schoolchildren living in the industrial areas, in general education school pupils in particular. That of lifestyle defects was higher in girls (sleep and diet irregularities, inactivity) than in boys. The findings provide evidence that there is a need for a differential approach to molding a healthy lifestyle in schoolchildren, by keeping in mind the environmental and socioeconomic situation of a residence, the type of an education establishment, age, and gender.
PubMed ID
20373721 View in PubMed
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Methylmercury blood guidance values for Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144477
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):28-31
Publication Type
Article
Author
Melissa Legrand
Mark Feeley
Constantine Tikhonov
Deborah Schoen
Angela Li-Muller
Author Affiliation
Healthy Environment and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON. melissa.legrand@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):28-31
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Canada
Child
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Mammals
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Public Health
Reference Values
Risk assessment
Seafood - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from fish and marine mammal consumption continues to present a public health concern. To date, developmental neurotoxicity is the most sensitive health outcome, forming the basis for health-risk assessments and the derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. This article summarizes existing Health Canada MeHg blood guidance values for general population and expands them to include a harmonized provisional interim blood guidance value of 8 microg/L based on the existing provisional Tolerable Daily Intake for children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Associated public health actions, according to age, sex, and level of exposure are recommended.
PubMed ID
20364534 View in PubMed
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Future challenges to health and public health services in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144483
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):5-8, 19
Publication Type
Article
Author
John Last
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Jan-Feb;101(1):5-8, 19
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Climate change
Environmental health
Health planning
Health Services - trends
Humans
International Cooperation
Public Health - trends
Public Health Practice
Notes
Comment In: Can J Public Health. 2010 May-Jun;101(3):262; author reply 26220737823
PubMed ID
20364528 View in PubMed
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"We can't give up. It's too important." Health and safety stories from Canadian and U.S. schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144533
Source
New Solut. 2010;20(1):81-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Dorothy Wigmore
Author Affiliation
dorothyw@web.ca
Source
New Solut. 2010;20(1):81-93
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Community-Based Participatory Research
Environment
Environmental Exposure
Environmental health
Health status
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Safety
Schools - organization & administration
United States
Abstract
Schools are supposed to be places where children learn and thrive; not where they, teachers, and other staff get sick. The hazards are many but recognition of those hazards is hard to come by in schools in Canada and the United States. The result can be an uphill fight for school-based organizations and unions. Representatives of four such groups, two each from Canada and the United States, discuss the hazards and their effects. They also have many-often unrecognized-successes and related lessons to share. These include taking comprehensive approaches, looking for broad sweeps and entrees, using building sciences and strategies of solid information, acting with respect and with persistence, including students and parents, going for green cleaners, and using participatory methods. The representatives build on these to discuss what else needs to be done. The ideas are underpinned by the creativity, dedication, and persistence evident in their work to date.
PubMed ID
20359993 View in PubMed
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Persistent organochlorine pesticides in serum and risk of Parkinson disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144595
Source
Neurology. 2010 Mar 30;74(13):1055-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-30-2010
Author
M G Weisskopf
P. Knekt
E J O'Reilly
J. Lyytinen
A. Reunanen
F. Laden
L. Altshul
A. Ascherio
Author Affiliation
Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Landmark Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mweissko@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
Neurology. 2010 Mar 30;74(13):1055-61
Date
Mar-30-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Dieldrin - blood
Environmental Exposure
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Parkinson Disease - blood - epidemiology
Pesticides - blood
Registries
Risk factors
Smoking
Young Adult
Abstract
Pesticides have been implicated as likely environmental risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD), but assessment of past exposure to pesticides can be difficult. No prior studies of pesticide exposure and PD used biomarkers of exposure collected before the onset of PD. Our investigation examined the association between prospective serum biomarkers of organochlorine pesticides and PD.
We conducted a nested case-control study within the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, with serum samples collected during 1968-1972, and analyzed in 2005-2007 for organochlorine pesticides. Incident PD cases were identified through the Social Insurance Institution's nationwide registry and were confirmed by review of medical records (n = 101). Controls (n = 349) were matched for age, sex, municipality, and vital status. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of PD were estimated using logistic regression.
Little association emerged with a summary score of the 5 organochlorine pesticides found at high levels, and only increasing dieldrin concentrations trended toward a higher risk of PD (OR per interquartile range [IQR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.69, p = 0.08). Because of possible strong confounding by cigarette smoking among smokers, we ran additional analyses restricted to never smokers (n = 68 cases, 183 controls). In these analyses, increasing dieldrin concentrations were associated with increased odds of PD (OR per IQR 1.95, 95% CI 1.26-3.02, p = 0.003). None of the other organochlorine pesticides were associated with PD in these analyses.
These results provide some support for an increased risk of Parkinson disease with exposure to dieldrin, but chance or exposure correlation with other less persistent pesticides could contribute to our findings.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20350979 View in PubMed
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Insecurity and shiftwork as characteristics of negative work environment: psychosocial and behavioural mediators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144658
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2010 May;66(5):1080-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Marko Elovainio
Hannamaria Kuusio
Anna-Mari Aalto
Timo Sinervo
Tarja Heponiemi
Author Affiliation
Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. marko.elovainio@thl.fi
Source
J Adv Nurs. 2010 May;66(5):1080-91
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Employment - psychology
Female
Finland
Health Behavior
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Middle Aged
Nurses - psychology
Questionnaires
Stress, Psychological - etiology
Work Schedule Tolerance - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
This paper is a report of an investigation into whether insecure work contract and shiftwork are associated with reduced wellbeing indicators, such as psychological distress, low job involvement and low work ability.
Insecure work contracts and shiftwork have repeatedly been found to contribute to the development and continuation of negative outcomes among healthcare professionals. In particular, nurses are generally considered as being at high risk of work-related stress and reduced wellbeing.
Cross-sectional survey data from the Finnish Health Care Professional Study collected in 2006 were used. The random sample of Finnish Registered Nurses comprised 2100 women and men aged 22-65 years. Information on the work contract and shiftwork were self-reported. The wellbeing indicators used were psychological distress (GHQ-12), work ability and job involvement. Psychosocial work characteristics were measured using the Job Content Questionnaire and an organizational justice scale.
Variance and linear regression analyses showed that insecure work contract was associated with lower work ability and job involvement. Shiftwork was related to psychological distress, low job involvement and low work ability. Support for a mediating role of job demands and job control and a moderating role of relational justice was obtained.
To reduce the negative effects of environmental stressors, such as insecure work contract and shiftwork, it may be better to focus on improving psychosocial work characteristics than on nurses' health-related behaviour.
PubMed ID
20337789 View in PubMed
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Occupational and environmental risk factors for falls among workers in the healthcare sector.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144719
Source
Ergonomics. 2010 Apr;53(4):525-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Sharla Drebit
Salomeh Shajari
Hasanat Alamgir
Shicheng Yu
Dave Keen
Author Affiliation
Occupational Health and Safety Agency for Healthcare, Vancouver, BC, Canada. sharlad@ohsah.bc.ca
Source
Ergonomics. 2010 Apr;53(4):525-36
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Occupational - statistics & numerical data
Adult
Age Factors
British Columbia - epidemiology
Female
Health Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Hospital Departments - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Occupational Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Poisson Distribution
Risk factors
Seasons
Sex Factors
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Workplace - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Falls are a leading cause of occupational injury for workers in healthcare, yet the risk factors of falls in this sector are understudied. Falls resulting in workers' compensation for time-loss from work from 2004-2007 for healthcare workers in British Columbia (BC) were extracted from a standardised incident-reporting database. Productive hours were derived from payroll data for the denominator to produce injury rates; relative risks were derived through Poisson regression modelling. A total of 411 falls were accepted for time-loss compensation. Compared to registered nurses, facility support workers (risk ratio (95% CI) = 6.29 (4.56-8.69)) and community health workers (6.58 (3.76-11.50)) were at high risk for falls. Falls predominantly occurred outdoors, in patients' rooms and kitchens depending on occupation and sub-sector. Slippery surfaces due to icy conditions or liquid contaminants were a leading contributing factor. Falls were more frequent in the colder months (January-March). The risk of falls varies by nature of work, location and worker demographics. The findings of this research will be useful for developing evidence-based interventions. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Falls are a major cause of occupational injury for healthcare workers. This study examined risk factors including occupation type, workplace design, work setting, work organisation and environmental conditions in a large healthcare worker population in BC, Canada. The findings of this research should contribute towards developing evidence-based interventions.
PubMed ID
20309748 View in PubMed
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Environmental justice in the therapeutic inner city.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144771
Source
Health Place. 2010 Jul;16(4):656-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Jeffrey R Masuda
Alexis Crabtree
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Geography, University of Manitoba, 222 Isbister, 183 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T2N2, Canada. jeff_masuda@umanitoba.ca
Source
Health Place. 2010 Jul;16(4):656-65
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude to Health
British Columbia
Causality
Community-Based Participatory Research
Consumer Participation
Environmental health
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Photography
Poverty Areas
Public Facilities - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Resilience, Psychological
Social Environment
Social Justice
Social Support
Stereotyping
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Urban Renewal
Abstract
Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) has long been characterized as Canada's skid row within public narratives that raise concerns about communicable diseases, open drug use, survival sex work, and homelessness. This stigmatizing gaze has bolstered a deficit-oriented philosophy that emphasizes measures to mitigate these threats, ostensibly by erasing the moral and environmental depravity from the landscape. However, such measures threaten to further marginalize DTES residents by perpetuating public sentiments of fear and disgust toward the inner city. In this paper, we challenge this orientation by reporting the results of a research process in which DTES residents chronicled their impressions of the neighbourhood. Our findings reveal a paradoxical therapeutic response to environmental injustice in the inner city, one that enables society's most marginalized people to find support, solidarity, and acceptance in their everyday struggles to survive, even thrive, amidst the structural and physical violence of the urban margins.
PubMed ID
20303316 View in PubMed
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An investigation of the adjustment of retrospective noise exposure for use of hearing protection devices.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144810
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):329-39
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Hind Sbihi
Kay Teschke
Ying C MacNab
Hugh W Davies
Author Affiliation
School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. sbhi@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Apr;54(3):329-39
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia
Ear Protective Devices - utilization
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiologic Methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Ethnic Groups - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - epidemiology - prevention & control
Hearing Tests
Humans
Industry - statistics & numerical data
Male
Noise, Occupational - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Exposure - analysis - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
To account for use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) in retrospective noise exposure assessment, adjust noise exposure estimates accordingly, and validate the adjusted estimates.
A previous study in the same working population showed a stronger relation for noise and acute myocardial infarction among those who did not wear HPD. Because accurate noise exposure assessment is complicated by the use of HPD, we previously developed a multilevel model of the likelihood of HPD use for British Columbia (Canada) lumber mill workers. Historical estimates of noise exposure can be adjusted according to models predictions and a reduction in misclassifying workers, exposure is expected.
Work history and exposure information were obtained for 13,147 lumber mill workers followed from 1909 until 1998. Audiometric data for the cohort, including hearing threshold levels at several pure tone frequencies, were obtained from the local regulatory agency for the period from 1978 to 2003. Following the modeling of HPD use, noise estimates were adjusted according to models predictions and attenuation factors based on existing research and standards. Adjusted and unadjusted noise metrics were compared by investigating their ability to predict noise-induced hearing loss.
We showed a 4-fold increase in the noise exposure and hearing loss slope, after adjusting for HPD use, while controlling for gender, age, race, as well as medical and non-occupational confounding variables.
While the relative difference before and after adjustment for use of HPD is considerable, we observed a subtle absolute magnitude of the effect. Using noise-induced hearing loss as a 'gold standard' for testing the assessment of retrospective noise exposure estimates should continue to be investigated.
PubMed ID
20237208 View in PubMed
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A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, correlates, and costs of falls in older home care clients 'at risk' for falling.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145072
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):119-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
Author
Maureen Markle-Reid
Gina Browne
Amiram Gafni
Jacqueline Roberts
Robin Weir
Lehana Thabane
Melody Miles
Vida Vaitonis
Catherine Hecimovich
Pamela Baxter
Sandra Henderson
Author Affiliation
McMaster University, School of Nursing, Hamilton, Ontario. mreid@mcmaster.ca
Source
Can J Aging. 2010 Mar;29(1):119-37
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidental Falls - economics - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environment
Female
Health Services for the Aged - standards
Health status
Home Care Services - standards
Humans
Male
Parkinson disease - epidemiology
Risk factors
Vision Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
This study examined the six-month prevalence, risk factors, and costs of falls in older people using home support services who are at risk of falling. Of the 109 participants, 70.6 per cent reported >or= one fall in the previous six months, and 27.5 per cent experienced multiple falls. Although there was no statistically significant difference in any fall-related risk factor between fallers (1+ falls) and non-fallers (0 falls), fallers had clinically important trends towards lower levels of physical, social, and psychological functioning. There was no statistically significant difference between fallers and non-fallers in the total per-person costs of use of health services in the previous six months; however, there were significant differences between groups in specific types of health services. The multivariate analysis revealed the presence of five risk factors for falls: neurological disorder (e.g., cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease), age >or= 85 years, environmental hazards, previous slip or trip, and visual impairment.
PubMed ID
20202270 View in PubMed
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Understanding the determinants of health for people with type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168132
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Sep;96(9):1649-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Sheri L Maddigan
David H Feeny
Sumit R Majumdar
Karen B Farris
Jeffrey A Johnson
Author Affiliation
Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 2006 Sep;96(9):1649-55
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Canada
Comorbidity
Depression - etiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - complications
Female
Health status
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Quality of Life
Social Support
Stroke - etiology
Abstract
We assessed which of a broad range of determinants of health are most strongly associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL) among people with type 2 diabetes.
Our analysis included respondents from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000-2001) who were aged 18 years and older and who were identified as having type 2 diabetes. We used regression analyses to assess the associations between the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 and determinants of health.
Comorbidities had the largest impact on HRQL, with stroke (-0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.06) and depression (-0.11; 95% CI = -0.15, -0.06) being associated with the largest deficits. Large differences in HRQL were observed for 2 markers of socioeconomic status: social assistance (-0.07; 95% CI=-0.12, -0.03) and food insecurity (-0.07; 95% CI=-0.10, -0.04). Stress, physical activity, and sense of belonging also were important determinants. Overall, 36% of the variance in the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 was explained.
Social and environmental factors are important, but comorbidities have the largest impact on HRQL among people with type 2 diabetes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16873750 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sensitization to airborne molds and its health effects in peat moss processing plant workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168213
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006 Aug;3(8):442-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Anne Mériaux
Yvon Cormier
Pascal Pageau
Evelyne Israël-Assayag
Caroline Duchaine
Author Affiliation
Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie--Centre de Recherche, Hôpital Laval, Université Laval, 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, Quebec G1V 4G5, Canada.
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg. 2006 Aug;3(8):442-7
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Canada
Dust
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Industry
Male
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - etiology
Seasons
Smoking - adverse effects
Sphagnopsida - microbiology
Abstract
The goal of this study was to evaluate the incidence of sensitization to the major molds found in peat dust in workers exposed to stored peat moss and the health impact of this sensitization. Air samples from each plant were obtained to measure the levels of airborne molds, bacteria, and dust. There were 189 workers from 14 peat moss processing plants (3 all-year mixing plants and 11 seasonal plants) recruited for the study. The subjects completed a symptoms questionnaire, underwent spirometric measurements and skin-prick tests, and gave venous blood samples. Blood samples from 43 nonexposed control subjects were also taken. A similar percentage of smokers from both plant types was observed. Twenty-eight percent of the workers tested had a positive serum reaction to at least one of the tested molds. The percentage of positive workers varied from plant to plant, going from none in 4 plants to 14 out of 21 for 1 plant. This variability was not correlated with the airborne levels of molds. FEV tended to be lower in the workers with positive antibodies compared with seronegative workers. IgG positive frequency was higher for those workers employed in the all-year plants, and workers from those plants had lower FEV/FVC than seasonal plant workers. Seasonal plants were more contaminated with molds than all-year mixing plants, suggesting that the duration of exposure may trigger more sensitization than the level of exposure. We conclude that there is a high incidence of mold sensitization in peat moss factory workers and that this sensitization may have a negative respiratory health impact.
PubMed ID
16862715 View in PubMed
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High urinary calcium excretion and genetic susceptibility to hypertension and kidney stone disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168258
Source
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Sep;17(9):2567-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Andrew Mente
R John D' A Honey
John M McLaughlin
Shelley B Bull
Alexander G Logan
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 435, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ont M5G1X5, Canada.
Source
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006 Sep;17(9):2567-75
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Calcium - urine
Creatinine - urine
Family Health
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypercalciuria - epidemiology - urine
Hypertension - epidemiology - genetics
Kidney Calculi - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Sodium - urine
Uric Acid - urine
Abstract
Increased urinary calcium excretion commonly is found in patients with hypertension and kidney stone disease (KSD). This study investigated the aggregation of hypertension and KSD in families of patients with KSD and hypercalciuria and explored whether obesity, excessive weight gain, and diabetes, commonly related conditions, also aggregate in these families. Consecutive patients with KSD, aged 18 to 50 yr, were recruited from a population-based Kidney Stone Center, and a 24-h urine sample was collected. The first-degree relatives of eligible patients (n = 333) and their spouse were interviewed by telephone to collect demographic and health information. Familial aggregation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (OR) revealed significant associations between hypercalciuria in patients and hypertension (OR 2.9; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and KSD (OR 1.9; 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 3.5) in first-degree relatives, specifically in siblings. No significant associations were found in parents or spouses or in patients with hyperuricosuria. Similarly, no aggregation with other conditions was observed. In an independent study of siblings of hypercalciuric patients with KSD, the adjusted mean fasting urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive siblings compared with normotensive siblings (0.60 +/- 0.32 versus 0.46 +/- 0.28 mmol/mmol; P
PubMed ID
16855017 View in PubMed
Less detail

Total dust and endotoxin in poultry operations: comparison between cage and floor housing and respiratory effects in workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168360
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jul;48(7):741-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2006
Author
S P Kirychuk
J A Dosman
S J Reynolds
P. Willson
A. Senthilselvan
J J R Feddes
H L Classen
W. Guenter
Author Affiliation
Institute of Agricultural Rural and Environmental Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Kirychuk@sask.usask.ca
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Jul;48(7):741-8
Date
Jul-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Alberta - epidemiology
Animals
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust
Endotoxins - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure
Poultry
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - physiopathology
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess respiratory outcomes and environmental exposure levels of workers in cage-housed and floor-housed poultry operations.
Poultry operations were evaluated for total dust, endotoxin, and ammonia, and respiratory symptoms and lung function tests of workers were conducted.
Workers in floor-housed poultry operations had significantly greater exposures to total dust and ammonia, whereas workers from cage-housed poultry operations reported greater frequency of current and chronic symptoms overall and significantly greater current and chronic phlegm (39% vs 18% and 40% vs 11%, respectively). Endotoxin concentration (EU/mg) was a significant predictor (P = 0.05) of chronic phlegm for all poultry workers.
Greater endotoxin concentration in the presence of significantly lower total dust, in conjunction with greater respiratory symptoms in workers from cage-housed poultry operations, as compared with workers from floor-housed poultry operations, appears to indicate that differences in environmental exposures may impact respiratory outcomes of workers.
PubMed ID
16832232 View in PubMed
Less detail

Predictors and outcomes of household food insecurity among inner city families with preschool children in Vancouver.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168395
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Margaret A Broughton
Patricia S Janssen
Clyde Hertzman
Sheila M Innis
C James Frankish
Author Affiliation
Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. margaret_broughton@telus.net
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):214-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
British Columbia - epidemiology
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Child, Preschool
Cooking - instrumentation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Family Characteristics
Female
Food Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Hunger
Income
Male
Malnutrition - epidemiology - etiology
Nutritive Value
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to measure household food security and to determine its association with potential predictor variables related to household and community environments, as well as the relationship between household food insecurity and preschool children's nutritional status.
In this cross-sectional study, household food security was measured in a convenience sample of households (n=142) with children aged 2-5 years in Vancouver in March 2004. We assessed the association between environmental predictors and household food security status, adjusted for household income. Indicators of children's nutrition were compared between categories of household food security.
Household food insecurity was associated with indicators of suboptimal health status in preschoolers. After controlling for household income, parents with less access to food of reasonable quality, fewer kitchen appliances and a lower rating of their cooking skills had greater odds of experiencing household food insecurity.
Our study results support the need to test interventions involving collaborative efforts among government, social planners and public health practitioners to remove barriers to food security for families. Multiple measures, including opportunities to gain practical food skills and household resources that enable convenient preparation of nutrient-dense foods, could be examined. Our findings suggest the need for improved selection and quality at existing small stores and an increase in the number of food outlets in low-income neighbourhoods.
PubMed ID
16827410 View in PubMed
Less detail

Video lottery terminal access and gambling among high school students in Montréal.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168399
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):202-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Dana Helene Wilson
Jason Gilliland
Nancy A Ross
Jeffery Derevensky
Rina Gupta
Author Affiliation
Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, QC. dana.wilson@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2006 May-Jun;97(3):202-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Behavior, Addictive - epidemiology
Child
Computer Terminals - supply & distribution
Female
Gambling
Geography
Humans
Male
Poverty Areas
Quebec
Residence Characteristics - classification
Risk-Taking
Schools
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Urban Population
Video Games - supply & distribution
Abstract
Gambling is a risky behaviour that involves uncertain financial outcomes, can be addictive, and has been associated with strongly adverse social and public health outcomes. We wanted to assess whether socio-economic and gambling-related-opportunity environments of neighbourhoods affected the uptake of video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling among Montréal youth.
Spatial and statistical analyses were conducted to examine geographical patterns of neighbourhood socio-economic conditions, VLT sites (n=407), and high school locations (n=305) within the Montréal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA). VLT concentration within high school neighbourhoods was measured to examine how the number of VLT opportunities varies according to socio-economic status of the school neighbourhood. A student survey was analyzed using logistic regression analysis to explore the role of individual (student) characteristics and environmental (neighbourhood) characteristics in predicting the VLT gambling behaviours reported among a sample (n=1206) of high school students.
Video lottery gambling opportunities are more prevalent near schools located in socio-economically deprived neighbourhoods compared with schools located in more affluent neighbourhoods. The principal individual risk factors for VLT gambling were shown to be male sex, peer VLT-use, substance use, as well as the after-school routines of youth.
The spatial distribution of VLTs reflects local geographies of socio-economic disadvantage and may have a pronounced impact on students attending schools in lower income neighbourhoods, especially those with individual risk factors. Efforts to reduce gambling-related public health costs may want to take into account the socio-spatial distribution of gambling opportunities, particularly in the local environments that youth frequent.
PubMed ID
16827406 View in PubMed
Less detail

[The peculiarities of 24-hour arterial pressure monitoring in patients with arterial hypertension under the conditions of North].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168408
Source
Klin Med (Mosk). 2006;84(5):34-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
V Ia Poliakov
Source
Klin Med (Mosk). 2006;84(5):34-7
Date
2006
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Catchment Area (Health)
Climate
Electrocardiography
Electrocardiography, Ambulatory - methods
Hemodynamics - physiology
Humans
Hypertension - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Male
Middle Aged
Russia - epidemiology
Severity of Illness Index
Abstract
Circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) is considered to be a functional characteristic of the cardiovascular system, which reflects the severity and pathogenetic peculiarities of arterial hypertension. At the same time, blood pressure dynamics also depends on the state of environmental factors, the heliogeophysical medium in particular, which plays an important part in the formation of northern ecology. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the peculiarities of the correlations between morphofunctional characteristics of the cardiovascular system, circadian blood pressure rhythms in particular, and heliogeophysical environmental factors under North conditions. The data of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (BPM) and echoCG, and the heliogeophysical factors during different ontogenesis periods in 257 residents of North and medium latitudes with arterial hypertension (AH), were analyzed. A considerable disorder of CBPP, manifesting by an insufficient (less than 10%) night-time decrease in blood pressure, was revealed in 46% of the hypertensive subjects, who lived in North. The circadian rhythm amplitude was low in cases of a high degree of coupling of hemodynamic indices with geomagnetic activity during the study. The study did not reveal such CBPP disturbances in AH patients living in medium latitudes. Left ventricular hypertrophy was more frequent in patients with an insufficient night-time BP decrease vs. patients with a normal one (39.7% and 22.2%, respectively). A test allowing evaluation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of magnetotropic responses to changes in heliogeophysical environment, was developed. This diagnostic test uses EchoCG and testing exposure to constant magnetic field, and is based on evaluation of changes in central hemodynamics allowing for the balance of geomagnetic activity during early ontogenesis and during the study.
PubMed ID
16827276 View in PubMed
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