The immune system and lymphocyte activity of HADP-dependent dehydrogenases were studied in the patients living in the high incidence areas of Krasnoyarsk. The enhanced activity of cellular immunity was found to show up in the presence of considerable impaired lymphocyte metabolic processes, the change of the rate of which depended on the type of environmental pollution.
The maintenance and development of the centralized household underground water supply system in the closed administrative-territorial entity Seversk, Tomsk Region, when the aquifers are inadequately protected and there is a hydrological association of individual aquifers with polluted surface waters require a hygienic estimation based on the use of a risk methodology, including that considering the regional feature of sanitary situation establishment. No risk realization has been ascertained for damage to critical organs and systems in pediatric and adult populations under the population influence of the chemical substances available in drinking water.
There is presented the analysis of medical-demographic situation in Russia, and the increase in population mortality is shown both to be associated with the degradation of the geosphere and alongside with other factors determined by the change in the electronic state of the environment. On the base of the interrelationship between the electronic saturation of the environment and an increase in population mortality and morbidity there is established a such risk factor for human health and life, which may currently become one out of significant, videlicet, the electronic deficit. In conditions of its appearance there are proposed options solving this problem by means of elaboration of the scientific rationale for the impact of the electronic deficit on the human organism and the creation of technologies providing environmental--medical safety of the population by virtue of the correction of the electronic state of the human habitat, food and drinking water and the implementation of the system for monitoring electronic abundance of the environment.
[The resolution of the Plenum of the Research Council on Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of the Russian Federation "Updated issues of human health and the environment and ways of solving them"].
[Prospects of development of social-sanitary monitoring as a basic mechanism of providing the population's wellbeing and the role of the journal "Gigiena i Sanitariia " in covering the topical problems].
This ethnographic study investigates the experiences of living with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), a condition increasing in prevalence but medically contested, on which very little qualitative research has been done. Participant observation included two treatment centers, a support organization, an Internet chat room, and conversations with MCS sufferers, activists, and educators. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 33 people with MCS, recruited to reflect a broad demographic range and severity of illness variation. This article describes several methodological issues associated with doing "peer research" and then describes self-care for symptom management. With no known cure, MCS sufferers manage their symptoms through three main avenues: prevention/avoidance, detoxification, and emotional self-care. Implications include education of health care providers and a warning from those who have MCS: "We are the canaries in the coal mine; what has happened to us will happen to many others unless we clean up our environment."
The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.
The objective of this research is to identify the sociodemographic, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with the geographic variability of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) prevalence in the City of Winnipeg, Manitoba in Canada. An ecological regression study design was employed for this purpose. The study population included all prevalent cases of DM in 1998 for Winnipeg. Predictor and outcome data were aggregated for analysis using two methods. First, the spatial scan statistic was used to aggregate study data into highly probable diabetes prevalence clusters. Secondly, predictor and outcome data were aggregated to existing administrative health areas. Analysis of variance and spatial and non-spatial linear regression techniques were used to explore the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. The results of the two methods of data aggregation on regression results were compared. Mapping and statistical analysis revealed substantial clustering and small-area variations in the prevalence of DM in the City of Winnipeg. The observed variations were associated with variations in socioeconomic, environmental and lifestyle characteristics of the population. The two methods of data aggregation used in the study generated very similar results in terms of identifying the geographic location of DM clusters and of the population characteristics ecologically correlated to those clusters. High rates of DM prevalence are strongly correlated with indicators of low socioeconomic status, poor environmental quality and poor lifestyles. This analysis further illustrates what a useful tool the spatial scan statistic can be when used in conjunction with ecological regression to explore the etiology of chronic disease.
Impairments in the interferon status of children with chronic and recurring diseases of the respiratory organs were investigated and its correction was shown possible with the use of alpha 2-interferon (reaferon). Suppression of the interferon-producing capacity of the immunocytes was observed in all the cases of the disease aggravation. The level of the suppression correlated with the severity of the infection. In the patients affected by radiation the suppression of the interferonogenesis was more marked. However, in these cases no dependence of the detected impairments in the interferon status on the level of the radiation pollution of the territory of the children residence was shown. The inclusion of reaferon to the basal therapy resulted in a significant increase of the alpha-interferon production in the cases of bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis as well as its recovery to the normal in the cases of recurring bronchitis and chronic pneumonia. In all the cases of bronchopulmonary diseases only a tendency towards normalization of the alpha-interferon indices was recorded.
The population living within a small area around a sulphite pulp factory in Northern Sweden was studied with regard to chronic obstructive lung disease. In persons in the age group 20-64 years the prevalence of bronchial asthma was found to be 3.0% for males and 3.2% for females. These figures correspond closely with previous studies in the Central and Southern Sweden. In the same age group the prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 2.8% for males and 1.0% for females, i.e. not differing much from that of other parts of Sweden. These findings, however, were far removed from the high prevalence of chronic bronchitis reported from Northern Finland, viz. 28.2% in males and 5.8% in females. The difference is probably attributable to differences in diagnostic criteria. In this study, those sulphite pulp factory workers who smoke seemed to constitute a population running a high risk of contracting chronic bronchitis.
A genetic and epidemiological sample of 20-59-year-old males, Moscow residents (n = 3141), was surveyed. The authors obtained data on the prevalence of coronary heart disease from epidemiological criteria and genealogical data on cardiovascular diseases by the "Familial History" questionnaire in the first-degree relatives who were interviewed by using a genetic and mathematical monolocus diallelic model. It was found that out of the 10 possible variants under study a genetic and environmental variant with independent penetrance of 3 genotypes adequately describes the prevalence of coronary heart disease in the families and in the population. This suggest that both genetic and environmental factors have an influence on the prevalence of coronary heart disease and that there is a possible genetic polymorphism of the disease.