There was performed an investigation of informativeness of indices of the heart rate variability at rest and during orthostatic testing in the adolescent girls residing in the industrial town and in the village. The influence of unfa- vorable environmental factors was established to be reflected by the indices of the spectral analysis and cardioin- tervalography. In urban girls there was noted the marked increase of the centralization of heart rhythm control on the background of the increased activity of the sympathetic compartment and the reduction of the influence of the parasympathetic compartment of the autonomous nervous system on the sinus node. In rural adolescent girls the func- tional state of the autonomic nervous system being the optimal is characterized by an adequate response to the active orthostatic test of the parasympathetic and sympathetic compartments with the moderate involvement of mechanisms of the central control of the cardiac rhythm. Results of the study have an important significance for the diagnosis of the early disorders of health in adolescent girls.
There was performed a comparative analysis of the dynamics of newly diagnosed and the overall morbidity of children's population of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the city of Kazan of main classes of diseases for 2004- 2012 according to the statistical reporting form N12. As an assessment of the possible impact of environmental factors on the formation of separate groups of diseases and changes in the systems of the body there was used health risk assessment according to annual average concentrations of chemicals in the ambient air Average annual indices of prevalence for the most of classes of diseases in children (0-14 years) of the population of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the city of Kazan 2004-2012 (per 1000 children) showed significant differences for most classes of diseases and their rise in children of the city. Results of the assessment of the non-carcinogenic risk based on evolutionary models determined the magnitude of additional risks for the respiratory system. Non-carcinogenic health risk is assessed before the age of 19 years as negligible, until the age of 36 years as a moderate, until the age of 45 years as highfor persons over 46 years as very high.
Schools are supposed to be places where children learn and thrive; not where they, teachers, and other staff get sick. The hazards are many but recognition of those hazards is hard to come by in schools in Canada and the United States. The result can be an uphill fight for school-based organizations and unions. Representatives of four such groups, two each from Canada and the United States, discuss the hazards and their effects. They also have many-often unrecognized-successes and related lessons to share. These include taking comprehensive approaches, looking for broad sweeps and entrees, using building sciences and strategies of solid information, acting with respect and with persistence, including students and parents, going for green cleaners, and using participatory methods. The representatives build on these to discuss what else needs to be done. The ideas are underpinned by the creativity, dedication, and persistence evident in their work to date.
Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES) has long been characterized as Canada's skid row within public narratives that raise concerns about communicable diseases, open drug use, survival sex work, and homelessness. This stigmatizing gaze has bolstered a deficit-oriented philosophy that emphasizes measures to mitigate these threats, ostensibly by erasing the moral and environmental depravity from the landscape. However, such measures threaten to further marginalize DTES residents by perpetuating public sentiments of fear and disgust toward the inner city. In this paper, we challenge this orientation by reporting the results of a research process in which DTES residents chronicled their impressions of the neighbourhood. Our findings reveal a paradoxical therapeutic response to environmental injustice in the inner city, one that enables society's most marginalized people to find support, solidarity, and acceptance in their everyday struggles to survive, even thrive, amidst the structural and physical violence of the urban margins.
The paper deals with the problems of medical and ecological escorts of space rocket-making activities. The properties of one of the highly toxic components of propellant - asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as a substance assigned to a class of ecological toxicants, are considered. The data obtained on implementing the program for a study of the health status in the population living not far from the asymmetric dimethylhydrazine-polluted areas are presented. The authors propose to consider a package of measures that can apply the systems approach to securing the safety of the population to live and work in areas under space-rocket making activities, which is based on the prevention principle provided by the Rio de Janeiro Environment and Development Declaration.
Non-invasive methods of sampling and a range of immunological assays for mass ecologo-hygienic studies of population were developed and introduced into practice in Sysin Scientific Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The studied materials were saliva, urine, breast milk, the condition of lymph nodes, and anamnesis. The complex of non-invasive methods was shown to be less complicated and, at the same time, informative and cheap, which allows recommending it for sociohygienic monitoring when performing mass hygienic studies.
This review of the evidence of the health effects of air pollutants focuses on research conducted in Ontario. Seven key Ontario studies are cited. These findings are highly significant for people living in the Great Lakes basin (and particularly the Windsor-Quebec corridor), where high levels of certain air pollutants (eg, ground-level ozone and ultra-fine particles) occur more frequently than in other parts of Canada. The issue is a serious one, requiring an integrated and comprehensive approach by many stakeholders, including the active involvement of organized medicine. It is important that the health effects of these air pollutants are understood. Governments must act to reduce emission levels through statue and regulation bolstered by noncompliance penalties. The findings of research have included the following: in a Toronto study, a 2% to 4% excess of respiratory deaths were attributable to pollutant levels; children living in rural Ontario communities with the highest levels of airborne acids were significantly more likely to report at least one episode of bronchitis, as well as to show decreases in lung function; and have been linked to increases in pollutants, emergency room visits and hospitalizations in Ontario. Every Ontarian is affected by air pollutants, although he or she may be unaware of the asymptomatic effects such as lung and bronchial inflammation. This health problem is preventable; while physicians know of the adverse health impacts of air pollution and they are concerned, individually they now focus on the treatment of symptoms. The major recommendations of the report are as follows: Enactment of more stringent sulphur and nitrogen oxide emission limits, including a provincewide sulphur dioxide reduction of 75% from current cap levels, and the maximum allowable nitrogen oxides emission limits of 6000 tonnes annually from Ontario Hydro. New transportation sector emission limits that should include California-level standards for light and heavy duty vehicles, reductions from off-road engines, an expanded vehicle inspection and maintenance program, and tougher standards for sulphur-in-fuel content. Petitioning the United States Environmental Protection Agency administrator under Section 115 of the United States Clear Air Act to require reductions in the American emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, which damage the health of Canadian residents and their environment. Physician advice to patients about the risks of smog exposure, physician support for more health effects research on air pollution, and physician promotion of the development of air pollution-related health education materials. The recommendations discussed in this paper will, if acted upon, lead to a significant reduction in the overall burden of illness from air pollutants, especially in children and the elderly. These recommendations have been selected from a review of recommendations made by various authorities, and are those that the OMA feels a particular responsibility to support.
On Saturday, August 24, 1996, a 40-year-old man from Edmonton was riding a personal motorized watercraft (PMW, a Seadoo or Jet Ski type of machine) on Shuswap Lake, in south-central British Columbia. He was approximately 200 m offshore. The man motioned to his sister, who was riding another PMW, to follow him across the lake. She did so, but as the turned her head to check for other boat traffic, her brother suddenly slowed down and her machine rode right up on his back, crushing him against his handlebars. His sister, a nurse, held her brother's head above water until help arrived but, 48 minutes after the moment of impact, he was pronounced dead at the Shuswap Lake General Hospital. He had suffered a ruptured aorta.
There's tremendous excitement across the land about good jobs and a clean environment. We teamsters have found that working together makes things happen. We have found a partnership with the Sierra Club and Public Citizen. We no longer support drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. We'll pass the Employee Free Choice Act, too. Working together as partners, labor and environmentalists, and under this President, we can accomplish great things for working people and for the environment.
Climate change is the primary threat to public health in the 21st century. There is a huge need for creation of new knowledge on how most effectively and efficiently to respond to the negative effects on health. Participatory research and development projects may be essential in creation and dissemination of new knowledge. Theoretically underpinned interventions and implementation strategies are necessary to ensure that knowledge is translated into action. Universities and health care organisations have a central role in preparing future health professionals by giving them the skills and knowledge needed.
There are three main focus areas relevant to health in research related to climate change: 1) disentangling of the complex associations between climate-sensitive risk factors and health 2) guidance as to where, when and how effective health adaptation strategies may be implemented for maximum effect, and 3) health impact assessment (with a focus on health co-benefits) of climate-related policies in other sectors. Further development in each of these areas will provide important opportunities for strengthening health promotion and protection.
The history of public health has followed different trends, depending on the prevailing theories of disease causality and the interventions that these suggest. From the concern with miasmas to the germ theory, to the stress on lifestyles and the current interest on the linkages between health, economic welfare, and social status, the proposed policies are contingent on how health and disease are conceptualized and explained. Ironically, now that there is increasing evidence on the socio-economic determinants of health, interventions continue to focus on specific target groups or disease categories, as well as on the medical sector.