In the article there is considered the complex of methodological approaches for the detection of vanadium in the air and biological substrates of the population for the practical use in the frameworks of public health monitoring in areas with localization of steel industry facilities. The developed complex of methods on the base of mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) allowed to perform the hygienic assessment of the quality of objects of the environment in the territory located in the zone of the impact of emissions of ferrovanadium production (the city of Tchusovoy of the Perm Krai). From the results of the study there was established the significant excess of the vanadium content in the ambient air of the studied area in relation to the control territory and to the reference concentration for chronic inhalation exposure (RfCxp) to 6.0 times. There was revealed a significant excess of vanadium content in the blood of children residing in the study area, with respect to the regional background levels (0.0001-0.00016 mg/dm3). Complex clinical laboratory and chemical-analytical studies of biosubstrates of the children population allowed to substantiate the marker of the inhalation exposure (the vanadium content in the blood) and its reference level (0.0023 dm3).
Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".
One of the main criteria which determine the possibility of the use of a particular type of ice-melter reagents (IMR) is the degree of their safety for the environment and human health, which is reflected in the establishment of safe doses and concentrations. In this regard, the current area of research is to improve the ecological and epidemiological principles of risk assessment of modern types of anti-icing agents. Currently available data concerning monitoring soil studies and the snow held in various cities of Russia, show that there is a process of accumulation of the main components of IMR - sodium and chlorine ions in the areas related to the roadway. The article is designated a problem of existing methodological approaches to the assessment of the phytotoxic impact in the investigation of anti-icing agents in the laboratory. There was executed the comparative characteristics of the results of the preliminary pilot studies on the phytotoxic properties of IMR under using different substrates for germination of seeds - soil and filter paper. The data obtained are characterized by differences in the degree of phytotoxic action of the same species depending upon ice-melter reagents methodical setting circuit laboratory experiment. As a result, there was shown the imperfection of the existing method of rapid analysis in relation to ice-melter materials (IMM).
The study have been conducted in settlements located near oilfields of the Nizhnevartovsk area, the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district (Russian Federation). There were examined 802 persons aged of from 18 to 56 years not proximately employed in processes of the oil extraction. Control group was consisted of329 residents of the north of Tomsk Region living in the area without any polluting environment industry. By using such methods of analysis as micronucleus test in human buccal cells, the xenobiotic biotransformation of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism, as well as the assessment of oil contamination of local drinking water there was executed the hygienic assessment of ecology in the settlements located near oil fields. The elevated rate of cytogenetic disorders was established to be observed most of all in the residents of this region, as well as in persons recently moved to this area. Most significant deviations from the control according to the micronucleus test were detected in individuals with the GSTM1 (0) /GSTT1(0) genotype. In the control group no such consistent pattern was seen.
Pollution and fate of pollutants in polar region are important topics of investigation in the last several decades. We have analysed sediment samples from Kongsfjorden and Krossfjorden, two sites from Arctic region, and detected a number of emerging contaminants (ECs) using high-resolution mass spectrometry connected to UPLC (LC-Q-ToF-MS). Out of the seven sampling sites selected, bisphenol S (BPS), an identified pollutant and plasticiser, was detected and quantified in three sediment samples from Kongsfjorden (˜?0.2 ppm). Four major surfactants (decylbenzenesulphonic acid, undecylbenzenesulphonic acid, 2-dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid and tridecylbenzenesulphonic acid) were also identified. A possible metabolite of BPS (sulphur trioxide derivative of BPS) was identified in one of the samples. It is proposed that the presence of ECs is the result of human activities in the region for a long time. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of BPS and surfactants in the Arctic region.
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University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ulmenliet 20, 21033 Hamburg, Germany; Institute of Biomedical and Environmental Health Research, School of Science & Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, Paisley PA 1 2BE, United Kingdom. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity potential based on chemical activities (a); (iii) site specific mixture compositions; (iv) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores; and (vi) site specific distribution ratios (KD). The contamination levels were low in the Gulf of Finland and moderate to elevated in the Baltic Proper, with the highest levels observed in the western Baltic Sea. The SPME method has been demonstrated to be an appropriate and sensitive tool for area surveys presenting new opportunities to study the in-situ distribution and thermodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals at trace levels in marine environments.
An unintended consequence of indoor smoking restrictions is the relocation of smoking to building entrances, where non-smokers may be exposed to secondhand smoke, and smoke from outdoor areas may drift through entrances, exposing people inside. Tobacco smoke has been linked to numerous health effects in non-smokers and there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. This paper presents data on levels of tobacco smoke inside and outside entrances to office buildings.
Real-time air quality monitors were used to simultaneously measure respirable particulate matter (PM(2.5); air pollutant particles with a diameter of 2.5 µg or less) as a marker for tobacco smoke, outside and inside 28 entrances to office buildings in downtown Toronto, Ontario, in May and June 2008. Measurements were taken when smoking was and was not present within 9 m of entrances. Background levels of PM(2.5) were also measured for each session. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate levels of PM(2.5), taking into account repeated measurement errors.
Peak levels (10 s averages) of PM(2.5) were as high as 496 µg/m(3) when smoking was present. Mixed model analysis shows that the average outdoor PM(2.5) with smoking was significantly higher than the background level (p
Kale, lettuce, carrots and potatoes were grown in 20 experimental plots surrounding a wood preservation factory, to investigate the amount and pathways for plant uptake of arsenic and chromium. Arsenate used in the wood preservation process is converted to the more toxic arsenite by incineration of waste wood and is emitted into the atmosphere. Elevated concentrations of inorganic arsenic and chromium were found both in the test plants and in the soil around the factory. Multivariate statistical analysis of the results indicated that the dominating pathway of arsenic and chromium from the factory to the leafy vegetables grown nearby was by direct atmospheric deposition, while arsenic in the root crops originated from both the soil and the atmosphere. Consumption of vegetables grown near the source would result in an increased intake of inorganic arsenic, but the intake via the total diet was estimated to be below the provisional tolerable daily intake for inorganic arsenic established by FAO/WHO.
There is a need for indoor measurements of nitrate radicals (NO(3)) and nitrogen pentoxide (N(2)O(5)) to better understand removal and transformation of volatile organic compounds in indoor environments, and to evaluate the possible health effects from exposure to nitrated reaction products. NO(3) and NO(2) react to form N(2)O(5) in the presence of a third molecule, and the fast equilibrium necessitates measurements of both NO(3) and N(2)O(5) in the evaluation of indoor NO(3) chemistry. The sum of these two species, NO(3)( *), was quantified in an office building in Denmark by measuring an oxidation product of the cyclohexene/NO(3) reaction in a flow-tube set-up. NO(3)( *) concentrations ranged from 1 to 58ppt, where N(2)O(5) was estimated to account for more than 68%. The concentrations of the precursors, NO(2) and O(3), and the photolysis of NO(3) were parameters, which clearly influenced NO(3)( *) apparent from the different precursor concentrations, lighting and daylight versus dark samples in this study. Also indoor air pollutants, in particular alkenes such as limonene and alpha-pinene, can significantly reduce NO(3)( *). These first indoor measurements of NO(3)( *), warrant further high time resolution measurements of NO(3), N(2)O(5), and organic nitrates indoors.
BACKGROUND: In the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) I, the lowest prevalence of asthma and atopy was found in Reykjavík (Iceland) and Tartu (Estonia). The aim of this study was to compare home environments in Reykjavík and Tartu to a town with a higher prevalence of asthma and atopy (Uppsala, Sweden) in an attempt to identify factors in the indoor environment that could explain these differences. METHOD: A random sample of 129 ECRHS II participants was included in this analysis at each of the three study centres. The subjects answered a questionnaire, blood was analysed for specific immunoglobulin E, a methacholine test was performed and home indoor measurements were taken. RESULTS: The prevalence of atopy was 11.9% in Reykjavík, 35.5% in Uppsala and 28.2% in Tartu (P
Fiber dimension and concentration may vary substantially between two necropsy populations of former chrysotile miners and millers of Thetford-Mines and Asbestos regions. This possibility could explain, at least in part, the higher incidence of respiratory diseases among workers from Thetford-Mines than among workers from the Asbestos region. The authors used a transmission electron microscope, equipped with an x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer, to analyze lung mineral fibers of 86 subjects from the two mining regions and to classify fiber sizes into three categories. The most consistent difference was the higher concentration of tremolite in lung tissues of workers from Thetford-Mines, compared with workers from the Asbestos region. Amosite and crocidolite were also detected in lung tissues of several workers from the Asbestos region. No consistent and biologically important difference was found for fiber dimension; therefore, fiber dimension does not seem to be a factor that accounts for the difference in incidence of respiratory diseases between the two groups. The greater incidence of respiratory diseases among workers of Thetford-Mines can be explained by the fact that they had greater exposure to fibers than did workers at the Asbestos region. Among the mineral fibers studied, retention of tremolite fibers was most apparent.
From 1950 and until today, building technology has developed continuously, especially concerning insulation and sealing (2). Therefore the Norwegian houses of today resist cold and wind very well. But there are still factors that can provide thermal discomfort. Some of these factors can for instance be open indoor solutions, placement and number of windows and sources of heat, upgrading and maintenance of old houses. Important thermal parameters are draught and air velocity, vertical air temperature differences, asymmetry of thermal radiation, floor temperature and relative humidity (4).
The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.
Aim of the study was to elucidate relationship between complex effect on organism of unfavorable ecological factors of high altitudes and course of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and hypertensive disease in Surgut (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District). Five year medico-ecological monitoring established direct relation between dynamics of average monthly hospital admissions of patients with IHD and hypertension, level of atmospheric pressure and concentration of phenol in the air. Complex of nature conservation measures resulted in decreases of frequency of hospitalizations as well as cardiovascular morbidity with temporary loss of working capacity.
Section for Contaminants, Effects and Marine Mammals, Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, University of Aarhus, Frederiksborgvej 399, PO Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
The effects of persistent organic pollutants on renal and liver morphology in farmed arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) were studied under experimental conditions. Control animals received a diet containing pork (Sus scrofa) fat with low amounts of persistent organic pollutants, while the diet of the exposed animals contained whale blubber, 'naturally' contaminated with persistent organic pollutants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) concentrations in the whale blubber were 488 and 395 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Animals were sacrificed and sampled when they were at their fattest (winter) as well as their lowest body weight (summer). The results show that PCB and OCP exposure causes renal (and probably also liver) lesions in arctic foxes. The prevalence of glomerular, tubular and interstitial lesions was significantly highest in the exposed group (chi-square: all p0.05). The prevalence of lesions was not significantly different between lean (winter) and fat (summer) foxes for any of the lesions (chi-square: all p>0.05). We suggest that wild arctic foxes exposed to an environmental cocktail of persistent organic pollutants, such as PCBs and OCPs, in their natural diet are at risk for developing chronic kidney and liver damage. Whether such lesions may have an impact on age and health of the animals remains uncertain.
During the last decade, associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and pesticides, and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and overt CV disease (CVD) have been reported in humans. Recently, associations between plastic-associated chemicals (PACs), such as bisphenol A and phthalates, and CVD have also begun to emerge. Several approaches to evaluating such associations have been used: accidents with a high level of exposure, occupational exposure studies, geographical studies of subjects living near a contaminated area and traditional case-control or cohort studies with measurements of circulating levels of different environmental contaminants in the general population. Exposure to POPs has consistently been associated with diabetes using all the approaches described above, including prospective studies. The evidence regarding associations between exposure to POPs and other CV risk factors, such as hypertension, obesity and lipids, is less strong and is mainly based on cross-sectional data. Associations between overt CVD and POPs have been reported using all the above approaches, but prospective data from population-based studies are still lacking to provide firm evidence of an important and independent role of POP exposure in the pathogenesis of CVD. Nevertheless, taken together, current evidence suggests that further longitudinal and experimental studies should be conducted to investigate the effect of exposure to both POPs and PACs, such as bisphenol A and phthalates.