One of the main criteria which determine the possibility of the use of a particular type of ice-melter reagents (IMR) is the degree of their safety for the environment and human health, which is reflected in the establishment of safe doses and concentrations. In this regard, the current area of research is to improve the ecological and epidemiological principles of risk assessment of modern types of anti-icing agents. Currently available data concerning monitoring soil studies and the snow held in various cities of Russia, show that there is a process of accumulation of the main components of IMR - sodium and chlorine ions in the areas related to the roadway. The article is designated a problem of existing methodological approaches to the assessment of the phytotoxic impact in the investigation of anti-icing agents in the laboratory. There was executed the comparative characteristics of the results of the preliminary pilot studies on the phytotoxic properties of IMR under using different substrates for germination of seeds - soil and filter paper. The data obtained are characterized by differences in the degree of phytotoxic action of the same species depending upon ice-melter reagents methodical setting circuit laboratory experiment. As a result, there was shown the imperfection of the existing method of rapid analysis in relation to ice-melter materials (IMM).
The study have been conducted in settlements located near oilfields of the Nizhnevartovsk area, the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district (Russian Federation). There were examined 802 persons aged of from 18 to 56 years not proximately employed in processes of the oil extraction. Control group was consisted of329 residents of the north of Tomsk Region living in the area without any polluting environment industry. By using such methods of analysis as micronucleus test in human buccal cells, the xenobiotic biotransformation of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism, as well as the assessment of oil contamination of local drinking water there was executed the hygienic assessment of ecology in the settlements located near oil fields. The elevated rate of cytogenetic disorders was established to be observed most of all in the residents of this region, as well as in persons recently moved to this area. Most significant deviations from the control according to the micronucleus test were detected in individuals with the GSTM1 (0) /GSTT1(0) genotype. In the control group no such consistent pattern was seen.
Pollution and fate of pollutants in polar region are important topics of investigation in the last several decades. We have analysed sediment samples from Kongsfjorden and Krossfjorden, two sites from Arctic region, and detected a number of emerging contaminants (ECs) using high-resolution mass spectrometry connected to UPLC (LC-Q-ToF-MS). Out of the seven sampling sites selected, bisphenol S (BPS), an identified pollutant and plasticiser, was detected and quantified in three sediment samples from Kongsfjorden (˜?0.2 ppm). Four major surfactants (decylbenzenesulphonic acid, undecylbenzenesulphonic acid, 2-dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid and tridecylbenzenesulphonic acid) were also identified. A possible metabolite of BPS (sulphur trioxide derivative of BPS) was identified in one of the samples. It is proposed that the presence of ECs is the result of human activities in the region for a long time. To the best our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of BPS and surfactants in the Arctic region.
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University of Applied Sciences Hamburg, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ulmenliet 20, 21033 Hamburg, Germany; Institute of Biomedical and Environmental Health Research, School of Science & Sport, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley Campus, Paisley PA 1 2BE, United Kingdom. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity potential based on chemical activities (a); (iii) site specific mixture compositions; (iv) diffusion gradients at the sediment water interface and within the sediment cores; and (vi) site specific distribution ratios (KD). The contamination levels were low in the Gulf of Finland and moderate to elevated in the Baltic Proper, with the highest levels observed in the western Baltic Sea. The SPME method has been demonstrated to be an appropriate and sensitive tool for area surveys presenting new opportunities to study the in-situ distribution and thermodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals at trace levels in marine environments.
There was performed an assessment of the quality of the environment and the state of health of the child population of the one out of industrialized regions of the Moscow region. There were determined priority risk factors for diseases of the respiratory system and skin. The indices and the structure of morbidity rate were analyzed according to the incidence of outpatient visits. There was developed a comprehensive hygienic model for the preventive and therapeutic activities aimed at the improvement of the environment and reduction of the morbidity rate in children's population.
The present study is devoted to theoretical questions of optimization of integrated assessment of the composition and properties of drinking water with the use of the Water Quality Index (WQI) and considering in it all 4 criteria for its hygienic quality-sanitary-toxicological, microbiological, radiation and organoleptic. There is presented a sequence of the analysis of benchmark data of the laboratory study of drinking water, including the selection of priority indices, their distribution into 4 groups according to hygienic criteria, calculations the ratios of real values (C) of indices to their hygiene MPC and the final calculation of the WQI. There is emphasized the importance of classes of hazard of substances, and the need for the special attention to the substances-carcinogens in the integrated assessment of water quality. To overcome the non-equivalence of contributions to the assessment of water quality factors, measured in different units, often disparated in their effect on human health, there are used the principles of combined action at levels below the MCL:C/MPC indices of performance of the unidirectional action are summed (e.g. carcinogenic substances), from indices of the independent action there are selected the most significant ones with the highest values of C/MPC, besides that there are also used counterbalancing factors K determined accordingly to Delphi method, with a maximum values of 5 for carcinogens and the minimum value of 1 for the substances affecting the organoleptic properties ofwater. There is presented the scheme of the final calculation of the value of WQI.
Sixteen existing multi-family buildings (94 apartments) in Finland and 20 (96 apartments) in Lithuania were investigated prior to their renovation in order to develop and test out a common protocol for the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) assessment, and to assess the potential for improving IEQ along with energy efficiency. Baseline data on buildings, as well as data on temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radon, and microbial content in settled dust were collected from each apartment. In addition, questionnaire data regarding housing quality and health were collected from the occupants. The results indicated that most measured IEQ parameters were within recommended limits. However, different baselines in each country were observed especially for parameters related to thermal conditions and ventilation. Different baselines were also observed for the respondents' satisfaction with their residence and indoor air quality, as well as their behavior related to indoor environment. In this paper, we present some evidence for the potential in improving IEQ along with energy efficiency in the current building stock, followed by discussion of possible IEQ indicators and development of the assessment protocol.
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and biomass fuel smoke (BMS) poses respiratory health risks, with children and women bearing the major burden.
We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between childhood tuberculosis (TB) and exposure to ETS and BMS.
We searched three databases for epidemiological studies that investigated the association of childhood TB with exposure to ETS and BMS. We calculated pooled estimates and heterogeneity for studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and stratified studies on ETS by outcome.
Five case-control and three cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and quality assessment. Pooled effect estimates showed that exposure to ETS is associated with tuberculous infection and TB disease (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.9) among exposed compared to non-exposed children. TB disease in ETS studies produced a pooled OR of 2.8 (95%CI 0.9-4.8), which was higher than the OR for tuberculous infection (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.9-2.9) for children exposed to ETS compared to non-exposed children. Studies on BMS exposure were too few and too small to permit a conclusion.
Exposure to ETS increases the risk of childhood TB disease or tuberculous infection.
This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution has typically been estimated on the aggregate level, and more individual measures of exposure are needed. We investigated the associations with lung function of residential outdoor air pollution in early life, total lifetime, and days before lung function test. METHODS: In 2001-2002, spirometry was performed in 2307 9- and 10-year-old children who had lived in Oslo, Norway, since birth. Outdoor air pollution exposure for each child was assessed by the EPISODE dispersion model, calculating hourly concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) and 2.5 microm (PM2.5). We applied linear regression analysis stratified by sex. RESULTS: Early and lifetime exposures to outdoor air pollution were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and reduced forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% of forced vital capacity, especially in girls. One interquartile increase of lifetime exposure to NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 was associated with change in adjusted peak respiratory flow of, respectively, -79 mL/s (95% confidence interval = -128 to -31), -66 mL/s (-110 to -23), and -58 mL/s (-94 to -21). We also found short-term effects of NO2 that became stronger with increasing time lags, but no short-term effects of PM. When we included short- and long-term NO2 exposures simultaneously, only the long-term effect remained. We found no effect on forced volumes. Adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor diminished the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Short- and long-term residential exposures to traffic-related pollutants in Oslo were associated with reduced peak expiratory flow and forced expiratory flow at 25% and 50% in 9- to 10-year-old children, especially in girls, with weaker associations after adjusting for a contextual socioeconomic factor.
A comprehensive study of the state of urban soils revealed the altered structural and functional organization of microbiocenosis versus that of the soils of intact forest ecosystems. The indicator microbial and biochemical parameters of the state of the soils under urban technological pressure were identified. The findings may be used to evaluate the natural environment, to make an urban environmental monitoring.
The paper deals with the evaluation of current trends in the application of pesticides and in the detection of their residues in the environmental objects of the Kursk Region. A reduction in the rate of use of pesticides and changes in their structure and range has been established. The amount of organic chlorides and organic phosphates has been decreased while the use of carbamates, heterocyclic compounds, pyrethroids, the derivatives of azoles, avermectins, meonicotinoids, and the derivatives of aryloxyphenoxypropionic acids increased. The degree of environmental danger of the applied pesticides to human health has decreased by 11.2 times in the past 18 years.
Monitoring of faecal indicator organisms, such as Escherichia coli, in environmental and drinking waters is inadequate for the protection public health, primarily due to the poor relationship between E. coli and the occurrence of human pathogens, especially viruses, in environmental samples. Nevertheless, measurements of faecal indicator organisms within the risk based approach, can provide valuable information related to the magnitude and variability of faecal contamination, and hence provide insight into the expected level of potential pathogen contamination. In this study, a modelling approach is presented that estimates the concentration of norovirus in surface water relying on indicator monitoring data, combined with specific assumptions regarding the source of faecal contamination. The model is applied to a case study on drinking water treatment intake from the Glomma River in Norway. Norovirus concentrations were estimated in two sewage sources discharging into the river upstream of the drinking water offtake, and at the source water intake itself. The characteristics of the assumed source of faecal contamination, including the norovirus prevalence in the community, the size of the contributing population and the relative treatment efficacy for indicators and pathogens in the sewage treatment plant, influenced the magnitude and variability in the estimated norovirus concentration in surface waters. The modelling exercise presented is not intended to replace pathogen enumeration from environmental samples, but rather is proposed as a complement to better understand the sources and drivers of viruses in surface waters. The approach has the potential to inform sampling regimes by identifying when the best time would be to collect environmental samples; fill in the gaps between sparse datasets; and potentially extrapolate existing datasets in order to model rarer events such as an outbreak in the contributing population. In addition, and perhaps most universally, in the absence of pathogen data, this approach can be used as a first step to predict the source water pathogen concentration under different contamination scenarios for the purpose of quantifying microbial risks.
The authors describe experience associated with creation of automated system registering patients with occupational diseases, monitoring health state of patients with occupational diseases, specifying thorough analysis of occupational morbidity.