Negative pollution effects from atmospheric discharges by aluminium facilities exerted on population health can be traced by the parameters of the reproductive function in women, physical development of newborns, general and differential morbidity of children aged below one year as well as by anthropometric signs in birth, morbidity of children and adults, mortality, including due to oncology. The introduction of modern technologies including the preliminarily fire anode treatment and the use of highly effective methods of purification of industrial wastes cut the concentration (in atmospheric air) of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride and of solid fluorides as well as of aluminium to maximum permissible concentration; it also essentially reduced the content of benzapilene. A better atmospheric air observed yet in the course of renovation contributed to a lower morbidity of children, aged below one year, as well as to the prevalence of diseases affecting the eyes, respiratory and digestive organs, skin and subcutaneous cellular tissue; it also cuts the number of congenital anomalies versus the data obtained in a neighboring district.
The association between exposure to ambient air nitrogen dioxide and cough was evaluated in a panel study among 162 children aged 3-6 y. The weekly average nitrogen dioxide exposure was assessed with Palmes-tube measurements in three ways: (1) personally, (2) outside day-care centers, and (3) inside day-care centers. Ambient air nitrogen dioxide concentrations were obtained from the local network that monitored air quality. The parents recorded cough episodes daily in a diary. The risk of cough increased significantly (relative risk = 3.63; 95% confidence interval = 1.41, 9.30) in the highest personal nitrogen dioxide exposure category in winter, and a nonsignificant positive trend was noted for the other assessment groups. In spring, risk increased nonsignificantly in all exposure-assessment groups, except for the fixed-site monitoring assessment. It is important that investigators select an exposure-assessment method sufficiently accurate to reflect the effective pollutant dose in subjects.
Norwegian authorities have developed and adopted a method for assessing the magnitude of noise impact on a community in quantitative terms. The method takes into account all levels of noise annoyance experienced by all the residents in an area and transforms these data into a single quantity that can also be expressed in monetary terms. This method is contrary to other commonly used assessment methods where only a certain fraction of the impacted people, e.g. those "highly annoyed," is considered.
The respiratory health of 230 female and 1,734 male farming students (FS) and 407 male rural controls was analyzed. A significantly increased prevalence of cough (6.9%) was reported among the male FS compared to the controls (2.5%). Measured FEV1 and FVC did not differ between the male FS and the controls, as opposed to significantly higher values among the female FS compared to a random sample of urban females stratified for height. Skin prick test (SPT) to house dust and storage mites was significantly more prevalent among the controls (18.7%) compared to the male FS (12.8%) and the female FS (11.9%). The size of the house dust mite weal and the number of positive skin prick reactions were significantly associated with bronchial hyperreactivity. The difference in lung function among the female FS and the lower prevalence of skin reaction among the male FS and female FS probably reflects a healthy workers selection.
The hypothesis that exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the risk of developing cancer during childhood was investigated. The authors enrolled 1,989 children reported to the Danish Cancer Registry with a diagnosis of leukemia, tumor of the central nervous system, or malignant lymphoma during 1968-1991 and 5,506 control children selected at random from the entire childhood population. The residential histories of the children were traced from 9 months before birth until the time of diagnosis of the cases and a similar period for the controls. For each of the 18,440 identified addresses, information on traffic and the configuration of streets and buildings was collected. Average concentrations of benzene and nitrogen dioxide (indicators of traffic-related air pollution) were calculated for the relevant period, and exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and during childhood were calculated separately. The risks of leukemia, central nervous system tumors, and all selected cancers combined were not linked to exposure to benzene or nitrogen dioxide during either period. The risk of lymphomas increased by 25% (p for trend = 0.06) and 51% (p for trend = 0.05) for a doubling of the concentration of benzene and nitrogen dioxide, respectively, during the pregnancy. The association was restricted to Hodgkin's disease.
We present arguments that suggest that historical average calculated fields, which are widely used to estimate biologically relevant exposure to electromagnetic fields, may be less accurate than contemporary spot measurements, which are made at a time following the biologically relevant period of exposure. We use data from the seminal Feychting and Ahlbom study of the health effects of electromagnetic field exposure in a Swedish population to illustrate our argument. We also show how the two types of measurements can produce divergent estimates of risk, and show how in the Feychting and Ahlbom study, the less accurate measurement, the historical average calculated fields, may have resulted in a spurious increase in the estimates of risk. Finally, we consider the implications of our arguments for other studies that rely on wire codes and historical calculations of personal exposure.
Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development.
We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys.
From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) = 20 mL in either testis.
In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV = 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: -1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: -3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: -1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of ?HCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6-9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend
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A well-functioning voice is becoming increasingly important because voice-demanding professions are increasing. The largest proportion of voice disorders is caused by factors in the environment. Moisture damage is common and can initiate microbial growth and/or diffusion of chemicals from building materials. Indoor air problems due to moisture damage are associated with a number of health symptoms, for example, rhinitis, cough, and asthma symptoms. The purpose of this study was to investigate if children attending a day care center, preschool, or school with indoor air problems due to moisture damage were hoarse more often than the children in a control group.
Information was collected through electronic and paper questionnaires from the parents of 6- to 9-year-old children (n = 1857) attending 57 different day care centers, preschools, or schools with or without indoor air problems due to moisture damage.
The results showed a significant correlation between the degree of indoor air problem due to moisture damage and the frequency of hoarseness. Significant predictors for the child being hoarse every week or more often were dry cough, phlegm cough, and nasal congestion.
The results indicate that these symptoms and exposure to indoor air problems due to moisture damage should be included in voice anamnesis. Furthermore, efforts should be made to remediate indoor air problems due to moisture damage and to treat health symptoms.
Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent.
We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children.
We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders.
A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age.
Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.
Cites: Lancet. 2005 Jun 4-10;365(9475):1942-915936421
An observed increase in asthma admissions in Oslo during the 1980s prompted a prospective birth cohort study to ask the following question: was air pollution (outdoor and indoor) (in a broad sense) associated with asthma development in young children? During 12 months from 1 January 1992, 3,754 children (birth weight > or = 2,000 g) in Oslo were enrolled at birth into the Environment and Childhood Asthma (ECA) study and followed to 2 years of age (ECA-part I). Cord blood, a detailed questionnaire (family and pregnancy history of disease, environmental exposures, socio-economic status) completed by the mother and lung function measurements (n = 803) were collated at birth. Detailed questionnaires completed every 6 months for 2 years included the child's disease history, feeding habits and environmental exposures. A nested case-control study comprised 306 children with confirmed minimum two episodes of bronchial obstruction (rBO) and 306 controls (without lower respiratory tract disease) with clinical investigations (including tidal breathing lung function, beta-2 responsiveness and allergy assessment) and environmental exposure assessments (indoor and outdoor). Home dampness and low ventilation, as well as maternal smoking in pregnancy, but not outdoor air pollution increased the risk of rBO. Lung function at birth was decreased among newborns whose mother smoked during pregnancy. To understand better the early risk factors for asthma and allergy development, a follow-up study started (in 2001; ECA-part II) of all cases and controls, and those with lung function measured at birth (total 1,230 invited) (9-10 years of age). This involved clinical investigation, allergy assessments, lung function, airway hyper responsiveness measures, exhaled nitric oxide and immunological as well as allergen exposure investigations.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates renal dysfunction in areas without known environmental cadmium pollution and calculates the threshold level of urinary cadmium. METHODS: Urinary total protein, beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), used as indicators of renal dysfunction, and urinary cadmium concentration, used as an indicator of cadmium exposure, were measured in two sets of 24-hour urine samples from each of 828 participants (410 men, 418 women), aged 40-59 years and living in three areas without any known environmental cadmium pollution. In multiple regression and logistic regression analyses the association between indicators of cadmium exposure and indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The lower 95% confidence limit of the dose (benchmark dose) corresponding to a 5% (BMDL5) or 10% (BMDL10) level of each indicator of renal dysfunction above the background level) was calculated as the threshold level of urinary cadmium. RESULTS: With all the expressed units [g creatinine(-1) and day(-1)] in the multiple regression analysis, the partial regression coefficients showed a significant association between urinary cadmium concentration and total protein, beta2-MG, and NAG for both genders, except for total protein for women (g creatinine(-1) and day(-1). The same results were obtained for both genders in the logistic regression analysis. The BMDL10 was 0.6-1.2 microg/g creatinine and 0.8-1.6 microg/day for the men and 1.2-3.6 microg/g creatinine, and 0.5-4.7 microg/day for the women. CONCLUSIONS: Cadmium exposure and the levels of the indicators of renal dysfunction were associated among the men and women aged 40-59 years in areas without any known environmental cadmium pollution. The threshold level of urinary cadmium in Japan seems to be almost the same as in Belgium and Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Self-reported annoyance from electrical equipment has been in evidence since the mid-1980s, and the first reports of illness from everyday chemicals arose in the 1960s. However, the extent of the problem has not yet been fully established. AIMS: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of annoyance related to electrical and chemical factors in a Swedish general population, and to assess possible relationships with subjective health and daily functioning. METHODS: In total, 13,604 subjects, representative of the population of Scania, Sweden, answered a survey containing five questions regarding annoyance from five environmental factors: fluorescent tube lighting, visual display units, other electrical equipment, air that smells of chemicals, and other smells. The survey also obtained data on self-reported health (SRH-7), mental well-being [General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12], work situation and daily functioning. RESULTS: Almost one-third of the respondents reported annoyance from at least one environmental factor. Annoyance was more frequent among women, subjects of working age and immigrants. Subjects who reported environmental annoyance scored higher on GHQ-12 and lower on SRH-7, indicating impaired subjective physical and mental well-being. They were also more likely to report deteriorated daily functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Annoyance related to electrical and/or chemical factors was common in a Swedish population. Subjects reporting environmental annoyance rated their overall health significantly poorer than the general population. The association with subjective health and functional capacity increased with severity of annoyance, which suggests that there is some connection between environmental annoyance, well-being and functional capacity.
The article deals with clinical results of medical examination and treatment of children residents of industrial districts in Sverdlovsk area, with various methods of analysis determining relationships between heavy metals, metalloids and marker anamnestic data and hematologic abnormalities (changes in RBC, platelets and reticulocytes counts).
The immune status of Moscow dwellers was studied. The findings indicate the criterion significance of immunological and allergological parameters in the estimation of a risk of allergic diseases under the influence of poor environmental factors influence. Hyperactivity in individuals with high immunoglobulin class E levels to environmental factors is suggested by the elevated concentrations of serum specific IgE to intrahouse factors that in combination with the increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and the suppressed production interleukin-4 are criteria for the early manifestations of allergy.
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from fish and marine mammal consumption continues to present a public health concern. To date, developmental neurotoxicity is the most sensitive health outcome, forming the basis for health-risk assessments and the derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. This article summarizes existing Health Canada MeHg blood guidance values for general population and expands them to include a harmonized provisional interim blood guidance value of 8 microg/L based on the existing provisional Tolerable Daily Intake for children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Associated public health actions, according to age, sex, and level of exposure are recommended.
This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism. The evidence presented here does not support a causal association between autism and mercury exposure from the preservative thimerosal. The risk for autism from other mercury exposures such as from dental amalgam restorations or environmental mercury release into the atmosphere is ambiguous. Since mercury is a known neurotoxin, more research should be done to ensure that mercury exposure from any source does not contribute to autism.
There was performed an investigation of informativeness of indices of the heart rate variability at rest and during orthostatic testing in the adolescent girls residing in the industrial town and in the village. The influence of unfa- vorable environmental factors was established to be reflected by the indices of the spectral analysis and cardioin- tervalography. In urban girls there was noted the marked increase of the centralization of heart rhythm control on the background of the increased activity of the sympathetic compartment and the reduction of the influence of the parasympathetic compartment of the autonomous nervous system on the sinus node. In rural adolescent girls the func- tional state of the autonomic nervous system being the optimal is characterized by an adequate response to the active orthostatic test of the parasympathetic and sympathetic compartments with the moderate involvement of mechanisms of the central control of the cardiac rhythm. Results of the study have an important significance for the diagnosis of the early disorders of health in adolescent girls.