Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis is a priority for various public health authorities. Given that waterborne transmission is sometimes incriminated during investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks, the authors hypothesized that watershed characteristics may influence the occurrence of this disease and could contribute additional insights for better prevention and control. The study described here aimed to investigate watershed characteristics in relation to nonviral gastroenteritis and specifically three bacterial and parasitic forms of childhood gastroenteritis to assess their relative importance in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on children aged 0-4 years with bacterial or parasitic enteric infections reported through ongoing surveillance between 1999 and 2006 in the province of Quebec was collected. Factors measured at the municipal and watershed levels were analyzed using multilevel models with a Poisson distribution and log link function. Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis, giardiasis, and campylobacteriosis were positively associated with small ruminants and cattle density. Childhood salmonellosis was positively associated with cattle density. Also, childhood campylobacteriosis incidence was positively associated with larger watershed agricultural surface. In addition to local agroenvironmental factors, this analysis revealed an important watershed effect.
Prolonged high temperatures and air pollution from wildfires often occur together, and the two may interact in their effects on mortality. However, there are few data on such possible interactions.
We analyzed day-to-day variations in the number of deaths in Moscow, Russia, in relation to air pollution levels and temperature during the disastrous heat wave and wildfire of 2010. Corresponding data for the period 2006-2009 were used for comparison. Daily average levels of PM10 and ozone were obtained from several continuous measurement stations. The daily number of nonaccidental deaths from specific causes was extracted from official records. Analyses of interactions considered the main effect of temperature as well as the added effect of prolonged high temperatures and the interaction with PM10.
The major heat wave lasted for 44 days, with 24-hour average temperatures ranging from 24°C to 31°C and PM10 levels exceeding 300 µg/m on several days. There were close to 11,000 excess deaths from nonaccidental causes during this period, mainly among those older than 65 years. Increased risks also occurred in younger age groups. The most pronounced effects were for deaths from cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and nervous system diseases. Continuously increasing risks following prolonged high temperatures were apparent during the first 2 weeks of the heat wave. Interactions between high temperatures and air pollution from wildfires in excess of an additive effect contributed to more than 2000 deaths.
Interactions between high temperatures and wildfire air pollution should be considered in risk assessments regarding health consequences of climate change.
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Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and nerves of insect pests and are designed to gradually release DDVP vapor for up to 4 months. Acute illnesses in humans associated with nonlethal acute exposures usually resolve completely, but recovery is not always rapid. To assess the frequency of acute illnesses associated with DDVP pest strips, cases from 2000 through June 2013 were sought from the 12 states that participate in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), and Health Canada.* A total of 31 acute DDVP pest strip-related illness cases were identified in seven U.S. states and Canada. The majority of these illnesses resulted from use of the product in commonly occupied living areas (e.g., kitchens and bedrooms), in violation of label directions. Although 26 of the 31 cases involved mild health effects of short duration, five persons had moderate health effects. Illnesses caused by excess exposure to DDVP pest strips can be reduced by educating the public about the proper usage of DDVP pest strips and with improvements in label directions.
Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has been associated with impaired lactation in mice. We examined whether maternal perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA concentrations correlated with duration of breastfeeding among women.
We randomly selected 1400 pregnant women from the Danish national birth cohort (1996-2002) and measured PFOS and PFOA concentrations in early pregnancy by using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Self-reported data on the duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding were collected twice during telephone interviews around 6 and 18 months after the birth of the child.
The duration of breastfeeding decreased with increasing concentrations of pregnancy PFOS and PFOA among multiparous women, for whom the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for weaning before 6 months of age were 1.20 (95% CI 1.06-1.37) per 10 ng/ml increase in PFOS concentrations and 1.23 (95% CI 1.13-1.33) per 1 ng/ml increase in PFOA concentrations. No consistent association was found for primiparous women.
These findings suggest that PFOA and PFOS may reduce the ability to lactate, but could equally reflect reverse causation since no association was seen in primiparous women.
Exposed to environmental pollution with emissions from industrial enterprises, the population of their contiguous rural areas faces a high risk of their health. The studies of the health status of the population from the contiguous rural areas versus that from the non-contiguous ones have established that measurements of a risk to the children's health revealed the highest risk among the contiguous areas in the Sterlitamaksky district and the least risk among the non-contiguous ones in the Askinsky district. The markers of carcinogenic ill-being in the contiguous rural areas were the incidence of cancer of the lip, esophagus, stomach, larynx, cervix uteri, uterine appendages, and prostate and leukemia. The high risk of cancer of the lip and esophagus in the control area and in other non-contiguous rural areas may be accounted for by the bad life-style in villagers, alcohol abuse, and smoking.
The objective of this study was to estimate the intake of organic tin compounds from foodstuffs in a Finnish market basket. The study was conducted by collecting 13 market baskets from supermarkets and market places in the city of Kuopio, eastern Finland. Altogether 115 different food items were bought. In each basket, foodstuffs were mixed in proportion to their consumption and analysed by GC/MS for seven organic tin compounds (mono-, di-, and tributyltin, mono-, di-, and triphenyltin, and dioctyltin). Organotin compounds were detected in only four baskets, with the fish basket containing the largest number of different organotins. The European Food Safety Authority has established a tolerable daily intake of 250 ng kg(-1) body weight for the sum of dibutyltin, tributyltin, triphenyltin and dioctyltin. According to this study, the daily intake of these compounds was 2.47 ng kg(-1) body weight, of which 81% originated from the fish basket. This exposure is only 1% of the tolerable daily intake and poses negligible risk to the average consumer. However, for consumers eating large quantities of fish from contaminated areas, the intake may be much higher.
Isolated and complex effects of environmental factors on adaptation abilities of the body, function of different organs and systems, composition of peripheral blood and course of disease were studies in 245 children aging from 6 to 14 years with remitted chronic pyelonephritis with normal renal function. Mineral water "Naftusia" (100-200 ml a day), lumbar applications of ozocerite, mineral baths and exercise therapy were used. Our findings give a reason to consider sanatory rehabilitation a promising method of health promotion and correction of functional disorders.
Methods for determining personal exposure to lead and cadmium were tested in Stockholm in 1988. Lead and cadmium in breathing-zone air, 24-h duplicate diets, and feces of 15 nonsmoking women (27-46 years of age) were studied. Blood was collected at the beginning of and immediately after the test period (seven consecutive days). An extensive quality assurance program was included. Most technical problems were encountered in the 24-h collection of airborne particles. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8 h. The lead and cadmium levels in feces were found to be useful indicators of the total ingested amounts of these metals. Because of the large day-to-day variation in the dietary intake of lead and cadmium, the sampling period for duplicate diets and feces should be at least 5-6 d.
Pyrethroids are a class of plant-derived insecticides and their man-made analogues that are increasingly applied in Canada as first choice for pest control in many agricultural and residential settings. Their popularity is partly due to their alleged safety compared to the older organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides. Application of pyrethroids is expanding because of recent increases in the level of pest infestations--such as bed bugs--and the decreased susceptibility of target species to many pest control products. Pyrethroid residues have been documented in homes, child care centres and food. While pyrethroids are considered of low health risk for humans, their increased use is of concern. Our current understanding of the adverse effects of pyrethroids derives mainly from studies of short-term effects in laboratory animals, case reports of self- and accidental poisonings, and high-dose occupational exposures, for which the levels and formulations of pyrethroid products differ from those relevant for long-term exposure in the general population. The available data suggest that the reproductive and nervous systems, endocrine signalling pathways, and early childhood development may be targets for adverse effects in the case of repeated exposure to pyrethroid formulations. Given uncertainty about the existence of long-term health effects of exposure to pyrethroids, particularly under realistic scenarios, we should be cautious when promoting pyrethroid products as safe methods for pest control.
About 90% of our time is spent indoors where we are exposed to chemical and biological contaminants and possibly to carcinogens. These agents may influence the risk of developing nonspecific respiratory and neurologic symptoms, allergies, asthma and lung cancer. We review the sources, health effects and control strategies for several of these agents. There are conflicting data about indoor allergens. Early exposure may increase or may decrease the risk of future sensitization. Reports of indoor moulds or dampness or both are consistently associated with increased respiratory symptoms but causality has not been established. After cigarette smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and radon are the most common causes of lung cancer. Homeowners can improve the air quality in their homes, often with relatively simple measures, which should provide health benefits.
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Due to the massive pollution of the Techa-Iset river system with the radioactive sewage of the Mayak industrial association in the 1950s, the factors responsible for the incidence of diseases were studied in 5 districts of the Kurgan Region along the territory of which rivers flow. There is a direct relationship of children's morbidity to ambient air pollution. The determinants of adult morbidity are air pollution and water quality. There is an inverse correlation of morbidity with the provision with therapists and with the economic indices of districts. The prevalence of some types of diseases, such as those of the endocrine and respiratory systems, ulcer disease correlates with the ranking position of a district in the level of pollution in the Techa and Iset Rivers.
The epidemiological data based on the exposure of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and cancer incidence and mortality were analyzed to study the relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk.
According to the online search of relevant literatures, Poisson regression was used to analyze mortality rates for major cancer sites and fixed-effect model was employed to assess cancer SMR. The dose-response relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk was also analyzed.
Major cancer mortality rates of exposure populations researched in American and Canadian studies were approximate to or lower than national male cancer mortality rates respectively. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer in occupational exposure population was over 16.4 times in comparison with the population exposed from to drinking water and food. The pooled SMR value of kidney cancer was 1.34 (95% CI 1.02-1.77). The pooled RR for major cancer mortality increased with the rise of PCP exposure level.
A potential dose-response relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk could exist. In comparison with to the population to exposed from the drinking water and food, the risk of colorectal cancer in occupational exposure population was higher. PCP may be one of the risk factors of the kidney cancer in occupational exposure population.
The use of pesticides has enhanced the health and economies of nations around the world by improving crop production. However, pesticides may pose health risks, particularly to the fetus and young children. In a secondary analysis of the Ontario Farm Family Health Study, we explored the relationship between birth defects and parental pesticide exposure during the 3 months prior to conception and the first trimester of pregnancy. A total of 3412 pregnancies were included in the study. Logistic regression fit by maximum likelihood was used in the analysis. The results showed that pre-conception exposure to both cyanazine (odds ratio=4.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-15.27) and dicamba (OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.06-5.53) were associated with increased risk of birth defects in male offspring. Nevertheless, given the self-reported nature of the exposure and outcomes in this study, the present findings should be considered primarily as hypothesis generating, requiring verification in subsequent investigations.
The hygienic study conducted in Rostov-on-Don has shown that air transport and airports are important sources of physical and chemical pollution of the environment. Human health examinations served to illustrate the adverse impact of airports on the environmental and hygienic living conditions of the population. The performed studies provided the basis for purpose-oriented program to enhance the environment and to reduce morbidity rates in accordance with the National Environmental Hygiene Program. The developed algorithm of the assessment and reduction of a risk for diseases under the influence of poor factors associated with the activities of airports is designed to provide the authorities and concerned organizations with information, to make managerial decisions, and to work out health-improving measures.
Physical and sexual developments were determined in 285 schoolchildren aged 12 to 17 years from the town of Karabash, an area of ecological ill-being in the environmental levels of heavy metal salts. The atmospheric air pollution was in parallel monitored at route observational stations. It was found that 39% of the schoolchildren had disharmonic physical development; of them a fourth had lower body weight and decreased chest circumference with normal growth indices. The girls were observed to have a high frequency of a microsomatotype of harmonic physical development and disharmonic physical development mainly at the expense of underweight (52.9% of all the disharmonically developed girls) as compared with the boys. There was a preponderance of female adolescents with sexual retardation. In the population of Karabash girls, the mean age at menarche was 12 years and 9 months +/- 1.5 months.
The immune status of Moscow dwellers was studied. The findings indicate the criterion significance of immunological and allergological parameters in the estimation of a risk of allergic diseases under the influence of poor environmental factors influence. Hyperactivity in individuals with high immunoglobulin class E levels to environmental factors is suggested by the elevated concentrations of serum specific IgE to intrahouse factors that in combination with the increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and the suppressed production interleukin-4 are criteria for the early manifestations of allergy.
Exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from fish and marine mammal consumption continues to present a public health concern. To date, developmental neurotoxicity is the most sensitive health outcome, forming the basis for health-risk assessments and the derivation of biomonitoring guidance values. This article summarizes existing Health Canada MeHg blood guidance values for general population and expands them to include a harmonized provisional interim blood guidance value of 8 microg/L based on the existing provisional Tolerable Daily Intake for children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age. Associated public health actions, according to age, sex, and level of exposure are recommended.
INTRODUCTION: The ability of fingers to rapidly rewarm following cold exposure is a possible indicator of cold injury protection. We categorized the post-cooling hand-rewarming responses of men before and after participation in 15 mo of military training in a cold environment in northern Sweden to determine: 1) if the initial rewarming category was related to the occurrence of local cold injury during training; and 2) if cold training affected subsequent hand-rewarming responses. METHODS: Immersion of the dominant hand in 10 degrees C water for 10 min was performed pre-training on 77 men. Of those, 45 were available for successful post-training retests. Infrared thermography monitored the dorsal hand during 30 min of recovery. Rewarming was categorized as normal, moderate, or slow based on mean fingertip temperature at the end of 30 min of recovery (TFinger,30) and the percentage of time that fingertips were vasodilated (%VD). RESULTS: Cold injury occurrence during training was disproportionately higher in the slow rewarmers (four of the five injuries). Post-training, baseline fingertip temperatures and cold recovery variables increased significantly in moderate and slow rewarmers: TFinger30 increased from 21.9 +/- 4 to 30.4 +/- 6 degrees C (Moderate), and from 17.4 +/- 0 to 22.3 +/- 7 degrees C (Slow); %VD increased from 27.5 +/- 16 to 65.9 +/- 34% (Moderate), and from 0.7 +/- 2 to 31.7 +/- 44% (Slow). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the cold recovery test were related to the occurrence of local cold injury during long-term cold-weather training. Cold training itself improved baseline and cold recovery in moderate and slow rewarmers.