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Neonatal cold injury in the Northwest Territories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1596
Source
Canadian Medical Association Journal. 97:970-973.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1967
Author
Maxwell, B.E.
Source
Canadian Medical Association Journal. 97:970-973.
Date
1967
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Cambridge Bay
Spence Bay
Infanticide
Arctic Regions
Body temperature
Body Temperature Regulation
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Hypothermia
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Inuits
Male
Frostbite
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2733.
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Organochlorine hydrocarbons in human breast milk collected in Hong Kong and Guangzhou.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58483
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002 Oct;43(3):364-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
C K C Wong
K M Leung
B H T Poon
C Y Lan
M H Wong
Author Affiliation
Institute for Natural Resources and Environmental Management, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, PR China.
Source
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2002 Oct;43(3):364-72
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Burden
China
Data Collection
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food Contamination
Hong Kong
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Middle Aged
Milk, human - chemistry
Pesticide Residues - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood
Abstract
In southern China, the awareness of persistent organic pollutant contamination has been increasing as a considerable number of past studies in Hong Kong had reported their trail in the coastal sediments, green-lipped mussels, muscle and viscera of pond fish, and foodstuffs. Hence there is an urgent need to assess their existence, contamination profiles, and potential impact on the public. In the present study, a survey was conducted to examine p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, beta-HCH, and PCB concentrations in human breast milk, one of the most reliable bioaccumulation indicators. Milk samples (115 from Hong Kong and 54 from Guangzhou), in the lactation period from 3-5 weeks were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the mean levels of p,p'-DDT (Hong Kong: 0.39; Guangzhou: 0.70 microg/g of fat), p,p'-DDE (2.48; 2.85), and beta-HCH (0.95; 1.11) were 2-15-fold higher when compared with studies conducted elsewhere ( i.e., United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, Spain, and Canada), and in contrast the concentration of PCBs (0.035; 0.031) was about 10 times lower. When compared to a similar study conducted 10 years ago in Hong Kong ( p,p'-DDT 2.17 microg/g of fat, p,p'-DDE 11.67, beta-HCH 15.96, and PCB 0.64), a considerable reduction in the levels of their contaminations was observed. The drastic reduction in body burdens in 10 years' time is presumably the result of effective regulatory actions. It is worth noting that body burden correlated positively with maternal age (total DDT, r = 0.93; beta-HCH, r = 0.91; PCBs, r = 0.77) and with historical record of seafood consumption (total DDT, r = 0.89; beta-HCH, r = 0.98; PCBs, r = 0.91) (p
PubMed ID
12202934 View in PubMed
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Blood lead concentrations and iron deficiency in Canadian aboriginal infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58507
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2002 Apr 22;289(1-3):255-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-22-2002
Author
Noreen D Willows
Katherine Gray-Donald
Author Affiliation
Canadian Institutes of Health Research Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2002 Apr 22;289(1-3):255-60
Date
Apr-22-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency - epidemiology - ethnology
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fishes
Hemoglobins - analysis
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant Welfare
Iron - blood
Lead - blood
Male
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Aboriginal Cree infants living in northern Quebec who were 9 months of age were screened for anemia, iron deficiency and elevated blood lead concentrations. Of the 314 infants who were eligible to participate, 274 (87.3%) were screened for anemia, 186 had blood lead concentration measured and 141 of the latter group had iron status determined. The median blood lead concentration was 0.08 micromol/l (range 0.01-1.00 micromol/l). The 25, 50 and 75 percentiles for blood lead concentration were 0.05, 0.08 and 0.12 micromol/l, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood lead concentrations (> 0.48 micromol/l) was 2.7% (95% Cl 0.36-5.0). Among infants who had blood lead measured, the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin
PubMed ID
12049403 View in PubMed
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Reconstruction of the ingestion doses received by the population evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl reactor.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58562
Source
Health Phys. 2002 Feb;82(2):173-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2002
Author
Gerhard Pröhl
Konrad Mück
Ilya Likhtarev
Lina Kovgan
Vladislav Golikov
Author Affiliation
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
Source
Health Phys. 2002 Feb;82(2):173-81
Date
Feb-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Adult
Comparative Study
Environmental Exposure
Food contamination, radioactive
Humans
Infant
Inhalation Exposure
Models, Theoretical
Nuclear Reactors
Radioactive fallout
Radiometry
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Rural Population
Ukraine
Abstract
As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, about 50,000 people were evacuated from the settlements in the 30-km zone around the reactor in the period 3-11 d after the accident. As no countermeasures were implemented in the early phase, people continued to consume milk and some leafy vegetables. In this paper, average effective ingestion doses are modeled for evacuees. Input data for the assessment are the 137Cs activity per unit area, the ratios of the radionuclides relative to 137Cs, the mean day of evacuation, and intake rates for milk and green vegetables. The transfer of radionuclides from deposition to humans is estimated by modeling radionuclide interception by vegetation, weathering, and the time-dependent transfer of radionuclides to milk taking into account site-specific agricultural practices. Depending on the evacuation day and site, the estimated ingestion doses for the settlements are in the range of 20 to 1,300 mSv and 3 to 180 mSv for infants and adults, respectively. 131I is by far the most important isotope, the ingestion dose due to 133I is more than one order of magnitude lower. The most exposed organ is the thyroid, inducing more than 80% and 50% of the ingestion dose for infants and adults. The ingestion doses are compared to the doses due to inhalation and external exposure. The internal dose exceeds the external by a factor of about 2-10 for adults and 2-40 for 1-y-old infants depending on site and evacuation day. The thyroid doses assessed for the evacuees are consistent with results achieved in studies performed in areas outside the 30-km zone.
PubMed ID
11797892 View in PubMed
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Exposure to microbial agents in house dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122533
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
U. Gehring
M. Korppi
G. Doekes
J. Riedler
C. Braun-Fahrländer
S. Bitter
S. Schmid
L. Keski-Nisula
M. Roponen
V. Kaulek
J-C Dalphin
P I Pfefferle
H. Renz
G. Büchele
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland. anne.karvonen@thl.fi
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Austria - epidemiology
Biological Markers - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - immunology
Dust - analysis - immunology
Endotoxins - analysis - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Finland - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - blood - immunology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Polysaccharides - analysis - immunology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - immunology
Rural Population
Switzerland - epidemiology
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with development of wheezing and allergic diseases.
To assess the association of microbial exposure in rural homes with the risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic dermatitis and sensitization.
Birth cohorts of rural children (n = 1133), half from farmer families, were followed up from birth to 2 years of age by questionnaires in five European centres. Endotoxin and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. were determined from living room floor and mother's mattress dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Specific IgE against 19 allergens was measured at 1 year of age. Discrete-time hazard models, generalized estimations equations (GEE) and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses.
The incidence of asthma was inversely associated with the amount of dust (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) and the loads (units/m(2)) of EPS (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.04) and endotoxin (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.05) in the mother's mattress. Similar associations were seen with wheezing and with living room floor dust. The microbial markers were highly correlated and their effects could not be clearly separated. The inverse associations were seen especially among non-farmers. The risk of sensitization to inhalant allergens increased with increasing endotoxin exposure from mattress dust. No associations were observed with concentrations (units/g) or with atopic dermatitis.
The amount and microbial content of house dust were inversely associated with asthma and wheezing, but due to high correlations between microbial agents and amount of dust, it was not possible to disentangle their individual effects. New ways to better measure and represent exposure to environmental microbes, including indexes of biodiversity, are needed especially among farmers.
PubMed ID
22805472 View in PubMed
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Indicators of trace-element status of children living in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122565
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Nov;152(1):12-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
F G Sitdikov
N V Svyatova
E S Egerev
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Health of the Tatar State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Kazan, Russia.
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Nov;152(1):12-4
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Environmental Exposure
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Rural Population
Russia
Soil Pollutants - chemistry - metabolism
Trace Elements - chemistry - metabolism
Water Pollutants - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
The content of essential and toxic elements, except beryllium and mercury, in the hair of examined children (girls aged 7-9 years) is within the biologically acceptable levels set by WHO. The data on the content of essential trace elements suggest that urgent measures aimed at normalization of the elemental status of children are required.
PubMed ID
22803027 View in PubMed
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in U.S. mothers' milk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58352
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Nov;111(14):1723-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Arnold Schecter
Marian Pavuk
Olaf Päpke
John Jake Ryan
Linda Birnbaum
Robin Rosen
Author Affiliation
University of Texas Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health, Dallas Regional Campus, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. arnold.schecter@utsouthwestern.edu
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Nov;111(14):1723-9
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Adult
Breast Feeding
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Ethers
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Milk, human - chemistry
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Texas
Tissue Distribution
Abstract
No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in human milk from individual U.S. mothers. This article on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other chlorinated organic compounds in human milk in a number of countries. PBDE commercial products are used as flame retardants in flexible polyurethane foam (penta-BDE), in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins (octa-BDE), and in high-impact polystyrene resins (deca-BDE). Their use is permitted in the United States but is banned in some European countries because of presumed toxicity, demonstrated persistence, and bioaccumulation. Different commercial products can be found in various consumer products such as television sets, computers, computer monitors and printers, carpets, and upholstery. Analyses of human levels of these compounds suggest low but rising levels in European human milk, which may have peaked, at least in Sweden, in the late 1990s. Very few data exist on levels of PBDEs in humans in the United States, and none from milk from individual nursing mothers. To address this issue, we analyzed 47 individual milk samples from nursing mothers, 20-41 years of age, from a milk bank in Austin, Texas, and a community women's health clinic in Dallas, Texas. Up to 13 PBDE congeners were measured. The concentrations of the sum of PBDE congeners varied from 6.2 to 419 ng/g (or parts per billion) lipid, with a median of 34 ng/g and a mean of 73.9 ng/g lipid. The PBDE levels in breast milk from Texas were similar to levels found in U.S. blood and adipose tissue lipid from California and Indiana and are 10-100 times greater than human tissue levels in Europe. Their detection in breast milk raises concern for potential toxicity to nursing infants, given the persistence and bioaccumulative nature of some of the PBDE congeners. These results indicate a need for more detailed investigation of the levels of PBDE in people and food, as well as determining if animal fat in food is the major route of exposure of the general U.S. population. Other routes of intake may also be significant.
PubMed ID
14594622 View in PubMed
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58376
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1249-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2003
Author
Anita Mazdai
Nathan G Dodder
Mary Pell Abernathy
Ronald A Hites
Robert M Bigsby
Author Affiliation
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis 46202-5121,USA.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1249-52
Date
Jul-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Polybrominated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk assessment
Sweden
Thyroid Hormones - blood
United States
Abstract
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in consumer goods, such as plastics, electronics, textiles, and construction material. PBDEs have been found in human milk, fat, and blood samples. Rodent studies indicate that PBDEs may be detrimental to neurodevelopment, possibly by lowering thyroid hormone concentrations in blood. In the present study, we determined concentrations of PBDEs and thyroid hormones in human fetal and maternal serum. Patients presenting in labor to Indiana University and Wishard Memorial County hospitals in Indianapolis, who were older than 18 years, were recruited to participate. Twelve paired samples of maternal and cord blood were obtained and analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry; thyroid hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Six congeners of PBDE were measured in maternal and fetal serum samples. The concentrations of total PBDEs found in maternal sera ranged from 15 to 580 ng/g lipid, and the concentrations found in fetal samples ranged from 14 to 460 ng/g lipid. Individual fetal blood concentrations did not differ from the corresponding maternal concentrations, indicating that measurement of maternal PBDE blood levels is useful in predicting fetal exposure; similarly, other reports have shown a high correlation between PBDE in mother's milk and fetal exposure. In accord with reports on other biologic samples, the tetrabrominated PBDE congener BDE-47 accounted for 53-64% of total PBDEs in the serum. The concentrations of PBDEs found in maternal and fetal serum samples were 20-106-fold higher than the levels reported previously in a similar population of Swedish mothers and infants. In this small sample, there was no apparent correlation between serum PBDEs and thyroid hormone concentrations. Our study shows that human fetuses in the United States may be exposed to relatively high levels of PBDEs. Further investigation is required to determine if these levels are specific to central Indiana and to assess the toxic potential of these exposure levels.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):A48012877153
PubMed ID
12842781 View in PubMed
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Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71384
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):431-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2003
Author
Marte Haave
Erik Ropstad
Andrew E Derocher
Elisabeth Lie
Ellen Dahl
Øystein Wiig
Janneche U Skaare
Bjørn Munro Jenssen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr;111(4):431-6
Date
Apr-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Endocrine System - drug effects
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - blood
Estradiol - blood
Female
Health status
Norway
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Progesterone - blood
Reproduction
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Ursidae - physiology
Abstract
High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.
PubMed ID
12676595 View in PubMed
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Altered microRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes in asthmatic patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117113
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):894-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Bettina Levänen
Nirav R Bhakta
Patricia Torregrosa Paredes
Rebecca Barbeau
Stefanie Hiltbrunner
Joshua L Pollack
C Magnus Sköld
Magnus Svartengren
Johan Grunewald
Susanne Gabrielsson
Anders Eklund
Britt-Marie Larsson
Prescott G Woodruff
David J Erle
Åsa M Wheelock
Author Affiliation
Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. bettina.levanen@ki.se
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):894-903
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Asthma - genetics - physiopathology
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Cytokines - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Exosomes - genetics
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Janus Kinases - genetics
Male
MicroRNAs - analysis
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - genetics
STAT Transcription Factors - genetics
Sweden
Vital Capacity
Young Adult
Abstract
Asthma is characterized by increased airway narrowing in response to nonspecific stimuli. The disorder is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles of endosomal origin released from inflammatory and epithelial cells that have been implicated in asthma. In this study we characterized the microRNA (miRNA) content of exosomes in healthy control subjects and patients with mild intermittent asthma both at unprovoked baseline and in response to environmental challenge.
To investigate alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomal miRNA profiles due to asthma, and following subway air exposure.
Exosomes were isolated from BALF from healthy control subjects (n = 10) and patients with mild intermittent asthma (n = 10) after subway and control exposures. Exosomal RNA was analyzed by using microarrays containing probes for 894 human miRNAs, and selected findings were validated with quantitative RT-PCR. Results were analyzed by using multivariate modeling.
The presence of miRNAs was confirmed in exosomes from BALF of both asthmatic patients and healthy control subjects. Significant differences in BALF exosomal miRNA was detected for 24 miRNAs with a subset of 16 miRNAs, including members of the let-7 and miRNA-200 families, providing robust classification of patients with mild nonsymptomatic asthma from healthy subjects with 72% cross-validated predictive power (Q(2) = 0.72). In contrast, subway exposure did not cause any significant alterations in miRNA profiles.
These studies demonstrate substantial differences in exosomal miRNA profiles between healthy subjects and patients with unprovoked, mild, stable asthma. These changes might be important in the inflammatory response leading to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23333113 View in PubMed
Less detail

Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134747
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Roberta F White
Carole L Palumbo
Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
Kristin J Heaton
Pal Weihe
Frodi Debes
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. rwhite@bu.edu
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - drug effects
Adolescent Development - drug effects
Age Factors
Brain - drug effects - pathology
Brain Mapping - methods
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Motor Activity - drug effects
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Photic Stimulation
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Seafood - adverse effects
Abstract
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction.
PubMed ID
21545807 View in PubMed
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Farm children's exposure to herbicides: comparison of biomonitoring and questionnaire data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180236
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
Donald C Cole
Len Ritter
Brian D Ripley
Author Affiliation
Health Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. Tye_Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
Adolescent
Adult
Agriculture
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Herbicides - urine
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Questionnaires
Abstract
Pesticide exposure has been associated with various childhood cancers. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, with few using biologic measures of dose. This study was designed to measure herbicide exposure directly in children of farm applicators, and to compare these results with exposure imputed from questionnaire information.
Two consecutive 24-hour urine samples were collected from 92 children of Ontario farm applicators who used the herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) for the first time during 1996. The farm applicator completed questionnaires describing his pesticide-handling practices as well as the child's location during the various stages of handling these pesticides.
Approximately 30% of the children on farms using these herbicides had detectable concentrations in their urine, with maximum values of 100 microg/L for 2,4-D and 45 microg/L for MCPA. Children with higher levels were more likely to be boys and to have parents who also had higher mean urinary concentrations. The sensitivity and specificity of a simple indicator of use were 47% and 72%, respectively, for 2,4-D, and 91% and 30%, respectively, for MCPA, using the biomonitoring data as the gold standard.
Information on living on a farm, or on living on a farm where a specific pesticide is used, is not enough to classify children's exposures. Given this potential for misclassification, we urge incorporation of biomonitoring studies in subsets of children at least to estimate the extent of misclassification.
PubMed ID
15127911 View in PubMed
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Variability of personal chemical exposure in eight office buildings in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180313
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2004;14 Suppl 1:S49-57
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Bo Glas
Jan-Olof Levin
Berndt Stenberg
Hans Stenlund
Anna-Lena Sunesson
Author Affiliation
Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden. bo.glas@vll.se
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2004;14 Suppl 1:S49-57
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Aldehydes - analysis
Amines - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiologic Studies
Facility Design and Construction
Humans
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Organic Chemicals - analysis
Ozone - analysis
Particle Size
Reproducibility of Results
Sick Building Syndrome - etiology
Sweden
Workplace
Abstract
This study focuses on the variability in chemical exposures for individuals working in office buildings. The study involved eight office buildings with 79 participants, and exposures were measured using personal samplers for volatile organic compounds, aldehydes, amines, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particles. Ventilation was assessed in each individual office. "Variability among buildings" and "variability among individuals" were evaluated for any component (of the 123) measured in samples from at least 20 persons, using variance component analysis and principal component analysis. Interpersonal differences explained the major part of the variance for 78% of the compounds versus between-buildings differences for 14% of the compounds. For 8% of compounds, the variation was explained in equal amounts by the differences among individuals and among buildings. This study illustrates the necessity for individualised measurements (versus stationary measurements in building) to estimate personal exposures. These results also support the conclusion that in case-referent studies of "sick building syndrome" (SBS), referents to SBS cases can be randomised for building location.
PubMed ID
15118745 View in PubMed
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Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Marianne Berwick
Author Affiliation
University of New Mexico Cancer Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. mberwick@salud.unm.edu
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Melanoma - blood - etiology - mortality
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - blood - etiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Ultraviolet Rays
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
A Swedish cohort analysis in this issue (1) demonstrates a significant reduction in all cause mortality and in cardiovascular mortality associated with several measures of sun exposure. In addition, ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. A potential explanation for the protective association is that UV exposure results in high levels of serum vitamin D which may improve survival. However, that explanation does not hold for ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds, which in this study is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. Such a finding is curious and inconsistent with a vitamin D hypothesis. These results should impel investigators to study further the biology of ultraviolet radiation, both natural and artificial, and its health effects.
Notes
RefSource: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):683-90
PubMed ID
21454422 View in PubMed
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Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents: direct or annoyance-mediated associations?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268820
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Victoria Blanes-Vidal
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Ammonia - analysis
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Odors - analysis
Self Report
Abstract
Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were characterized by data from emission-dispersion validated models. Logistic regression and mediating analyses were used to examine associations between exposures and questionnaire-based data on annoyance and non-specific symptoms, after adjusting by person-specific covariates. Strong dose-response associations were found between exposures and annoyance, and between annoyance and symptoms. Associations between exposures and symptoms (nausea, headache, dizziness, difficulty concentrating and unnatural fatigue) were indirect (annoyance-mediated). This study indicates that environmental exposures play an important role in the genesis of non-specific symptoms among residents exposed to low-to-moderate air pollution from biodegradable wastes, although the effects seem to be indirect, relayed through stress-related mechanisms.
PubMed ID
25192839 View in PubMed
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Association between perfluorinated compound exposure and miscarriage in Danish pregnant women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269093
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123496
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Tina Kold Jensen
Louise Bjørkholt Andersen
Henriette Boye Kyhl
Flemming Nielsen
Henrik Thybo Christesen
Philippe Grandjean
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123496
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - chemically induced
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fluorocarbons - toxicity
Humans
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25848775 View in PubMed
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Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269405
Source
Environ Health. 2015;14:31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Stephanie Huynh
My von Euler-Chelpin
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Ole Hertel
Anne Tjønneland
Elsebeth Lynge
Ilse Vejborg
Zorana J Andersen
Source
Environ Health. 2015;14:31
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Breast Neoplasms - chemically induced - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Mammary Glands, Human - abnormalities
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Vehicle Emissions - toxicity
Abstract
Growing evidence suggests that air pollution may be a risk factor for breast cancer, but the biological mechanism remains unknown. High mammographic density (MD) is one of the strongest predictors and biomarkers of breast cancer risk, but it has yet to be linked to air pollution. We investigated the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and MD in a prospective cohort of women 50 years and older.
For the 4,769 women (3,930 postmenopausal) participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. MD was defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Traffic-related air pollution at residence was assessed by modeled levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The association between mean NOx and NO2 levels since 1971 until cohort baseline (1993-97) and MD was analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders, and separately by menopause, smoking status, and obesity.
We found inverse, statistically borderline significant associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and having mixed/dense MD in our fully adjusted model (OR; 95% CI: 0.96; 0.93-1.01 per 20 µg/m(3) of NOx and 0.89; 0.80- 0.98 per 10 µg/m(3) of NO2). There was no interaction with menopause, smoking, or obesity.
Traffic-related air pollution exposure does not increase MD, indicating that if air pollution increases breast cancer risk, it is not via MD.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25879829 View in PubMed
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Genetics and gene-environment interactions in atopic diseases. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87519
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Håberg Siri E
Nafstad Per
Nystad Wenche
Magnus Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. siri.haberg@fhi.no
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Fathers
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) aims to provide new insights in a broad variety of diseases. The goal of the study is to understand pathways in disease development, and identify preventive measures. Several designs are suitable for studying genetics in complex diseases like asthma and allergy, in MoBa. METHODS: MoBa is a prospective population based cohort of 100 000 pregnancies, following offspring into adulthood. Enrollment started in 1999, and will be completed in 2008. A biobank with samples from the mother, father and child, together with detailed questionnaires from early pregnancy and childhood constitute the basis of the study. When studying complex diseases like asthma, a design with case-parent triads is useful. Parental effects and interactions between maternal and fetal genes can be detected. Stratifying triads by environmental exposure enables assessment of gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: By July 2006, more than 73,000 pregnancies have been included, with nearly 7,000 siblings and 1,300 pairs of twins enrolled. Biological samples are processed and stored at the biobank. The first children are reaching age seven in 2006. CONCLUSION: The MoBa cohort provides an excellent basis for studying genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on complex diseases.
PubMed ID
18073489 View in PubMed
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Geographical patterns in blood lead in relation to industrial emissions and traffic in Swedish children, 1978-2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95183
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:225
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Stroh Emilie
Lundh Thomas
Oudin Anna
Skerfving Staffan
Strömberg Ulf
Author Affiliation
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. emilie.stroh@med.lu.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:225
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants
Child
Environmental Exposure
Geographic Information Systems
Humans
Industrial Waste
Lead - blood
Sweden - epidemiology
Vehicle Emissions
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Blood lead concentrations (B-Pb) were measured in 3 879 Swedish school children during the period 1978-2007. The objective was to study the effect of the proximity to lead sources based on the children's home and school location. METHODS: The children's home address and school location were geocoded and their proximity to a lead smelter and major roads was calculated using geographical information system (GIS) software. All the statistical analyses were carried out using means of generalized log-linear modelling, with natural-logarithm-transformed B-Pb, adjusted for sex, school year, lead-exposing hobby, country of birth and, in the periods 1988-1994 and 1995-2007, parents' smoking habits. RESULTS: The GIS analysis revealed that although the emission from the smelter and children's B-Pb levels had decreased considerably since 1978, proximity to the lead smelter continued to affect levels of B-Pb, even in recent years (geometric mean: near smelter: 22.90 microg/l; far from smelter 19.75 microg/l; p = 0.001). The analysis also revealed that proximity to major roads noticeably affected the children's B-Pb levels during the period 1978-1987 (geometric mean near major roads: 44.26 microg/l; far from roads: 38.32 microg/l; p = 0.056), due to the considerable amount of lead in petrol. This effect was, however, not visible after 1987 due to prohibition of lead in petrol. CONCLUSION: The results show that proximity to the lead smelter still has an impact on the children's B-Pb levels. This is alarming since it could imply that living or working in the vicinity of a former lead source could pose a threat years after reduction of the emission. The analysis also revealed that urban children exposed to lead from traffic were only affected during the early period, when there were considerable amounts of lead in petrol, and that the prohibition of lead in petrol in later years led to reduced levels of lead in the blood of urban children.
PubMed ID
19591669 View in PubMed
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The non-occupational environment and the lung: opportunities for intervention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95584
Source
Chron Respir Dis. 2007;4(4):227-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Kurmi O P
Ayres J G
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Liberty Safe Work Research Centre, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
Source
Chron Respir Dis. 2007;4(4):227-36
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - pharmacology
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology
Climate
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Lung
Weather
Abstract
Many environmental factors, both indoors and outdoors, can cause or worsen respiratory disease. Although in many cases individuals have little influence over environmental exposures (e.g., weather conditions), there are many (such as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and outdoor air pollution) where interventions can improve health. While for environmental exposures such as air pollution, remediation largely devolves to the government, for exposures such as ETS advice to individuals in these settings will confer benefit. Climate change has begun to feature more and more in the context of health but how this may affect pulmonary disease remains debatable. It is possible that heat associated changes in allergen exposures may be more than counterbalanced by potential reductions in cold related exacerbations of diseases such as COPD. An improved assessment of environmental exposures is key in how we approach the effects of the environment on lung disease which would allow better understanding of gene-environment interactions and how remediation might influence population health for the better.
PubMed ID
18029436 View in PubMed
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