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Acidic deposition and human exposure to toxic metals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234401
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1987
Author
B G Svensson
A. Björnham
A. Schütz
U. Lettevall
A. Nilsson
S. Skerfving
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1987 Dec;67(2-3):101-15
Date
Dec-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - blood
Environmental Exposure
Health status
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lead - blood
Life Style
Mercury - blood
Metals - analysis - blood
Questionnaires
Selenium - blood
Sweden
Water Pollutants - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Acid precipitation affects the solubility of several metals in aquatic systems and in soil. Cadmium levels in tap water samples from geological areas having low resistance to acidic pollution were significantly higher than those in samples from a neighbouring reference area where there was a different geological structure. The median cadmium levels and pH values were 0.14 microgram l-1 and 5.6 respectively, for the acidic areas compared with 0.07 microgram l-1 and 6.4 respectively for the reference area. Further, there was a significant inverse relationship between both cadmium and lead contents and the pH values of the samples. The mobility of the metals was thus dependent on the acidity. The blood lead levels in 195 subjects from the acidic areas were lower than those in 91 subjects from the reference area (medians 60 vs. 70 micrograms l-1); no significant differences were found in blood cadmium or blood mercury levels. Subjects in the acidic areas had lower plasma selenium levels than those from the reference area (medians 85 vs. 90 micrograms l-1); the difference was mainly attributed to subjects with private wells. The data may indicate a negative effect of the acidic pollution on selenium intake via water and/or foods. There was also a positive relationship between intake of fish on the one hand and blood mercury and plasma selenium on the other, which is in accordance with the role of fish as a source of these metals.
PubMed ID
3438737 View in PubMed
Less detail

Upper Ottawa street landfill site health study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234482
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1987 Nov;75:173-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1987
Author
C. Hertzman
M. Hayes
J. Singer
J. Highland
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1987 Nov;75:173-95
Date
Nov-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology - etiology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - poisoning
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Morbidity
Ontario
Refuse Disposal
Risk factors
Abstract
This report describes the design and conduct of two sequential historical prospective morbidity surveys of workers and residents from the Upper Ottawa Street Landfill Site in Hamilton, Ontario. The workers study was carried out first and was a hypothesis-generating study. Workers and controls were administered a health questionnaire, which was followed by an assessment of recall bias through medical chart abstraction. Multiple criteria were used to identify health problems associated with landfill site exposure. Those problems with highest credibility included clusters of respiratory, skin, narcotic, and mood disorders. These formed the hypothesis base in the subsequent health study of residents living adjacent to the landfill site. In that study, the association between mood, narcotic, skin, and respiratory conditions with landfill site exposure was confirmed using the following criteria: strength of association; consistency with the workers study; risk gradient by duration of residence and proximity to the landfill; absence of evidence that less healthy people moved to the area; specificity; and the absence of recall bias. The validity of these associations were reduced by three principal problems: the high refusal rate among the control population; socioeconomic status differences between the study groups; and the fact that the conditions found in excess were imprecisely defined and potentially interchangeable with other conditions. Offsetting these problems were the multiple criteria used to assess each hypothesis, which were applied according to present rules. Evidence is presented that supports the hypothesis that vapors, fumes, or particulate matter emanating from the landfill site, as well as direct skin exposure, may have lead to the health problems found in excess. Evidence is also presented supporting the hypothesis that perception of exposure and, therefore, of risk, may explain the results of the study. However, based on the analyses performed, it is the conclusion of the authors that the adverse effects seen were more likely the result of chemical exposure than of perception of risk.
Notes
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PubMed ID
3691438 View in PubMed
Less detail

Lead in vertebral bone biopsies from active and retired lead workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234503
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1987 Nov-Dec;42(6):340-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Schütz
S. Skerfving
J O Christoffersson
L. Ahlgren
S. Mattson
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1987 Nov-Dec;42(6):340-6
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bone and Bones - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Fingers
Humans
Lead - analysis - blood
Lumbar Vertebrae
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Medicine
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Sweden
Time Factors
Abstract
Samples of vertebral bone were obtained by skeletal biopsy and lead concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median level of lead in bone in 27 active lead workers was 29 micrograms/g wet weight (range 2-155), corresponding to 370 micrograms/g calcium (range 30-1,120). In 9 retired workers, the corresponding levels were 19 micrograms/g (5-76) and 250 micrograms/g calcium (60-700); in 14 reference subjects without occupational exposure, 1.3 micrograms/g (1-4) and 13 micrograms/g calcium (8-40). The bone lead content rose with time of exposure. Comparison of levels in vertebra with those in fingerbone, as measured by in vivo x-ray fluorescence in the same subjects, strongly suggested the presence of lead pools with different kinetics. The accumulation pattern, as well as the relation between levels in vertebra and fingerbone, suggests a much shorter half-time of lead in the mainly trabecular vertebral bone as compared to the mainly cortical fingerbone. Further, there was an association between vertebral and blood lead levels in the retired workers, which shows a considerable endogenous lead exposure from the skeletal pool.
PubMed ID
3439810 View in PubMed
Less detail

Survey of health and safety behaviour of potato farmers in Carleton County, New Brunswick.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234731
Source
Can J Public Health. 1987 Sep-Oct;78(5):345-9
Publication Type
Article

[Hygienic problems of the training and health protection of students in the technical colleges of the RSFSR in light of the perestroika of higher education in the USSR].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234840
Source
Gig Sanit. 1987 Sep;(9):28-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1987

Deaths in Canada from lung cancer due to involuntary smoking.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature235266
Source
CMAJ. 1987 May 1;136(9):945-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-1987
Author
D T Wigle
N E Collishaw
J. Kirkbride
Y. Mao
Source
CMAJ. 1987 May 1;136(9):945-51
Date
May-1-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Marriage
Middle Aged
Risk
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Recently published evidence indicates that involuntary smoking causes an increased risk of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Information was compiled on the proportion of people who had never smoked among victims of lung cancer, the risk of lung cancer for nonsmokers married to smokers and the prevalence of such exposure. On the basis of these data we estimate that 50 to 60 of the deaths from lung cancer in Canada in 1985 among people who had never smoked were caused by spousal smoking; about 90% occurred in women. The total number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to exposure to tobacco smoke from spouses and other sources (mainly the workplace) was derived by applying estimated age- and sex-specific rates of death from lung cancer attributable to such exposure to the population of Canadians who have never smoked; about 330 deaths from lung cancer annually are attributable to such exposure.
Notes
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PubMed ID
3567810 View in PubMed
Less detail

Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263756
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
M S Petersen
J. Halling
P. Weihe
T K Jensen
P. Grandjean
F. Nielsen
N. Jørgensen
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Endocrine Disruptors - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fluoroimmunoassay
Gonadal Hormones - blood
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Male
Middle Aged
Peptide Hormones - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Semen - chemistry - drug effects
Semen Analysis
Spermatogenesis - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions.
The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men.
Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters.
A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables.
In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25766940 View in PubMed
Less detail

Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables - the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263763
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:181-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Anna L M Augustsson
Terese E Uddh-Söderberg
K Johan Hogmalm
Monika E M Filipsson
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:181-90
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - analysis - metabolism
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Lead - analysis - metabolism
Lettuce - metabolism
Risk Assessment - standards
Soil Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Solanum tuberosum - metabolism
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Sweden
Abstract
Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable.
PubMed ID
25723126 View in PubMed
Less detail

Quantity and diversity of environmental microbial exposure and development of asthma: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264087
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
H. Rintala
M. Korppi
M. Täubel
G. Doekes
U. Gehring
H. Renz
P I Pfefferle
J. Genuneit
L. Keski-Nisula
S. Remes
J. Lampi
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Microbiology
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with the development of allergies. The aim of the study was to identify better ways to characterize microbial exposure as a predictor of respiratory symptoms and allergies.
A birth cohort of 410 children was followed up until 6 years of age. Bacterial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, N-acetyl-muramic acid, fungal extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from Penicillium and Aspergillus spp., ß-D-glucan, ergosterol, and bacterial or fungal quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) were analyzed from dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Asthma, wheezing, cough, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using repeated questionnaires. Specific IgEs were determined at the age of 1 and 6 years.
Only few associations were found between single microbial markers and the studied outcomes. In contrast, a score for the total quantity of microbial exposure, that is, sum of indicators for fungi (ergosterol), Gram-positive (muramic acid) bacteria, and Gram-negative (endotoxin) bacteria, was significantly (inverted-U shape) associated with asthma incidence (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
24931137 View in PubMed
Less detail

A critical survey of fish measurements in populations of the southern Urals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166321
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006 Sep-Oct;46(5):619-24
Publication Type
Article
Author
A A Edwards
M. Szluinska
Author Affiliation
Health Protection Agency, Radiation Protection Division, Didcot, Oxfordshire, UK. alan.edwards@hpa-rp.org.uk
Source
Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2006 Sep-Oct;46(5):619-24
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Chromosome Painting - standards
Data Collection
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Environmental Exposure
Female
Gamma Rays
Humans
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Male
Middle Aged
Population
Russia
Translocation, Genetic
Water Pollutants, Radioactive - toxicity
Abstract
A critical survey of all published measurements made so far aimed at retrospective biological dosimetry using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques on some workers at the Mayak reprocessing plant and on members of the Techa River cohort is given. Each individual has a recorded dose derived from personal monitoring measurements, usually external gamma-rays for Mayak workers or from reconstruction techniques, usually internally derived for the Techa River cohort. From the person's age, which affects the control level, and the stated dose, an expected number of translocations is calculated for each individual and comparisons made to the observed numbers of translocations. From this, an assessment of how well FISH studies can help to validate existing estimates of dose is made. This varies from study to study. Good agreement is generally obtained for the Techa River cohort and lower doses of the Mayak cohort. Rather poorer agreement applies to the more highly exposed Mayak workers. Some of the discrepancy could be because the FISH painting technique was new and was applied to populations before a proper investigation on how to use it for retrospective biological dosimetry had taken place. In addition, too few cells were generally scored per individual so that statistical uncertainties were large.
PubMed ID
17133730 View in PubMed
Less detail

Comparison of self-reported lifetime sun exposure with two methods of cutaneous microtopography.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166563
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jan 15;165(2):222-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-15-2007
Author
Lynn Weiler
Julia A Knight
Reinhold Vieth
Heidi Barnett
Ansely Wong
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jan 15;165(2):222-30
Date
Jan-15-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Environmental Exposure
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Middle Aged
Observer Variation
Ontario
Photomicrography - methods
Replica Techniques
Retrospective Studies
Skin - cytology - radiation effects
Skin Aging - radiation effects
Sunlight
Abstract
There is currently no "gold standard" for measuring lifetime sun exposure. Exploration of alternatives to self-reports is important for examining illnesses related to ultraviolet light exposure. Using skin replicas obtained from 184 controls in a breast cancer case-control study (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2004-2005), the authors compared self-reported indicators of lifetime sun exposure with two measures of cutaneous microtopography, the Beagley-Gibson system and skin line counts. With the Beagley-Gibson system, significantly increased odds ratios were found for age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.16), spending 7 days outside per week during the summer (OR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.48, 7.50), and lifetime number of sunlamp sessions. Significantly decreased odds ratios were found for having darker skin, ever giving birth, and ever using sunlamps. With the skin line count approach, significant positive associations were found for age (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.35), age squared, duration of working in outdoor jobs (OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98), and average number of outdoor activities per week at ages 20-29 years (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.10). While the Beagley-Gibson method was associated with more variables than the skin line count method, both methods require further refinement before graded skin replicas can be recommended as a substitute for self-report measures.
PubMed ID
17101707 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sun-related behaviour and melanoma awareness among Swedish university students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21150
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Feb;8(1):27-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1999
Author
E. Jerkegren
L. Sandrieser
Y. Brandberg
I. Rosdahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Feb;8(1):27-34
Date
Feb-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude to Health
Environmental Exposure
Female
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Melanoma - etiology - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Skin Neoplasms - etiology - prevention & control
Students
Students, Medical
Sunburn - etiology - prevention & control
Sunlight - adverse effects
Sunscreening Agents - therapeutic use
Sweden
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
The relationship between knowledge, attitude and sun-related behaviour among Swedish students was examined in the present study. A total of 296 of 305 questionnaires, distributed among university students (medical school and economy programme) were analysed (157 men, 139 women, mean age 24 years). The percentage of students sunbathing with the intention of getting a tan was 75%. Thirteen per cent reported having experienced at least one painful sunburn every year and 93% stated at least one burn during the last ten years. The majority of the students had used a sun bed, 12% more than ten times during the last year. Subjects with high frequency of sun bed use also scored high on sunbathing and sunburns. Significantly more women (70%) than men (51%) used sunscreen. The overall knowledge of melanoma was high. No difference in knowledge was found between the high- and low-exposure group. Medical students scored higher on knowledge than economy students, but did not differ in exposure score. Our findings reveal an excessive sun exposure among university students. A high level of knowledge of risk does not lead to a sun-protective behaviour. Future preventative campaigns targeting young people must focus on strategies to change attitudes towards tanning as being healthy and attractive.
PubMed ID
10091040 View in PubMed
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Health effects of cadmium exposure--a review of the literature and a risk estimate.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21682
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24 Suppl 1:1-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
1998
Author
L. Järup
M. Berglund
C G Elinder
G. Nordberg
M. Vahter
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Norrbacka, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24 Suppl 1:1-51
Date
1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bone Diseases - chemically induced
Cadmium - adverse effects - metabolism
Diet
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Kidney Diseases - chemically induced
Male
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Prognosis
Reproduction - drug effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
This report provides a review of the cadmium exposure situation in Sweden and updates the information on health risk assessment according to recent studies on the health effects of cadmium. The report focuses on the health effects of low cadmium doses and the identification of high-risk groups. The diet is the main source of cadmium exposure in the Swedish nonsmoking general population. The average daily dietary intake is about 15 micrograms/day, but there are great individual variations due to differences in energy intake and dietary habits. It has been shown that a high fiber diet and a diet rich in shellfish increase the dietary cadmium intake substantially. Cadmium concentrations in agricultural soil and wheat have increased continuously during the last century. At present, soil cadmium concentrations increase by about 0.2% per year. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys. Human kidney concentrations of cadmium have increased several fold during the last century. Cadmium in pig kidney has been shown to have increased by about 2% per year from 1984-1992. There is no tendency towards decreasing cadmium exposure among the general nonsmoking population. The absorption of cadmium in the lungs is 10-50%, while the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is only a few percent. Smokers have about 4-5 times higher blood cadmium concentrations (about 1.5 micrograms/l), and twice as high kidney cortex cadmium concentrations (about 20-30 micrograms/g wet weight) as nonsmokers. Similarly, the blood cadmium concentrations are substantially elevated in persons with low body iron stores, indicating increased gastrointestinal absorption. About 10-40% of Swedish women of child-bearing age are reported to have empty iron stores (S-ferritin
Notes
Erratum In: Scand J Work Environ Health 1998 Jun;24(3):240
PubMed ID
9569444 View in PubMed
Less detail

Quantitative assessment of exposure to dog (Can f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergens: relation to sensitization and asthma among children living in Los Alamos, New Mexico.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15901
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995 Oct;96(4):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1995
Author
J M Ingram
R. Sporik
G. Rose
R. Honsinger
M D Chapman
T A Platts-Mills
Author Affiliation
University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA.
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995 Oct;96(4):449-56
Date
Oct-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air pollution, indoor
Allergens - immunology
Animals
Antibodies - analysis
Asthma - immunology
Cats
Child
Dogs
Environmental Exposure
Glycoproteins - immunology
Humans
Immunization
Immunoglobulin E - analysis - immunology
New Mexico
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to identify the allergens associated with asthma among schoolchildren in an area of the United States where dust mite growth is expected to be poor. Los Alamos, N.M., was chosen because it has low rainfall and is at high altitude (7200 feet) making it very dry. One hundred eleven children (12 to 14 years old) from the middle school who had been previously classified according to bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine (BHR) were studied. METHODS: Sera were assayed for IgE antibodies to mite, cat, dog, cockroach, Russian thistle, and grass pollen, with both CAP system fluoroimmunoassay (Kabi Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) and conventional RAST. Allergens were measured in dust samples from 108 homes with two-site assays for mite (Der p 1 and Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), and cockroach (Bla g 2). RESULTS: Concentrations of dog and cat allergens were elevated in almost all houses with pets but were also high in a significant proportion of the houses without pets. Levels of mite allergen were less than 2 micrograms/gm in 95% of the houses, and cockroach was undetectable in all but two of the houses. Among the 21 with BHR who had symptoms, 67% had IgE antibody to dog and 62% had IgE antibody to cat. For these allergens IgE antibody was strongly associated with asthma (p
PubMed ID
7560654 View in PubMed
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The problem of asthma in the Ukraine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15902
Source
Allergy Proc. 1995 Sep-Oct;16(5):269-73
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Markov
Author Affiliation
Institute for Asthma and Allergy, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, D.C., USA.
Source
Allergy Proc. 1995 Sep-Oct;16(5):269-73
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Asthma - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Utilization
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
Although health statistics in Ukraine are difficult to obtain, there does appear to be an increase in the occurrence of asthma. Overall reporting of asthma is less frequent than in Western Europe, perhaps due to insufficient diagnostic capabilities at the present time. Asthma therapy in the Ukraine tends toward the use of theophylline and beta 2-agonists, rather than inhaled corticosteroids. Asthma morbidity differs in various regions of Ukraine, perhaps as a consequence of increased environmental exposure in some areas.
PubMed ID
8566742 View in PubMed
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[More and more children are stricken by asthma. Modern flats are the most usual breeding ground. Interview by Birgit Wilhelmson.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16016
Source
Lakartidningen. 1993 Mar 17;90(11):1069-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-17-1993

Ambient ozone and emergency department visits for cellulitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138755
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Nov;7(11):4078-88
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2010
Author
Mieczyslaw Szyszkowicz
Eugeniusz Porada
Gilaad G Kaplan
Brian H Rowe
Author Affiliation
Population Studies Division, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Avenue, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada. mietek.szyszkowicz@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Nov;7(11):4078-88
Date
Nov-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Cellulitis - etiology - therapy
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Odds Ratio
Ozone - analysis
Seasons
Abstract
Objectives were to assess and estimate an association between exposure to ground-level ozone and emergency department (ED) visits for cellulitis. All ED visits for cellulitis in Edmonton, Canada, in the period April 1992-March 2002 (N = 69,547) were examined. Case-crossover design was applied to estimate odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval) per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in ozone concentration (IQR = 14.0 ppb). Delay of ED visit relating to exposure was probed using 0- to 5-day exposure lags. For all patients in the all months (January-December) and lags 0 to 2 days, OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.07). For male patients during the cold months (October-March): OR = 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) for lags 0 and 2 and OR = 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) for lag 3. For female patients in the warm months (April-September): OR = 1.12 (1.06, 1.18) for lags 1 and 2. Cellulitis developing on uncovered (more exposed) skin was analyzed separately, observed effects being stronger. Cellulitis may be associated with exposure to ambient ground level ozone; the exposure may facilitate cellulitis infection and aggravate acute symptoms.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21139878 View in PubMed
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Exposure to styrene in the general Canadian population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222394
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1993;(127):27-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
R. Newhook
I. Caldwell
Author Affiliation
Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1993;(127):27-33
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Canada
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant
Smoking
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Styrene
Styrenes - analysis
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
As part of an environmental health assessment in Canada, estimates of the intake of styrene by the general population were derived. Concentrations of styrene reported in air, water, soil and foods in Canada were reviewed in detail. Data on ambient air, collected by Environment Canada, showed mean concentrations of 0.09-2.35 micrograms/m3 at 18 sites across the country. In a national pilot study of indoor air in 757 homes across Canada, the mean styrene concentration was found to be 0.28 microgram/m3. The range of mean concentrations of styrene in treated water from 80 supplies in Ontario's Drinking Water Surveillance Program was 0.050-0.250 microgram/L. In limited testing of uncontaminated urban soils in southern Ontario, the styrene levels were less than 10 micrograms/kg. In a small Canadian survey, the compound was not detected (limits of detection, 1.0 microgram/L for liquids and 0.005 microgram/g for solids) in composite samples of 34 groups of food purchased in Windsor, Ontario. On the basis of these monitoring data, daily intakes of styrene were estimated for the general population. Intakes from ambient air ranged from 0.004 to 0.17 microgram/kg body weight per day and those from indoor air from 0.07 to 0.10 microgram/kg body weight per day for various age groups: infants, toddlers, school-age children, teenagers and adults. Intake from food was calculated to range from
PubMed ID
8070873 View in PubMed
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Implication for epidemiology of disease registers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222431
Source
Public Health Rev. 1993-1994;21(3-4):263-70
Publication Type
Article
Author
E. Lynge
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen.
Source
Public Health Rev. 1993-1994;21(3-4):263-70
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestosis - epidemiology
Databases, Factual
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiologic Methods
Ethics, Medical
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Population Surveillance - methods
Registries
Scandinavia - epidemiology
Abstract
The existence of population and disease registers is crucial for epidemiologic research. Continuous registration over many years provides a particular advantage. The example of asbestos and lung cancer is used to illustrate the importance of register-based studies for the assessment of an association between an exposure and a clinical disease. It is an important challenge for epidemiologists in the ongoing debate on data confidentiality constantly to convince the public about the benefits of our work.
PubMed ID
8047653 View in PubMed
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Congenital heart disease in the offspring and maternal habits and home exposures during pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature222802
Source
Teratology. 1992 Nov;46(5):447-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1992
Author
J. Tikkanen
O P Heinonen
Author Affiliation
National Agency for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Teratology. 1992 Nov;46(5):447-54
Date
Nov-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiologic Factors
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Heart Defects, Congenital - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Pharmaceutical Preparations - administration & dosage
Pregnancy
Ultrasonography, Prenatal - adverse effects
Abstract
To test the effect of maternal habits and home exposures during early pregnancy on the occurrence of congenital heart disease in the offspring, 406 cases and 756 controls were studied. The cases included all cardiovascular malformations detected in Finland during 1982-1983, while the healthy controls were randomly selected from all babies born during the same period. Case and control mothers were interviewed after delivery using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Maternal overall drug consumption during the first trimester was as prevalent among case mothers (13.3%) as controls (14.6%). Neither was the risk of congenital heart disease associated with maternal use of contraceptive pills, salicylates, diazepam, or sweetening agents separately. Maternal exposures to disinfectants, dyes, lacquers, paints, pesticides, or glues at home were equally prevalent in case and control groups. Several earlier miscarriages was a predictor of an infant born with congenital heart disease (OR = 2.7, CI95 = 1.4-5.3). Maternal ultrasound examination was performed during the first 16 weeks of pregnancy more often among the case group (28.3%) than among the control group (22.0%). However, the association between ultrasound examination and the risk of congenital heart disease in the offspring was not statistically significant (OR = 1.2, 95% confidence interval 0.9-1.7) when adjusted for confounding factors such as the threat of miscarriage in logistic regression analysis. It is concluded that maternal ultrasound examination, intake of some common drugs, and exposure to a number of environmental factors at home during early pregnancy are probably not harmful for the developing fetal heart.
PubMed ID
1462249 View in PubMed
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995 records – page 1 of 50.