A methodical approach to the hygienic assessment of the educational environment in children's educational institutions was developed and tested for the objective determination of the level ofsanitary and epidemiological welfare and effective planning of preventive measures with bearing in mind environmental factors which have the most negative impact on children's health.
We tested the association between alcohol use disorder (AUD) and divorce; estimated the genetic and environmental influences on divorce; estimated how much genetic and environmental influences accounted for covariance between AUD and divorce; and estimated latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce. We tested sex differences in these effects.
We identified twin and sibling pairs with AUD and divorce information in Swedish national registers. We described the association between AUD and divorce using tetrachorics and used twin and sibling models to estimate genetic and environmental influences on divorce, on the covariance between AUD and divorce and the latent genetic and environmental correlations between AUD and divorce.
A total of 670?836 individuals (53% male) born 1940-1965.
Life-time measures of AUD and divorce.
AUD and divorce were related strongly (males: rtet = +0.44, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.45; females rtet = +0.37, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.38). Genetic factors accounted for a modest proportion of the variance in divorce (males: 21.3%, 95% CI = 7.6, 28.5; females: 31.0%, 95% CI = 18.8, 37.1). Genetic factors accounted for most of the covariance between AUD and divorce (males: 52.0%, 95% CI = 48.8, 67.9; females: 53.74%, 95% CI = 17.6, 54.5), followed by non-shared environmental factors (males: 45.0%, 95% CI = 37.5, 54.9; females: 41.6%, 95% CI = 40.3, 60.2). Shared environmental factors accounted for a negligible proportion of the covariance (males: 3.0%, 95% CI = -3.0, 13.5; females: 4.75%, 95% CI = 0.0, 6.6). The AUD-divorce genetic correlations were high (males: rA = +0.76, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.90; females +0.52, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.67). The non-shared environmental correlations were modest (males: rE = +0.32, 95% CI = 0.31, 0.40; females: +0.27, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.36).
Divorce and alcohol use disorder are correlated strongly in the Swedish population, and the heritability of divorce is consistent with previous studies. Covariation between AUD and divorce results from overlapping genetic and non-shared environmental factors. Latent genetic and non-shared environmental correlations for alcohol use disorder and divorce are high and moderate.
The aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on motives for engaging in leisure-time physical activity. The participants were obtained from the FinnTwin16 study. A modified version of the Recreational Exercise Motivation Measure was used to assess the motives for leisure-time physical activity in 2542 twin individuals (mean age of 34.1 years). Linear structural equation modeling was used to investigate the genetic and environmental influences on motive dimensions. The highest heritability estimates were found for the motive dimensions of "enjoyment" [men 33% (95% CI 23-43%), women 53% (95% CI 45-60%)] and "affiliation" [men 39% (95% CI 0.28-0.49%), women 35% (95% CI 0.25-0.43%)]. The lowest heritability estimates were found for others' expectations [men 13% (95% CI 0.04-0.25%), women 15% (95% CI 0.07-0.24%)]. Unique environmental influences explained the remaining variances, which ranged from 47% to 87%. The heritability estimates for summary variables of intrinsic and extrinsic motives were 36% and 32% for men and 40% and 24% for women, respectively. In conclusion, genetic factors contribute to motives for leisure-time physical activity. However, the genetic effects are, at most, moderate, implying the greater relative role of environmental factors.
The aim was to study whether perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility affect changes in sense of autonomy in participation outdoors among community-dwelling older people over a two-year period.
Community-dwelling people aged 75-90 years (n = 848) in central Finland were interviewed on two occasions, face-to-face at baseline and over the telephone two years later. Perceived environmental barriers to outdoor mobility were assessed using a 15-item structured questionnaire, and the sum scores categorized into tertiles (0, 1 and 2 or more barriers). Autonomy in participation outdoors was assessed with the 'Impact on Participation and Autonomy' (IPA) questionnaire using the autonomy outdoors subscale (score range 0-20, higher scores indicating more restricted autonomy).
Scores for autonomy in participation outdoors were available for 848 participants at baseline (mean 6.2, SD = 3.8) and for 748 participants at the two-year follow-up (mean 6.7, SD = 3.9). At baseline, those reporting multiple environmental barriers had the most restricted autonomy, while those reporting no environmental barriers had the least restricted autonomy (p
We report the heritability of response inhibition, latency, and variability, which are potential markers of genetic risk in neuropsychiatric conditions. Genetic and environmental influences on cancellation and restraint, response latency, and variability measured in a novel variant of the stop signal task were studied in 139 eight-year-old twin pairs from a birth cohort. Cancellation (50%), restraint (27%), and response latency (41%) showed significant heritability, the balance being non-shared environmental influences and/or error. Response variability was not heritable, with 23% of the variance attributable to shared environmental influences and 77% to non-shared environmental risk or error. The phenotypic correlation between response cancellation and restraint was -.44 and between response latency and restraint was .21. These phenotypic correlations were entirely genetic in origin. The phenotypic correlation between response variability and % successful inhibition was .27, but was not genetic. Cancellation and restraint were heritable and shared genetic influences, indicating that they may be influenced by a common gene or genes. Response latency was moderately heritable and shared genetic influences with restraint, but was not correlated with cancellation. Response variability was not heritable. These results support the potential of response inhibition and latency as endophenotypes in genetic research.
The aim of this study was to explore how depressive symptoms, physical function, health satisfaction, age, and environmental conditions predict quality of life (QoL) in a conceptual model based on the Wilson and Cleary's Model (WCM). A stratified sample by age, gender, and living area was drawn from the Norwegian population of older adults receiving community health care (mean age of 78.6 years, 94.4% living at home, 5.6% living in nursing homes). The study is part of a larger international study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using the WHOQoL-Old, the WHOQoL-Bref Environment domain, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Short Form SF-12, and sociodemographic and health questions. A path analysis (structural equation modeling) showed that the overall model provided empirical evidence for linkages in the WCM. QoL was manifested by significant direct effects of environmental conditions and health satisfaction. In addition, environmental conditions had indirect effects on QoL, in particular via depressive symptoms and health satisfaction. This model may help nurses in community health care to collect and assess information, to suggest suitable interventions, and to guide decision making.
The incidence rates of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the Nordic countries remain among the highest in the world. Large geographical and temporal variations in the incidence rates of CNS tumors have been reported. Increasing incidence rates would be a public health concern, as they might indicate increased exposure to environmental risk factors.
All 3,983 children 0-14 years of age registered with a primary CNS tumor in 1985-2006 in the national cancer registries of the Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were identified. Tumors were classified according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer version 3 (ICCC-3). Join-point analysis was used to detect changes in trends and to estimate annual changes in incidence rates.
The mean annual incidence rate of CNS tumors was 42 per million. No statistically significant change in time trends of incidence rates was observed during 1985-2006. Furthermore, the incidence by birth cohort was relatively stable during the study period.
The incidence rates of childhood CNS tumors in the Nordic countries remain among the highest in the world. The stable incidence rates during the last 22 years indicate that major changes in environmental risk factors are unlikely.
Three measures of spatial clustering (Moran's I, Geary's c, and a rank adjacency statistic, D) were evaluated for their power to detect regional patterns in health data. The patterns represented various environmental effects: a latitude gradient; residence near a contaminated water supply; disease "hot spots"; relation to socioeconomic status and urbanization; and general spatial autocorrelation. While the methods had high power to detect certain patterns, they were also affected by factors such as the shape of the map, its regional structure, and the spatial distribution of explanatory variables. The power was sometimes low, even for strong geographic trends, particularly for D. Moran's I had the highest power most often. We conclude that use of these methods requires careful specification of the anticipated geographic pattern and awareness of idiosyncratic effects in the study of particular maps.
Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.
Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.
OBJECTIVE: Ljungan virus (LjV) has been proposed as a potential environmental factor for type 1 diabetes. The objective was to test for any association of LjV with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A nested case-control design was used to test for any association between the development of pre-diabetic autoimmunity and presence of LjV in stool samples (n = 3,803) in the Norwegian Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes (MIDIA) study. The children followed were 27 infants who developed pre-diabetic autoimmunity during or shortly after the sampling period, 54 matched control subjects, and 94 other children. RESULTS: No LjV RNA was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that LjV is rare in young children. LjV does not seem to be involved in the development of human type 1 diabetes.
Characterize and examine the prevalence of food insecurity in Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, and identify stressors affecting the food system.
A mixed-methods study using quantitative food security surveys and semi-structured interviews.
Food security surveys (n=61) were conducted with a random sample of 6% of Qeqertarsuaq's population. Semi-structured interviews (n=75) allowed participants to describe in their own words their experience of food insecurity and permitted in-depth examination of determinants. Key informant interviews were used to provide context to local perspectives.
Prevalence of food insecurity (8%) is low. However, interviews reveal a more nuanced picture, with women, adults aged 55+, and non-hunters reporting constrained access to Greenlandic foods. Barriers restricting traditional food access include changing sea ice conditions, reduced availability of some species, high costs of hunting and purchasing food, tightening food sharing networks, and hunting and fishing regulations.
While the Qeqertarsuaq food system is relatively secure, the research highlights susceptibility to social, economic and environmental stressors which may become more prevalent in the future.
Numerous epidemiological studies have reported a positive association between major depression (MD) and regular tobacco use (RU) or nicotine dependence (ND). However, few have used a genetically informative design to assess whether these traits share a common genetic and/or environmental liability.
We assessed MD, RU and ND in same-sex twins from the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. In males, we examined both cigarette use and snus (smokeless tobacco) use. We used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between MD, RU, and ND given RU.
The results suggest modest correlations between MD and RU, and between MD and ND. In males, the liability shared between MD and RU is solely genetic for both cigarettes and snus, while MD and ND share both genetic and unique environmental influences. The continuation to ND given RU differed considerably between cigarette and snus users. In females, both MD-RU and MD-ND relationships are partially attributable to genetic and unique environmental correlations.
The relationship among MD, RU and ND is at least partially attributable to shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The genetic and environmental correlations between traits are modest. The nature of the shared liability differs by sex, and in males, by the type of tobacco product used. Differences between previous reports and results presented in the current study are suggestive of population differences in how MD and tobacco use inter-relate.
This paper examines lay and expert perceptions of the ecological risks associated with a range of human activities that could adversely affect water resource environments. It employs the psychometric paradigm pioneered in characterizing perceptions of human health risks, which involves surveys to obtain judgments from subjects about risk items in terms of several important characteristics of the risks. The paper builds on a previous study that introduced ecological risk perception. This second study employs a larger, more diverse sample, a more focused topic area, and comparisons between lay and expert judgments. The results confirm that a small set of underlying factors explain a great deal of variability in lay judgments about ecological risks. These have been termed Ecological Impact, Human Benefits, Controllability, and Knowledge. The results are useful in explaining subjects' judgments of the general riskiness of, and need for regulation of, various risk items. The results also indicate several differences and areas of agreement among the lay and expert samples that point to potential key issues in future ecological risk management efforts for water resources.
Leptin is involved in the regulation of body weight, but the relative role of genetic and environmental influences on inter-individual variation in leptin levels is unknown.
To investigate the genetic and environmental contributions to the association of body mass index (BMI) with serum leptin levels, 58 monozygotic (MZ, 27M, 31F), and 74 like-sexed dizygotic (DZ, 32M, 42F) Finnish twin pairs aged 50--76 y were studied.
Serum leptin levels, weight, height, hip and waist measurements.
Women had higher mean leptin levels (16.8+/-9.5 ng/ml), and more overall variability in leptin levels than men (6.4+/-3.5 ng/ml; P
This study examined the change in heritability of adult body height across birth cohorts in Finland.
In 1981, cross-sectional questionnaires were completed by 10,968 twin pairs born before 1958. The effect of genetic factors was estimated via genetic modeling.
Heritability increased from the cohort born before 1929 (0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.65, 0.88 in men; 0.66, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.77 in women) to that born in 1947 through 1957 (0.81, 95% CI = 0.73, 0.87 in men; 0.82, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.89 in women).
Heritability of height increased across Finnish birth cohorts born in the first half of this century and leveled off after World War II. Environmental factors, compared with genetic factors, appear to be more important among women than men.
With the aim of improving the measurement of child health and disability in survey research, this paper reviews the coverage of chronic health conditions and the domains of disability and related environmental factors as they are laid out in the ICD-10 and ICF, respectively, in national surveys of school-aged children conducted in Canada since 1980. Recommendations are made for future survey use and construction.
Two reviewers independently examined each of the surveys. Coverage of chronic health conditions, the domains of disability, and environmental factors in survey questions was identified by mapping question content onto ICD-10 and ICF codes. The reviewers then compared their findings and came to a final consensus.
Surveys vary in the range and depth of coverage of the ICD-10 and ICF chapters. Disability surveys and health surveys for persons aged 12 and over contain the most comprehensive lists of chronic conditions. Coverage of impairments is limited. Coverage of activity limitations and participation restrictions is most limited in the domains of personal care and domestic life. Environmental factors not covered include natural environmental changes, attitudes, and policies.
Development of a comprehensive standard list of chronic health conditions based on the ICD-10 and development of standard survey measures of the domains of disability and environmental factors based on the ICF for use in surveys of school-aged children would facilitate an understanding of children's health and disability in the context of the current international health framework provided by the World Health Organization.
BACKGROUND. In addition to their value in assessing pulmonary health and disease, spirometric variables have been shown to be powerful predictors of time until death in aging populations. The sources of variability in these spirometric values are consequently of relevance to basic gerontological research, and also of potential value in clinical application. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and environmental sources of variance in pulmonary function. METHODS. The study involved 230 Swedish twin pairs (mean age = 64.9 years), of which number 37 monozygotic (MZ) pairs and 72 dizygotic (DZ) pairs had been separated and reared apart. Comparing these groups to the 57 MZ and 64 DZ pairs reared together permits stronger interpretation than that of conventional twin studies. Measures of vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were residualized for height, age, sex, and tobacco consumption in pack-years. RESULTS. Maximum likelihood analyses of VC and FEV1 gave heritability estimates of .48 and .67, respectively. Age effects were explored both by dividing the sample into two cohorts, respectively above and below 65 years, and by moving interval analysis. In the two-cohort analysis, heritabilities were somewhat higher for the older cohort than the younger cohort for FEV1. The opposite was true for VC: heritability was lower in the older cohort, and there was evidence for a shared rearing environmental effect for this group. Moving interval analysis suggests these differences are gradual rather than saltatory. There were no gender differences in parameter estimates. CONCLUSION. Genetic factors account for between one-half and two-thirds of the variability in pulmonary function. There is a suggestion of age differences in the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences.
Physical activity (MVPA) levels during home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) remain problematic. Consequently, the present study examined the association between MVPA and urban vs. rural residential status and the perceived environment in patients attending home-based CR. A total of 280 patients completed a questionnaire assessing demographic, clinical, MVPA, and perceived environmental variables measured at baseline and 3 months later. Patient addresses were geocoded and linked to the 2006 Canadian census to establish the urban/rural distinction. Results showed that urban and rural patients had similar baseline MVPA and improvements in MVPA by 3 months. Several perceived environmental variables were significantly related to MVPA throughout home-based CR that were common and urban/rural-specific. Therefore, although there does not appear to be an urban vs. rural advantage in MVPA levels during home-based CR, there does appear to be environmental/MVPA-specific relationships specific to urban and rural patients that may warrant attention.
We investigated genetic and environmental influences common to adolescent externalizing behavior (at age 12), smoking (at age 14) and initiation of drug use (at age 17) using the FinnTwin12 cohort data. Multivariate Cholesky models were fit to data from 737 monozygotic and 722 dizygotic twin pairs. Heritability of externalizing behavior was 56%, that of smoking initiation/amount 20/32%, and initiation of drug use 27%. In the best-fitting model common environmental influences explained most of the covariance between externalizing behavior and smoking initiation (69%) and amount (77%). Covariance between smoking initiation/amount and drug use was due to additive genetic (42/22%) and common environmental (58/78%) influences. Half of the covariance between externalizing behavior and drug use was due to shared genetic and half due to the environments shared by co-twins. Using a longitudinal, prospective design, our results indicate that early observed externalizing behavior provides significant underlying genetic and environmental influences common to later substance use, here manifested as initiation of drug use in late adolescence.