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Methods and rationale for derivation of a reference dose for methylmercury by the U.S. EPA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58422
Source
Risk Anal. 2003 Feb;23(1):107-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Deborah C Rice
Rita Schoeny
Kate Mahaffey
Author Affiliation
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA. rice.deborah@epa.gov
Source
Risk Anal. 2003 Feb;23(1):107-15
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal Exposure
Mercury - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - administration & dosage - standards - toxicity
New Zealand
Pregnancy
Risk assessment
Seychelles
United States
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Abstract
In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency derived a reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury, which is a daily intake that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. This derivation used a series of benchmark dose (BMD) analyses provided by a National Research Council (NRC) panel convened to assess the health effects of methylmercury. Analyses were performed for a number of endpoints from three large longitudinal cohort studies of the neuropsychological consequences of in utero exposure to methylmercury: the Faroe Islands, Seychelles Islands, and New Zealand studies. Adverse effects were identified in the Faroe Islands and New Zealand studies, but not in the Seychelles Islands. The NRC also performed an integrative analysis of all three studies. The EPA applied a total uncertainty factor (UF) of 10 for intrahuman toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic variability and uncertainty. Dose conversion from cord blood mercury concentrations to maternal methylmercury intake was performed using a one-compartment model. Derivation of potential RfDs from a number of endpoints from the Faroe Islands study converged on 0.1 microg/kg/day, as did the integrative analysis of all three studies. EPA identified several areas for which further information or analyses is needed. Perhaps the most immediately relevant is the ratio of cord:maternal blood mercury concentration, as well as the variability around this ratio. EPA assumed in its dose conversion that the ratio was 1.0; however, available data suggest it is perhaps 1.5-2.0. Verification of a deviation from unity presumably would be translated directly into comparable reduction in the RfD. Other areas that EPA identified as significant areas requiring further attention are cardiovascular consequences of methylmercury exposure and delayed neurotoxicity during aging as a result of previous developmental or adult exposure.
PubMed ID
12635727 View in PubMed
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Nordic dentists' knowledge and attitudes on dental amalgam from health and environmental perspectives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71518
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2002 Oct;60(5):315-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002
Author
Katariina Ylinen
Göran Löfroth
Author Affiliation
Inkoon kunnan terveyskeskus, Finland.
Source
Acta Odontol Scand. 2002 Oct;60(5):315-20
Date
Oct-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Composite Resins - adverse effects - chemistry
Denmark
Dental Amalgam - adverse effects - chemistry - economics
Dental Restoration, Permanent - economics
Dental Waste
Dentist-Patient Relations
Dentists
Education, Dental
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Ethics, Dental
Female
Finland
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects
Health
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Medical Waste Disposal
Mercury - adverse effects
Middle Aged
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Sweden
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify differences and similarities between the Nordic countries in dentists' use of dental amalgam as a restorative material, and also their knowledge and attitudes about amalgam from health, environmental, ethical, economic and social points of view. Procedures for handling amalgam waste were also studied. A random sample of 250 dentists was drawn from the national registers of authorized dentists in each country in late autumn 1997. At the beginning of 1998, a questionnaire was sent to all the dentists in the study group. The response rate was 77.6% in Denmark, 73.2% in Finland, 78.8% in Norway, and 84.0% in Sweden. In Finland and Sweden the use of dental amalgam had almost ceased, particularly for younger patients, while in Norway and especially in Denmark it was still widely used. Dentists' knowledge of the environmental effects of amalgam was confused, but most dentists had installed amalgam separators in their dental units by 1998. The majority of dentists in each country wanted to keep dental amalgam as a restorative material even in the future, and they did not want to ban the import of mercury to their home countries. Most dentists considered amalgam to be a health risk for at least some patients, and a great majority (from 76% in Sweden to 94% in Norway) considered composite as a possible odontological risk to patients. Since a majority of the dentists considered both amalgam and composites possibly harmful to patients, efforts to develop better alternatives to amalgam should continue.
PubMed ID
12418724 View in PubMed
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Current trends in arctic medical research in the Nordic countries with special reference to Sweden

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature94088
Source
Pages 8-11 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
be better utilized and the investigations may be broadened to examine a greater number of variables. Further- more, by comparing various ethnic groups living in similar environments, it may be possible to distinguish the signi- ficance of environmental contra-genetic factors. It may finally be
  1 document  
Author
Linderholm, H
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden
Source
Pages 8-11 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Finland
Norway
Sweden
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Arctic medical research
Denmark
Environmental contra-genetic factors
Ethnic minorities
Finland
Greenland
Human adaptability
Iceland
Lapps
Nordic Council for Arctic Medical Reserach (NCAMR)
Nordic countries
Norway
Sweden
Documents
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Unemployment and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134627
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Jens P Bonde
Ellen A Nohr
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the relation between employment status, type of unemployment and pregnancy outcomes.
A cohort study of 7,282 pregnancies of unemployed women and 56,014 pregnancies among women in paid jobs was performed within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained and information about lifestyle, occupational, medical, and obstetric factors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for fetal loss, congenital anomalies, multiple births, sex ratio, preterm and very preterm birth and small for gestational age status, adjusting for lifestyle, medical and obstetric factors.
There were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between employed and unemployed women but women receiving unemployment benefit had an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.31) and having a small for gestational age child (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.19) compared with employed women. Women receiving sickness or maternity benefit had an increased risk of multiple birth (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.04), preterm (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) and very preterm birth (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.89), while those receiving an unreported type of support had an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93).
We found no indication that being unemployed during pregnancy benefits or endangers the health of the child. Within the subgroups of unemployed women, we observed that women receiving unemployment and sickness or maternity benefits were at higher risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
PubMed ID
21558297 View in PubMed
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Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134747
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Roberta F White
Carole L Palumbo
Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
Kristin J Heaton
Pal Weihe
Frodi Debes
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. rwhite@bu.edu
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - drug effects
Adolescent Development - drug effects
Age Factors
Brain - drug effects - pathology
Brain Mapping - methods
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Motor Activity - drug effects
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Photic Stimulation
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Seafood - adverse effects
Abstract
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction.
PubMed ID
21545807 View in PubMed
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Levels, distribution and source characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in topsoils and roadside soils in Esbjerg, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101816
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Apr;86(4):438-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
D K Essumang
K. Kowalski
E G Sogaard
Author Affiliation
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Section of Chemical Engineering, Aalborg University, Niels Bohrs Vej 8, Esbjerg, Denmark.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011 Apr;86(4):438-43
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Soil - chemistry
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Transportation
Abstract
A soil survey was performed to determine the levels, distributions and sources of 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 9 selected soil environments in Esbjerg, Denmark. In all, 24 soil samples were collected and the PAHs present were extracted with dichloromethane and analysed using GC/MS/MS with ion trap detector (TCD). There were elevated levels of the individual as well as the total PAHs in the soil samples and also, all 6 PAHs were present in all the soil samples. The most abundant components were fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene. The average sum of the 6 PAHs in all soil samples was 2.5?mg.kg(-1), with range from 0.24 to 7.6?mg?kg(-1). The total mean PAH concentration obtained was 1.67 times higher than the total limit set by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (DEPA) whiles the mean benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentration (0.6?mg?kg(-1)) also 6 times the Soil Quality Criteria (Human Health) (0.1?mg?kg(-1)) by DEPA and 2 times the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (0.26?mg?kg(-1)) by the Netherlands for BaP. This shows that there are elevated levels of PAH deposition on the Esbjerg soil environment which needs an urgent attention. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs on the Esbjerg environment.
PubMed ID
21373940 View in PubMed
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Air pollution from biodegradable wastes and non-specific health symptoms among residents: direct or annoyance-mediated associations?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268820
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2015
Author
Victoria Blanes-Vidal
Source
Chemosphere. 2015 Feb;120:371-7
Date
Feb-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Air Pollutants - analysis
Ammonia - analysis
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Health status
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Odors - analysis
Self Report
Abstract
Adverse health effects of exposure to high levels of air pollutants from biodegradable wastes have been well-studied. However, few investigations have examined the potential effects of chronic exposure to low-to-moderate levels on non-specific health symptoms among residents. Besides, most studies have relied on distances to waste sites to assign exposure status, and have not investigated whether the exposure-symptoms associations are direct or mediated by odor annoyance. In this study, individual-level exposures to a proxy indicator of biodegradable waste pollution (ammonia, NH3) in non-urban residences (n=454) during 2005-2010 were characterized by data from emission-dispersion validated models. Logistic regression and mediating analyses were used to examine associations between exposures and questionnaire-based data on annoyance and non-specific symptoms, after adjusting by person-specific covariates. Strong dose-response associations were found between exposures and annoyance, and between annoyance and symptoms. Associations between exposures and symptoms (nausea, headache, dizziness, difficulty concentrating and unnatural fatigue) were indirect (annoyance-mediated). This study indicates that environmental exposures play an important role in the genesis of non-specific symptoms among residents exposed to low-to-moderate air pollution from biodegradable wastes, although the effects seem to be indirect, relayed through stress-related mechanisms.
PubMed ID
25192839 View in PubMed
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Association between perfluorinated compound exposure and miscarriage in Danish pregnant women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269093
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123496
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Tina Kold Jensen
Louise Bjørkholt Andersen
Henriette Boye Kyhl
Flemming Nielsen
Henrik Thybo Christesen
Philippe Grandjean
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0123496
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - chemically induced
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fluorocarbons - toxicity
Humans
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in consumer products and humans are widely exposed to these persistent compounds. A recent study found no association between exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and miscarriage, but no studies have examined adverse effect of the more recently introduced PFASs. We therefore conducted a case-control study within a population-based, prospective cohort during 2010-2012. Newly pregnant women residing in the Municipality of Odense, Denmark were invited to enroll in the Odense Child Cohort at their first antenatal visit before pregnancy week 12. Among a total of 2,874 participating women, 88 suffered a miscarriage and 59 had stored serum samples, of which 56 occurred before gestational week 12. They were compared to a random sample (N=336) of delivering women, who had also donated serum samples before week 12. Using a case-control design, 51 of the women suffering a miscarriage were matched on parity and gestational day of serum sampling with 204 delivering women. In a multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age, BMI, parity and gestational age at serum sampling, women with the highest tertile of exposure to perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) in pregnancy had odds ratios for miscarriage of 16.5 (95% CI 7.4-36.6-36.5) and 2.67 (1.31-5.44), respectively, as compared to the lowest tertile. In the matched data set, the OR were 37.9 (9.9-145.2) and 3.71 (1.60-8.60), respectively. The association with perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) was in the same direction, but not statistically significant, while no association was found with PFOA and PFOS. Our findings require confirmation due to the possible public health importance, given that all pregnant women are exposed to these widely used compounds.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25848775 View in PubMed
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Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269419
Source
Environ Pollut. 2015 Jul;202:17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2015
Author
Marlies Warming
Mette G Hansen
Peter E Holm
Jakob Magid
Thomas H Hansen
Stefan Trapp
Source
Environ Pollut. 2015 Jul;202:17-23
Date
Jul-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cities
Crops, Agricultural - chemistry
Denmark
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Gardening - methods
Humans
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Risk assessment
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Trace Elements - analysis
Urbanization
Abstract
This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr 
PubMed ID
25796073 View in PubMed
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Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87408
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Thieden Elisabeth
Author Affiliation
The Skin Clinic, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. et01@bbh.regionh.dk
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Female
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Risk-Taking
Solar System
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls received a significantly higher UVR dose than boys due to more days with risk behaviour (sunbathing or exposing shoulders outdoors). This exposure pattern, with females having more risk behaviour than males, was also found among adolescents and adults. Sunbathing or exposing shoulders (risk behaviour) outside the beach resulted in a median of 2.5 SED per day in northern Europe and 3.2 SED per day in southern Europe, while the corresponding values were 4.6 SED and 6.9 SED per day at the beach. UVR doses above 10 SED per day were connected with risk behaviour. The subjects had a median of 13 days with risk behaviour (range, 0-93 days). The subjects used sunscreen on a median of five days (range, 0-130 days), but have a median of seven days with risk behaviour without sunscreen applied (range, 0-47 days). They had a median of one sunburn per sun-year (range 0-10). Fifty percent of the UVR dose was received between 12.00 and 15.00. Only the gardeners received the main part of their UVR dose on workdays. Conclusions : - High UVR doses are connected with risk behaviour. Reduction of cumulative lifetime UVR dose could be obtained by minimizing risk behaviour. - Sunburns were highly correlated to risk behaviour. - Use of sunscreen correlated with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan", indicating that sunscreens were used to avoid sunburn during risk behaviour. - Scheduling lunch breaks and other breaks indoors at noon, where ambient UVR peaks, could reduce the occupational UVR exposure significantly. - In the winter-half-year in Denmark. the UVR dose received from solar exposure is negligible and no UVR precautions are needed. This study documented that high subject compliance rate and data reliability could be obtained in long-time UVR dosimeter study as ours by being service minded but persistent, offering dosimeter maintenance service within 24 hours and scrutinizing data for errors and mistakes just after data collection.
PubMed ID
18321444 View in PubMed
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Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87739
Source
Environ Health. 2007;6:36
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Lind Uffe
Mose Tina
Knudsen Lisbeth E
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, P,O,B, 2099, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark. u.lind@pubhealth.ku.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2007;6:36
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude
Biomedical Research - ethics
Comprehension
Denmark
Female
Humans
Informed consent
Interviews as Topic
Male
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Placenta - metabolism
Pregnancy
Research Subjects - psychology
Trust
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some background information but no follow up. METHODS: Nineteen semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants in the placenta perfusion study after donation of placenta. Observation studies were made of recruitment sessions. RESULTS: The interviewed participants are generally in favour of medical research. They participated in the placenta perfusion study due to a belief that societal progress follows medical research. They also felt that participating was a way of giving something back to the Danish health care system. The participants have trust in medical science and scientists, but trust is something which needs to be created through "trust-work". Face-to-face interaction, written information material and informed consent forms play important parts in creating trusting relationships in medical research. CONCLUSION: Medical research ethics do not only amount to specific types of written information material but should also be seen as a number of trust making performances involving researchers as well as research participants.
PubMed ID
18034882 View in PubMed
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Modification effects of physical activity and protein intake on heritability of body size and composition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95114
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;90(4):1096-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Silventoinen Karri
Hasselbalch Ann Louise
Lallukka Tea
Bogl Leonie
Pietiläinen Kirsi H
Heitmann Berit L
Schousboe Karoline
Rissanen Aila
Kyvik Kirsten O
Sørensen Thorkild I A
Kaprio Jaakko
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. karri.silventoinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;90(4):1096-103
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Body Composition - drug effects - genetics
Body mass index
Body Size - drug effects - genetics
Denmark
Dietary Proteins - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Diseases in Twins - genetics
Exercise
Female
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Obesity - genetics
Quantitative Trait, Heritable
Sex Factors
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The development of obesity is still a poorly understood process that is dependent on both genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine how physical activity and the proportion of energy as protein in the diet modify the genetic variation of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percentage body fat. DESIGN: Twins from Denmark (756 complete pairs) and Finland (278 complete pairs) aged 18-67 and 21-24 y, respectively, participated. The proportion of energy as protein in the diet was estimated by using food-frequency questionnaires. The participants reported the frequency and intensity of their leisure time physical activity. Waist circumference and BMI were measured. Percentage body fat was assessed in Denmark by using a bioelectrical impedance method. The data were analyzed by using gene-environment interaction models for twin data with the Mx statistical package (Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). RESULTS: High physical activity was associated with lower mean values, and a high proportion of protein in the diet was associated with higher mean BMI, waist circumference, and percentage body fat and a reduction in genetic and environmental variances. Genetic modification by physical activity was statistically significant for BMI (-0.18; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.05) and waist circumference (-0.14; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.05) in the merged data. A high proportion of protein in the diet reduced genetic and environmental variances in BMI and waist circumference in Danish men but not in women or in Finnish men. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, in physically active individuals, the genetic variation in weight is reduced, which possibly suggests that physical activity is able to modify the action of the genes responsible for predisposition to obesity, whereas the protein content of the diet has no appreciable effect.
PubMed ID
19710197 View in PubMed
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Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95155
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:262
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Bonde Jens Peter E
Munch-Hansen Torsten
Wieclaw Joanna
Westergaard-Nielsen Niels
Agerbo Esben
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Bisbebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark. jpb@bbh.regionh.dk
Source
BMC Public Health. 2009;9:262
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Depression - drug therapy
Employment - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Stress, Psychological
Young Adult
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. METHODS: Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002-2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3-120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. RESULTS: The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.
PubMed ID
19635130 View in PubMed
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Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277351
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Feb;124(2):228-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2016
Author
Dorrit Hjortebjerg
Anne Marie Nybo Andersen
Jeppe Schultz Christensen
Matthias Ketzel
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Jordi Sunyer
Jordi Julvez
Joan Forns
Mette Sørensen
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Feb;124(2):228-34
Date
Feb-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Male
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects
Problem Behavior - psychology
Abstract
Exposure to traffic noise has been associated with adverse effects on neuropsychological outcomes in children, but findings with regard to behavioral problems are inconsistent.
We investigated whether residential road traffic noise exposure is associated with behavioral problems in 7-year-old children.
We identified 46,940 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete information on behavioral problems at 7 years of age and complete address history from conception to 7 years of age. Road traffic noise (Lden) was modeled at all present and historical addresses. Behavioral problems were assessed by the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between pregnancy and childhood exposure to noise and behavioral problems were analyzed by multinomial or logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders.
A 10-dB increase in average time-weighted road traffic noise exposure from birth to 7 years of age was associated with a 7% increase (95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) in abnormal versus normal total difficulties scores; 5% (95% CI: 1.00, 1.10) and 9% (95% CI: 1.03, 1.18) increases in borderline and abnormal hyperactivity/inattention subscale scores, respectively; and 5% (95% CI: 0.98, 1.14) and 6% (95% CI: 0.99, 1.12) increases in abnormal conduct problem and peer relationship problem subscale scores, respectively. Exposure to road traffic noise during pregnancy was not associated with child behavioral problems at 7 years of age.
Residential road traffic noise in early childhood may be associated with behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention symptoms.
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Feb;124(2):A2826829235
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Feb;124(2):A2826829329
PubMed ID
26126294 View in PubMed
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Irritation of the human eye mucous membrane caused by airborne pollutants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9990
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002 Jun;75(5):359-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2002
Author
Daria Podlekareva
Zhiwei Pan
Søren Kjaergaard
Lars Mølhave
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, University of Aarhus, Vennelyst Boulevard 6, Bygn. 260, Aarhus, Denmark.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2002 Jun;75(5):359-64
Date
Jun-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
1-Butanol - adverse effects
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Carbon Dioxide - adverse effects
Conjunctiva - drug effects - physiopathology
Denmark
Female
Humans
Irritants - adverse effects
Male
Middle Aged
Mucous Membrane - drug effects - physiopathology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the different irritative effects of carbon dioxide and n-butanol exposure on the ocular mucous membrane. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Provocation by the gases was at the same sensory level, which was 50% of maximum on a linear scale. The experiment was performed on nine healthy subjects with the aim of identifying the relationship between eye irritation and the human physiological response to this irritation. A goggle exposure system, invented at the Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aarhus University, was used for the experiment. The exposures lasted for 30 min each. RESULTS: There were no changes in tear film stability and conjunctival corrosion (lissamine staining) after carbon dioxide and n-butanol exposures leading to 50% sensory eye irritation. However, the study showed a delayed inflammatory response after carbon dioxide exposure when compared with clean air. The significant change was seen for tear fluid neutrophilic granulocytes 22 h after carbon dioxide (CO(2)) exposure only. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the type of exposure made no difference to the elicited physiological responses and that tear film stability and epithelium damage were not affected by sensory irritation itself.
PubMed ID
11981676 View in PubMed
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Accumulation of organotin compounds and mercury in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from the Danish waters and West Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature70531
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2005
Author
Jakob Strand
Martin M Larsen
Christina Lockyer
Author Affiliation
National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Marine Ecology, P.O. Box 358, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. jak@dmu.dk
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Nov 1;350(1-3):59-71
Date
Nov-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Female
Greenland
Liver - chemistry - metabolism
Male
Mercury - analysis - metabolism
Organotin Compounds - analysis - metabolism
Phocoena - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - metabolism
Zinc - analysis - metabolism
Abstract
The concentrations of butyltin (summation operatorBT=TBT+DBT+MBT) and mercury (Hg) were determined in the liver of 35 harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), which were found dead along the coastlines or caught as by-catch in the Danish North Sea and the Inner Danish waters. In addition, three harbour porpoises hunted in West Greenland were analysed. High levels of butyltin and mercury, within the range of 68-4605 mg BT/kg ww and 0.22-92 mg Hg/kg ww, were found in the liver of the Danish harbour porpoises and both substances tend to accumulate with age. The levels in the harbour porpoise from West Greenland were 2.0-18 mg BT/kg ww and 6.3-6.9 mg Hg/kg ww, respectively. The concentrations of butyltin and mercury were both found to be higher in stranded than in by-caught harbour porpoises but only the butyltin concentration was significantly higher in stranded porpoises in the age group 1-5 years. These substances are suspected of inducing adverse effects on immune and endocrine systems in mammals and they may thereby pose a threat to the animals. This study suggests that organotin compounds are also important, when assessing the risks of contaminants on the health and viability of harbour porpoises in Danish waters.
PubMed ID
16227073 View in PubMed
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Does thimerosal or other mercury exposure increase the risk for autism? A review of current literature.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100529
Source
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):187-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Stephen T Schultz
Author Affiliation
University of Texas, Health Science School, San Antonio, TX, USA. stephen.schultz@med.navy.mil
Source
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010;70(2):187-95
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autistic Disorder - chemically induced - epidemiology
Canada
Child
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Great Britain
Humans
Immunization - adverse effects
Infant
Mercury - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Mercury Poisoning - epidemiology - metabolism
Preservatives, Pharmaceutical - adverse effects
Thimerosal - adverse effects
United States
Vaccines - adverse effects
Abstract
This report reviews current literature regarding the association of the pharmaceutical preservative thimerosal and other mercury exposures with the risk for autism. The evidence presented here does not support a causal association between autism and mercury exposure from the preservative thimerosal. The risk for autism from other mercury exposures such as from dental amalgam restorations or environmental mercury release into the atmosphere is ambiguous. Since mercury is a known neurotoxin, more research should be done to ensure that mercury exposure from any source does not contribute to autism.
PubMed ID
20628442 View in PubMed
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in paired samples of maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma and associations with house dust in a Danish cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100601
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010 Jul;213(4):233-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Marie Frederiksen
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Katrin Vorkamp
Marianne Thomsen
Georg Becher
Lisbeth E Knudsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environment and Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Oester Farimagsgade 5, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010 Jul;213(4):233-42
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dust
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - blood
Humans
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Pregnancy
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), in particular the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been used in consumer products for many years to increase fire resistance. Recently, developmental neurotoxicity at very low levels has increased the concern about these compounds. The major objectives of this study were to investigate the maternal and fetal exposure to PBDEs on the basis of maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples and to study the extent of placental transfer for different PBDE congeners. The findings were also compared with previously observed PBDE levels and patterns determined in placental tissue from the same individuals, and the relationship with the external exposure from house dust from the participants' homes was explored. Samples of maternal and umbilical cord plasma from a cohort of 51 pregnant women from the Copenhagen area were collected. Paired maternal and umbilical cord plasma were analysed for BDE-28, 37, 47, 85, 99, 100, 119, 138, 153, 154, 183, 209 and the brominated biphenyl BB-153 using automated SPE extraction and GC-HRMS for the tri- to hepta-BDEs and GC-LRMS (ECNI) for BDE-209. PBDEs were detected in all maternal and umbilical cord plasma samples. The sum of tri- to hexa-BDEs (SigmaPBDE) in maternal plasma varied between 640 and 51,946 pg/g lipid weight (lw) with a median level of 1765 pg/g lw. In the umbilical cord samples SigmaPBDE varied between 213 and 54,346 pg/g lw with a median of 958 pg/g lw. The levels observed in fetal and maternal plasma were highly correlated, but the placental transport of PBDE congeners was found to decrease with increasing diphenyl ether bromination. Maternal concentrations were significantly correlated (p
PubMed ID
20471317 View in PubMed
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Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264053
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Nov 1;497-498:430-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2014
Author
M. Rygaard
B. Godskesen
C. Jørgensen
B. Hoffmann
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Nov 1;497-498:430-9
Date
Nov-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Denmark
Housing
Humans
Water Resources - standards - statistics & numerical data
Water Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices.
PubMed ID
25150737 View in PubMed
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Are environmental characteristics in the municipal eldercare, more closely associated with frequent short sick leave spells among employees than with total sick leave: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264165
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:578
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Christina Malmose Stapelfeldt
Claus Vinther Nielsen
Niels Trolle Andersen
Line Krane
Nils Fleten
Vilhelm Borg
Chris Jensen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:578
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Female
Health Services for the Aged - manpower
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Workload - psychology
Workplace
Abstract
It has been suggested that frequent-, short-term sick leave is associated with work environment factors, whereas long-term sick leave is associated mainly with health factors. However, studies of the hypothesis of an association between a poor working environment and frequent short spells of sick leave are few and results are inconsistent. Therefore, we aimed to explore associations between self-reported psychosocial work factors and workplace-registered frequency and length of sick leave in the eldercare sector.
Employees from the municipal eldercare in Aarhus (N = 2,534) were included. In 2005, they responded to a work environment questionnaire. Sick leave records from 2005 were dichotomised into total sick leave days (0-14 and above 14 days) and into spell patterns (0-2 short, 3-9 short, and mixed spells and 1-3 long spells). Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations; adjusted for age, gender, occupation, and number of spells or sick leave length.
The response rate was 76%; 96% of the respondents were women. Unfavourable mean scores in work pace, demands for hiding emotions, poor quality of leadership and bullying were best indicated by more than 14 sick leave days compared with 0-14 sick leave days. For work pace, the best indicator was a long-term sick leave pattern compared with a non-frequent short-term pattern. A frequent short-term sick leave pattern was a better indicator of emotional demands (1.62; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5) and role conflict (1.50; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9) than a short-term non-frequent pattern.Age (= 40 years) statistically significantly modified the association between the 1-3 long-term sick leave spell pattern and commitment to the workplace compared with the 3-9 frequent short-term pattern.
Total sick leave length and a long-term sick leave spell pattern were just as good or even better indicators of unfavourable work factor scores than a frequent short-term sick leave pattern. Scores in commitment to the workplace and quality of leadership varied with sick leave pattern and age. Thus, different sick leave measures seem to be associated with different work environment factors. Further studies on these associations may inform interventions to improve occupational health care.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23764253 View in PubMed
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