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Methods and rationale for derivation of a reference dose for methylmercury by the U.S. EPA.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58422
Source
Risk Anal. 2003 Feb;23(1):107-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Deborah C Rice
Rita Schoeny
Kate Mahaffey
Author Affiliation
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA. rice.deborah@epa.gov
Source
Risk Anal. 2003 Feb;23(1):107-15
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Maternal Exposure
Mercury - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - administration & dosage - standards - toxicity
New Zealand
Pregnancy
Risk assessment
Seychelles
United States
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Abstract
In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency derived a reference dose (RfD) for methylmercury, which is a daily intake that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effects during a lifetime. This derivation used a series of benchmark dose (BMD) analyses provided by a National Research Council (NRC) panel convened to assess the health effects of methylmercury. Analyses were performed for a number of endpoints from three large longitudinal cohort studies of the neuropsychological consequences of in utero exposure to methylmercury: the Faroe Islands, Seychelles Islands, and New Zealand studies. Adverse effects were identified in the Faroe Islands and New Zealand studies, but not in the Seychelles Islands. The NRC also performed an integrative analysis of all three studies. The EPA applied a total uncertainty factor (UF) of 10 for intrahuman toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic variability and uncertainty. Dose conversion from cord blood mercury concentrations to maternal methylmercury intake was performed using a one-compartment model. Derivation of potential RfDs from a number of endpoints from the Faroe Islands study converged on 0.1 microg/kg/day, as did the integrative analysis of all three studies. EPA identified several areas for which further information or analyses is needed. Perhaps the most immediately relevant is the ratio of cord:maternal blood mercury concentration, as well as the variability around this ratio. EPA assumed in its dose conversion that the ratio was 1.0; however, available data suggest it is perhaps 1.5-2.0. Verification of a deviation from unity presumably would be translated directly into comparable reduction in the RfD. Other areas that EPA identified as significant areas requiring further attention are cardiovascular consequences of methylmercury exposure and delayed neurotoxicity during aging as a result of previous developmental or adult exposure.
PubMed ID
12635727 View in PubMed
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Exposure to microbial agents in house dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122533
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
U. Gehring
M. Korppi
G. Doekes
J. Riedler
C. Braun-Fahrländer
S. Bitter
S. Schmid
L. Keski-Nisula
M. Roponen
V. Kaulek
J-C Dalphin
P I Pfefferle
H. Renz
G. Büchele
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland. anne.karvonen@thl.fi
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Austria - epidemiology
Biological Markers - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - immunology
Dust - analysis - immunology
Endotoxins - analysis - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Finland - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - blood - immunology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Polysaccharides - analysis - immunology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - immunology
Rural Population
Switzerland - epidemiology
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with development of wheezing and allergic diseases.
To assess the association of microbial exposure in rural homes with the risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic dermatitis and sensitization.
Birth cohorts of rural children (n = 1133), half from farmer families, were followed up from birth to 2 years of age by questionnaires in five European centres. Endotoxin and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. were determined from living room floor and mother's mattress dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Specific IgE against 19 allergens was measured at 1 year of age. Discrete-time hazard models, generalized estimations equations (GEE) and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses.
The incidence of asthma was inversely associated with the amount of dust (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) and the loads (units/m(2)) of EPS (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.04) and endotoxin (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.05) in the mother's mattress. Similar associations were seen with wheezing and with living room floor dust. The microbial markers were highly correlated and their effects could not be clearly separated. The inverse associations were seen especially among non-farmers. The risk of sensitization to inhalant allergens increased with increasing endotoxin exposure from mattress dust. No associations were observed with concentrations (units/g) or with atopic dermatitis.
The amount and microbial content of house dust were inversely associated with asthma and wheezing, but due to high correlations between microbial agents and amount of dust, it was not possible to disentangle their individual effects. New ways to better measure and represent exposure to environmental microbes, including indexes of biodiversity, are needed especially among farmers.
PubMed ID
22805472 View in PubMed
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Unemployment and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134627
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Jens P Bonde
Ellen A Nohr
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the relation between employment status, type of unemployment and pregnancy outcomes.
A cohort study of 7,282 pregnancies of unemployed women and 56,014 pregnancies among women in paid jobs was performed within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained and information about lifestyle, occupational, medical, and obstetric factors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for fetal loss, congenital anomalies, multiple births, sex ratio, preterm and very preterm birth and small for gestational age status, adjusting for lifestyle, medical and obstetric factors.
There were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between employed and unemployed women but women receiving unemployment benefit had an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.31) and having a small for gestational age child (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.19) compared with employed women. Women receiving sickness or maternity benefit had an increased risk of multiple birth (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.04), preterm (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) and very preterm birth (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.89), while those receiving an unreported type of support had an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93).
We found no indication that being unemployed during pregnancy benefits or endangers the health of the child. Within the subgroups of unemployed women, we observed that women receiving unemployment and sickness or maternity benefits were at higher risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
PubMed ID
21558297 View in PubMed
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Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134673
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Ase Vikanes
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Andrej M Grjibovski
Per Magnus
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Allium
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Hyperemesis Gravidarum - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Seafood
Severity of Illness Index
Water - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis), characterised by severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, has an unknown aetiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate food and nutrient intake before pregnancy and the risk of developing hyperemesis in women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 7710 pregnant women answered a FFQ about their diet during the 12 months before becoming pregnant and a questionnaire about illnesses during pregnancy, including hyperemesis. Only women who were hospitalised for hyperemesis were included as cases. Nutrient intakes during the year before pregnancy did not differ between the ninety-nine women who developed hyperemesis and the 7611 who did not. However, the intake of seafood, allium vegetables and water was significantly lower among women who developed hyperemesis than among women in the non-hyperemesis group. Relative risks of hyperemesis were approximated as OR, and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women in the upper tertile of seafood consumption had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the lower tertile (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·98), and women in the second tertile of water intake had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the first tertile (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·73). The findings suggest that a moderate intake of water and adherence to a healthy diet that includes vegetables and fish are associated with a lower risk of developing hyperemesis.
PubMed ID
21554820 View in PubMed
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Evidence that serum levels of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products are inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk: a prospective study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134808
Source
Cancer Res. 2011 May 15;71(10):3582-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-15-2011
Author
Li Jiao
Stephanie J Weinstein
Demetrius Albanes
Philip R Taylor
Barry I Graubard
Jarmo Virtamo
Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon
Author Affiliation
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. jiao@bcm.edu
Source
Cancer Res. 2011 May 15;71(10):3582-9
Date
May-15-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Double-Blind Method
Finland
Glucose - metabolism
Humans
Insulin - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Oxidative Stress
Pancreatic Neoplasms - blood - metabolism
Placebos
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Receptors, Immunologic - blood - physiology
Risk
Smoking
Abstract
Cigarette smoking, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and, to a lesser extent, meat cooked at high temperatures are associated with pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoke and foods cooked at higher temperatures are major environmental sources of advanced glycation end products (AGE). AGEs accumulate during hyperglycemia and elicit oxidative stress and inflammation through interaction with the receptor for AGEs (RAGE). Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) acts as an anti-inflammatory factor to neutralize AGEs and block the effects mediated by RAGE. In this study, we investigated the associations of prediagnostic measures of N(e)-(carboxymethyl)-lysine (CML)-AGE and sRAGE with pancreatic cancer in a case-cohort study within a cohort of 29,133 Finnish male smokers. Serum samples and exposure information were collected at baseline (1985-1988). We measured CML-AGE, sRAGE, glucose, and insulin concentrations in fasting serum from 255 incident pancreatic cancer cases that arose through April 2005 and from 485 randomly sampled subcohort participants. Weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% CI, adjusted for age, years of smoking, and body mass index. CML-AGE and sRAGE were mutually adjusted. CML-AGE levels were not associated with pancreatic cancer [fifth compared with first quintile, RR (95% CI): 0.68 (0.38-1.22), P(trend) = 0.27]. In contrast, sRAGE levels were inversely associated with pancreatic cancer [fifth compared with first quintile, RR (95% CI): 0.46 (0.23-0.73), P(trend) = 0.002]. Further adjustment for glucose or insulin levels did not change the observed associations. Our findings suggest that sRAGE is inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk among Finnish male smokers.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21540233 View in PubMed
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The same factors influence job turnover and long spells of sick leave--a 3-year follow-up of Swedish nurses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93576
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Aug;18(4):380-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
Josephson Malin
Lindberg Per
Voss Margaretha
Alfredsson Lars
Vingård Eva
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Malin.Josephson@medsci.uu.se
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2008 Aug;18(4):380-5
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Middle Aged
Nurses - statistics & numerical data
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Personnel Turnover - statistics & numerical data
Sex Factors
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In many countries, a general shortage of nurses is a public health problem, and retention of nurses in active work is a challenge. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the same individual factors, working conditions and health problems had led to increased probability of both leaving jobs and prolonged sickness absence in a cohort of Swedish nurses over a period of 3 years. METHODS: A baseline questionnaire was answered by 2293 nurses, representing a response rate of 86%. Exposed and unexposed nurses were compared with regard to two outcomes. During the 3-year follow-up, exposed and unexposed nurses were compared with regard to two outcomes: resigning and having at least one sick leave spell that lasted 28 days or longer. RESULTS: We found that 18% of the nurses left their employment, and 16% had sick leave spells > or =28 days. Work in geriatric care, being socially excluded by superiors and/or workmates, negative effects of organizational changes and poor self-rated general health were factors that increased the likelihood of both leaving jobs and long-term sick leave. CONCLUSIONS: The present results underline the importance of improving working conditions and supporting sustainable health in order to prevent high turnover and prolonged sick leave among nurses. Resigning and moving to another institution can be interpreted as a way to actively cope with an unhealthy work environment.
PubMed ID
18292122 View in PubMed
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Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Marianne Berwick
Author Affiliation
University of New Mexico Cancer Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001, USA. mberwick@salud.unm.edu
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):582-4
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Male
Melanoma - blood - etiology - mortality
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - blood - etiology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology
Ultraviolet Rays
Vitamin D - blood
Abstract
A Swedish cohort analysis in this issue (1) demonstrates a significant reduction in all cause mortality and in cardiovascular mortality associated with several measures of sun exposure. In addition, ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. A potential explanation for the protective association is that UV exposure results in high levels of serum vitamin D which may improve survival. However, that explanation does not hold for ultraviolet exposure from tanning beds, which in this study is associated with a significant increase in all cause mortality and cancer mortality. Such a finding is curious and inconsistent with a vitamin D hypothesis. These results should impel investigators to study further the biology of ultraviolet radiation, both natural and artificial, and its health effects.
Notes
RefSource: Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Apr;20(4):683-90
PubMed ID
21454422 View in PubMed
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Placental transfer of perfluorinated compounds is selective--a Norwegian Mother and Child sub-cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131101
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012 Feb;215(2):216-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2012
Author
Kristine Bjerve Gützkow
Line Småstuen Haug
Cathrine Thomsen
Azemira Sabaredzovic
Georg Becher
Gunnar Brunborg
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Chemical Toxicology, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. kristine.bjerve.gutzkow@fhi.no
Source
Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2012 Feb;215(2):216-9
Date
Feb-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Caprylates - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Mothers
Norway
Pregnancy
Registries
Umbilical Cord
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) comprise a large group of man-made fluorinated chemicals used in a number of consumer products and industrial applications. PFCs have shown to be persistent, bio-accumulative and widespread in the environment. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatotoxicity, immunotoxicity, developmental toxicity as well as hormonal effects. We investigated prenatal exposure to several PFCs and detected up to seven different PFCs in 123 paired samples of human maternal and cord blood, from a subcohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The maternal and foetal levels were significantly correlated for all PFCs tested with median PFC concentrations in cord blood ranging between 30 and 79% of the maternal concentrations, demonstrating placental passage. The composition of the different PFCs varied between cord and maternal blood, with a higher proportion of shorter chained PFCs together with a higher amount of the branched isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in cord blood. Additionally, the sulfonate group seems to impede transfer efficiency. This indicates a selective placental passage of the different PFCs and hence a specific foetal exposure.
PubMed ID
21937271 View in PubMed
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Childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as an extreme of a continuous trait: a quantitative genetic study of 8,500 twin pairs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131220
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2012
Author
Henrik Larsson
Henrik Anckarsater
Maria Råstam
Zheng Chang
Paul Lichtenstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. henrik.larsson@ki.se
Source
J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;53(1):73-80
Date
Jan-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Diseases in Twins - diagnosis - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Genetic Linkage - genetics
Genetic Testing
Health Surveys - methods - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Prevalence
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychometrics
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Although the clinical utility of categorically defined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is well established, there is also strong evidence supporting the notion of ADHD as an extreme of a continuous trait. Nevertheless, the question of whether the etiology is the same for different levels of DSM-IV ADHD symptoms remains to be investigated. The aim of this study was to assess genetic links between the extreme and the subthreshold range of ADHD symptoms.
Parents of all Swedish 9- and 12-year-old twins born between 1992 and 2000 were interviewed for DSM-IV ADHD symptoms and associated conditions. Two validated cutoff values were used for screening and assigning research diagnoses. Response rate was 80%. Twin methods were applied to investigate the extent to which ADHD is etiologically distinct from subthreshold variations in ADHD symptoms.
Extremes analyses indicated a strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation, with almost identical group heritability estimates around .60 for the diagnostic (prevalence 1.78%) and screening (prevalence 9.75%) criteria of ADHD.
A strong genetic link between the extreme and the subthreshold variation of DSM-IV based assessments of ADHD symptoms was found. The data suggest that ADHD is best viewed as the quantitative extreme of genetic and environmental factors operating dimensionally throughout the distribution of ADHD symptoms, indicating that the same etiologic factors are involved in the full range of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity.
PubMed ID
21923806 View in PubMed
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Insights from epidemiology into dichloromethane and cancer risk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131410
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3380-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Glinda S Cooper
Cheryl Siegel Scott
Ambuja S Bale
Author Affiliation
National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA. Cooper.Glinda@epa.gov
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3380-98
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Methylene Chloride - toxicity
Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Solvents - toxicity
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21909313 View in PubMed
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Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131590
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:689
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Nicola Murgia
Kjell Torén
Jeong-Lim Kim
Eva Andersson
Author Affiliation
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2011;11:689
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Air Pollutants, Occupational - toxicity
Cohort Studies
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Extraction and Processing Industry
Female
Gases - toxicity
Humans
Irritants - toxicity
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Paper
Respiration Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Wood
Abstract
The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants.
Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5) and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model.
This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21896193 View in PubMed
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Childhood adversities predict strongly the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood: a population-based cohort study of 24,284 Finns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268779
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Apr;69(4):354-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Karoliina Koskenvuo
Markku Koskenvuo
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Apr;69(4):354-60
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Adult Survivors of Child Adverse Events - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Divorce - psychology
Family Health
Family Relations - psychology
Fear - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mental Disorders - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Middle Aged
Poverty - psychology
Psychotropic Drugs - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences has been shown to be associated with negative health outcomes including mental health problems, but only a few studies with register-based data have used psychotropic drugs as an outcome variable. The purpose of this study is to examine whether adverse emotional childhood experiences, such as serious conflicts in the family and frequent fear of a family member, predict the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood. In addition, the association of a child-parent relationship during childhood with the use of psychotropic drugs is studied.
The participants of the population-based Health and Social Support Study (24,284 working aged Finns) were followed up for 9 years. The information on childhood experiences and child-parent relationships was obtained from the questionnaires in 1998 and 2003. The number of psychotropic purchases (antipsychotics, drugs for bipolar disorder, antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives) was obtained from the National-Drug-Prescription-Register. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used.
A graded association between childhood adversities and the use of psychotropic drugs was found, even after adjustments for occupational training, work status, recent life events and health behaviour. Frequent fear of a family member showed the strongest association: the OR for multiple use of antidepressants was 3.08 (95% CI 2.72 to 3.49) and 2.69 (2.27 to 3.20) for multiple use of anxiolytics. Use of psychotropic drugs was clearly increased among those with poor child-parent relationship and multiple childhood adversities.
The results highlight the effect of environmental factors during childhood on mental health and the need for early recognition of families at risk.
PubMed ID
25538256 View in PubMed
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Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269313
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Maria C Magnus
Hein Stigum
Siri E Håberg
Per Nafstad
Stephanie J London
Wenche Nystad
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - physiopathology
Body Height
Body Weight
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mothers
Norway
Sample Size
Siblings
Abstract
The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.
We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311), recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) by 36 months (n = 47,905) and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.
Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26) per standard deviation (SD) increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19) per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.
Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25635872 View in PubMed
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Stroke and acute myocardial infarction in the Swedish Sami population: incidence and mortality in relation to income and level of education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87016
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2008 Jan;36(1):84-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
factor patterns and their association with diet in Saami and Finnish Reindeer herders. Arctic Med Res 1994;53(Suppl 2):301–4. [6] Luoma P. Antioxidants, infections and environmental factors in health and disease in northern Finland. Int J Circumpolar Health 1998;57:109–13. [7] Hermansen R, Njølstad
  1 document  
Author
Sjölander Per
Hassler Sven
Janlert Urban
Author Affiliation
Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden. per.sjolander@vilhelmina.se
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2008 Jan;36(1):84-91
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
456294
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Ethnic Groups
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Income
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Reindeer
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Stroke - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - epidemiology - ethnology - mortality
Sweden - epidemiology - ethnology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the Sami have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and mortality from stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Swedish Sami population between 1985 and 2002, and to analyse the potential impact of income and level of education on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A Sami cohort of 15,914 persons (4,465 reindeer herding and 11,449 non-herding Sami) were followed up from 1985 to 2002 with regard to incidence and mortality rates of AMI, stroke, and SAH. Incidence and mortality ratios were calculated using a demographically matched non-Sami control population (DMC) as the standard (71,550 persons). RESULTS: There was no elevated risk of developing AMI among the Sami compared with the DMC. However, the mortality ratio of AMI was significantly higher for Sami women. Higher incidence rates of stroke and SAH for both Sami men and women was observed, but no differences in mortality rates. Apart from the reindeer-herding men who demonstrated lower levels of income and education, the income and education levels among Sami were similar to the DMC. CONCLUSIONS: High mortality rates from AMI rather than stroke explain the excess mortality for CVD previously shown among Sami women. The results suggest that the differences in incidence of stroke between herding and non-herding Sami men, and between Sami women and non-Sami women, are caused by behavioural and psychosocial risk factors rather than by traditional socioeconomic ones.
PubMed ID
18426788 View in PubMed
Documents

Stroke-and-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-the-Swedish-Sami-population.pdf

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Familial patterns of preterm delivery: maternal and fetal contributions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87178
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 15;167(4):474-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-15-2008

Mediterranean-type diet and risk of preterm birth among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa): a prospective cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87330
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):319-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Haugen Margaretha
Meltzer Helle Margrete
Brantsaeter Anne Lise
Mikkelsen Tina
Osterdal Marie Louise
Alexander Jan
Olsen Sjurdur F
Bakketeig Leiv
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Toxicology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Nydalen, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(3):319-24
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Diet, Mediterranean
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Nutrition Physiology
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Premature Birth - epidemiology - prevention & control
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the incidence of preterm birth. We wanted to investigate whether a Mediterranean-type diet (MD) could be associated with a lower risk of preterm birth in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The data collection was conducted as part of MoBa at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. In MoBa, women answer a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) at week 18-22 of pregnancy. The MD criteria were intake of fish > or =2 times a week, fruit and vegetables > or =5 times a day, use of olive/canola oil, red meat intake
PubMed ID
18307072 View in PubMed
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Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87354
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-12-2008
Author
Catalano Ralph
Bruckner Tim
Smith Kirk R
Author Affiliation
School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 12;105(6):2244-7
Date
Feb-12-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Longevity
Male
Sex ratio
Sweden - epidemiology
Temperature
Abstract
The theory that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which women subjected to environmental stressors abort frail male fetuses implies that climate change may affect sex ratio at birth and male longevity. Using time series methods, we find that cold ambient temperatures during gestation predict lower secondary sex ratios and longer life span of males in annual birth cohorts composed of Danes, Finns, Norwegians, and Swedes born between 1878 (earliest year with complete life tables) and 1914 (last birth cohort for which male life span can be estimated). We conclude that ambient temperature affects the characteristics of human populations by influencing who survives gestation, a heretofore unrecognized effect of climate on humanity.
PubMed ID
18250336 View in PubMed
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Validity of a new food frequency questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87445
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Jan;4(1):28-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Brantsaeter Anne Lise
Haugen Margaretha
Alexander Jan
Meltzer Helle Margrete
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. anne.lise.brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Jan;4(1):28-43
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - urine
Cohort Studies
Diet - psychology - statistics & numerical data - trends
Diet Records
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Female
Humans
Maternal Nutrition Physiology - physiology
Norway
Nutrition Assessment
Pregnancy
Prenatal Nutrition Physiology
Questionnaires - standards
Reproducibility of Results
Self Disclosure
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to examine the relative validity of foods and nutrients calculated by a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Reference measures were a 4-day weighed food diary (FD), a motion sensor for measuring total energy expenditure, one 24-h urine collection for analysis of nitrogen and iodine excretion, and a venous blood specimen for analysis of plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and serum folate. A total of 119 women participated in the validation study, and 112 completed the motion sensor registration. Overall, the level of agreement between the FFQ and the FD was satisfactory, and significant correlations were found for all major food groups and for all nutrients except vitamin E. The average correlation coefficient between the FFQ and the FD for daily intake was 0.48 for foods and 0.36 for nutrients, and on average, 68% of the participants were classified into the same or adjacent quintiles by the two methods. Estimated total energy expenditure indicated that under-reporting of energy intake was more extensive with the FD than with the FFQ. The biological markers confirmed that the FFQ was able to distinguish between high and low intakes of nutrients, as measured by vitamin D, folate, protein and iodine. This validation study indicates that the MoBa FFQ produces reasonable valid intake estimates and is a valid tool to rank pregnant women according to low and high intakes of energy, nutrients and foods.
PubMed ID
18171405 View in PubMed
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Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study: experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87446
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Jan;4(1):14-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2008
Author
Meltzer Helle Margrete
Brantsaeter Anne Lise
Ydersbond Trond A
Alexander Jan
Haugen Margaretha
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Matern Child Nutr. 2008 Jan;4(1):14-27
Date
Jan-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Diet - psychology - statistics & numerical data - trends
Diet Surveys
Dietary Supplements - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Maternal Nutrition Physiology - physiology
Norway
Nutrition Assessment
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Second
Prenatal Nutrition Physiology
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires - standards
Self Disclosure
Abstract
The aim of this article is to describe the main methodological challenges in the monitoring of dietary intake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), a pregnancy cohort aiming to include 100 000 participants. The overall challenge was to record dietary patterns in sufficient detail to support future testing of a broad range of hypotheses, while at the same time limiting the burden on the participants. The main questions to be answered were: which dietary method to choose, when in pregnancy to ask, which time period should the questions cover, which diet questions to include, how to perform a validation study, and how to handle uncertainties in the reporting. Our decisions were as follows: using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (in use from 1 March 2002), letting the participants answer in mid-pregnancy, and asking the mother what she has eaten since she became pregnant. The questions make it possible to estimate intake of food supplements, antioxidants and environmental contaminants in the future. Misreporting is handled by consistency checks. Reports with a calculated daily energy intake of 20 MJ day(-1) are excluded, about 1% in each end of the scale. A validation study confirmed that the included intakes are realistic. The outcome of our methodological choices indicates that our FFQ strikes a reasonable balance between conflicting methodological and scientific interests, and that our approach therefore may be of use to others planning to monitor diet in pregnancy cohorts.
PubMed ID
18171404 View in PubMed
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Genetics and gene-environment interactions in atopic diseases. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87519
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Håberg Siri E
Nafstad Per
Nystad Wenche
Magnus Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. siri.haberg@fhi.no
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Fathers
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) aims to provide new insights in a broad variety of diseases. The goal of the study is to understand pathways in disease development, and identify preventive measures. Several designs are suitable for studying genetics in complex diseases like asthma and allergy, in MoBa. METHODS: MoBa is a prospective population based cohort of 100 000 pregnancies, following offspring into adulthood. Enrollment started in 1999, and will be completed in 2008. A biobank with samples from the mother, father and child, together with detailed questionnaires from early pregnancy and childhood constitute the basis of the study. When studying complex diseases like asthma, a design with case-parent triads is useful. Parental effects and interactions between maternal and fetal genes can be detected. Stratifying triads by environmental exposure enables assessment of gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: By July 2006, more than 73,000 pregnancies have been included, with nearly 7,000 siblings and 1,300 pairs of twins enrolled. Biological samples are processed and stored at the biobank. The first children are reaching age seven in 2006. CONCLUSION: The MoBa cohort provides an excellent basis for studying genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on complex diseases.
PubMed ID
18073489 View in PubMed
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