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Survey of ophthalmic conditions in a Labrador community. I. Refractive errors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1279
Source
British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1979 Jun; 63(6):440-448.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1979
Author
Johnson, G.J.
Matthews, A.
Perkins, E.S.
Author Affiliation
Memorial University
Source
British Journal of Ophthalmology. 1979 Jun; 63(6):440-448.
Date
1979
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Nain
Height
Nutrition
Emmetropia
Hypermetropia
Axial length of eye
Astigmatism
School performance
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry
Body Height
Child
Child, Preschool
Continental Population Groups
Educational Status
Eye - anatomy & histology
Female
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Myopia - epidemiology
Newfoundland
Refractive Errors - epidemiology
Aged
Blindness - epidemiology - etiology
Cataract - epidemiology
Corneal Diseases - epidemiology
European Continental Ancestry Group
Eye Diseases - epidemiology
Eyelid Diseases - epidemiology
Glaucoma - epidemiology
Indians, North American
Infant
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retinal Diseases - epidemiology
Strabismus - epidemiology
Uveitis - epidemiology
Abstract
Of the 745 available members of the population of Nain in Labrador 650 (87%) were screened for refractive errors and ocular disease. Refraction by retinoscopy was done in 553 and axial length measured by an optical method in 514. The results showed that the incidence of low degrees of myopia was higher in Inuit (Eskimos) and those of Mixed Inuit-Caucasian blood in the age groups 10 to 40 than in those over 40. 75% of the myopes came from 20 families in which myopia was present in 2 or more generations. Although there was no significant correlation between the refraction of parents and offspring, there were significant correlations between them for axial length. The axial lenths of the myopic eyes of the Inuit and Mixed populations were significantly longer than emmetropic and hypermetropic eyes. The younger memebers of the population were taller than their parents, and except in female Caucasians axial length showed a significant positive correlation with height. More myopes than emmetropes and hypermetropes achieved grade 8 or more in school. It is suggested that the increased incidence of myopia in the younger age groups might be due to environmental factors interfering with the process of emmetropisation in eyes with a genetic predisposition to myopia by virtue of inheriting a slightlt longer eye. Better nutrition resulting in an increase in stature may also have had some influence.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2498.
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Assessment of PCBs in arctic foods and diets. A pilot study in Broughton Island, Northwest Territories, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature1333
Source
Pages 159-162 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1988
Arctic Medical Research, Vol. 4 7: Suppl. 1, pp. 159-162, 1988 ASSESSMENT OF PCBs IN ARCTIC FOODS AND DIETS A Pilot Study in Broughton Island, Northwest Territories, Canada D. Kinloch (1), H. Kuhnlein (2) NWT Region, Medical Services Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Yellowknife, NWT (1
  1 document  
Author
Kinloch, D.
Kuhnlein, H.
Author Affiliation
Department of National Health and Welfare (Canada)
Source
Pages 159-162 in H. Linderholm et al., eds. Circumpolar Health 87. Proceedings of the Seventh International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Umeå, Sweden, 1987. Arctic Medical Research. 1988;47 Supp 1.
Date
1988
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arctic Regions
Broughton Island
Child
Child, Preschool
Diet, traditional
Female
Food contamination - analysis
Food Habits
Food Supply
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant
Infant feeding
Male
Middle Aged
Northwest Territories
Nutrition Surveys
PCB
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 880.
PubMed ID
3152417 View in PubMed
Documents
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Farm children's exposure to herbicides: comparison of biomonitoring and questionnaire data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180236
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2004
Author
Tye E Arbuckle
Donald C Cole
Len Ritter
Brian D Ripley
Author Affiliation
Health Surveillance and Epidemiology Division, Population and Public Health Branch, Health Canada, Ontario K1A 0K9, Canada. Tye_Arbuckle@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):187-94
Date
Mar-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic Acid - urine
Adolescent
Adult
Agriculture
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Herbicides - urine
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Ontario
Questionnaires
Abstract
Pesticide exposure has been associated with various childhood cancers. However, most studies rely on questionnaires, with few using biologic measures of dose. This study was designed to measure herbicide exposure directly in children of farm applicators, and to compare these results with exposure imputed from questionnaire information.
Two consecutive 24-hour urine samples were collected from 92 children of Ontario farm applicators who used the herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) or MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) for the first time during 1996. The farm applicator completed questionnaires describing his pesticide-handling practices as well as the child's location during the various stages of handling these pesticides.
Approximately 30% of the children on farms using these herbicides had detectable concentrations in their urine, with maximum values of 100 microg/L for 2,4-D and 45 microg/L for MCPA. Children with higher levels were more likely to be boys and to have parents who also had higher mean urinary concentrations. The sensitivity and specificity of a simple indicator of use were 47% and 72%, respectively, for 2,4-D, and 91% and 30%, respectively, for MCPA, using the biomonitoring data as the gold standard.
Information on living on a farm, or on living on a farm where a specific pesticide is used, is not enough to classify children's exposures. Given this potential for misclassification, we urge incorporation of biomonitoring studies in subsets of children at least to estimate the extent of misclassification.
PubMed ID
15127911 View in PubMed
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Nitrogen dioxide exposure assessment and cough among preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196297
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2000 Nov-Dec;55(6):431-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
K. Mukala
S. Alm
P. Tiittanen
R O Salonen
M. Jantunen
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2000 Nov-Dec;55(6):431-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Cough - epidemiology - etiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Poisson Distribution
Risk factors
Rural Population
Sampling Studies
Urban Population
Abstract
The association between exposure to ambient air nitrogen dioxide and cough was evaluated in a panel study among 162 children aged 3-6 y. The weekly average nitrogen dioxide exposure was assessed with Palmes-tube measurements in three ways: (1) personally, (2) outside day-care centers, and (3) inside day-care centers. Ambient air nitrogen dioxide concentrations were obtained from the local network that monitored air quality. The parents recorded cough episodes daily in a diary. The risk of cough increased significantly (relative risk = 3.63; 95% confidence interval = 1.41, 9.30) in the highest personal nitrogen dioxide exposure category in winter, and a nonsignificant positive trend was noted for the other assessment groups. In spring, risk increased nonsignificantly in all exposure-assessment groups, except for the fixed-site monitoring assessment. It is important that investigators select an exposure-assessment method sufficiently accurate to reflect the effective pollutant dose in subjects.
PubMed ID
11128882 View in PubMed
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Identification of environmental sources of lead exposure in Nunavut (Canada) using stable isotope analyses.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257354
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Oct;71:63-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Myriam Fillion
Jules M Blais
Emmanuel Yumvihoze
Maya Nakajima
Peter Workman
Geraldine Osborne
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie, Gendron 160, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada.
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Oct;71:63-73
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Drinking Water - chemistry
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood - toxicity
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Housing
Humans
Inuits
Isotopes - analysis
Lead - analysis - blood - toxicity
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Nunavut
Paint - analysis
Pregnancy
Soil - chemistry
Abstract
Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured in the adult Inuit population of Nunavut, Northern Canada, during the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) in 2007-2008. Approximately 10% of the adult participants had BLL over the Health Canada's guidance of 100µg/L.
1) To repeat the measurement of BLL among the IHS participants with high BLL and household members including pregnant women and children under 10years of age; 2) to measure lead (Pb) concentrations in environmental samples to identify potential sources and 3) to explore how Pb from environmental samples contributes to BLL using Pb stable isotopic analyses.
Blood samples were collected from 100 adults and 56 children in 2012. A total of 169 environmental samples (tap water, house dust, paint, country food, soil, and ammunition) were collected from 14 houses from three communities where the IHS participants had the highest BLL. Total Pb concentrations and Pb isotope mass balance were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The geometric mean of BLL was 43.1µg/L; BLL increased with age and was higher in adults than children (71.1 vs. 17.5µg/L). Median Pb concentrations in water (1.9µg/L) and dust (27.1µg/m(2) for wiped dust, 32.6mg/kg for vacuum dust coarse fraction, and 141.9mg/kg for vacuum dust fine fraction) were generally higher than in other parts of Canada. Median Pb concentrations of food and soil coarse and fine fractions were low (36.6µg/kg, 5.4mg/kg and 11.8mg/kg respectively); paint chips exceeded the Canadian guidelines in two houses (median: 3.8mg/kg). Discriminant analyses and isotope ratio analyses showed that ammunition and house dust are major sources of Pb in this study population.
Analyses of Pb stable isotopes are useful to identify the routes of exposure to Pb. This approach can contribute to develop targeted public health programmes to prevent Pb exposure.
PubMed ID
24973640 View in PubMed
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[Cholesterol exchange in children and adolescents in the industrial towns of eastern Siberia].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101804
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Nov-Dec;(6):20-3
Publication Type
Article
Author
L A Budarina
I V Kudaeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Nov-Dec;(6):20-3
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol - blood
Cities - epidemiology
Environmental health
Female
Humans
Hypercholesterolemia - blood - epidemiology
Industry
Male
Retrospective Studies
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine lipid metabolic parameters in 5-14-year-old children. A directional trend was established in lipid parameters (a reduction in the level of total cholesterol and a change in its fractional composition: higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with a parallel decrease in the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), which is due to age-related features. There was a change in the spread of deviations in cholesterol exchange parameters from the standard values with age.
PubMed ID
21384577 View in PubMed
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Severe allergic reactions to food in Norway: a ten year survey of cases reported to the food allergy register.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131413
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3144-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Ellen Namork
Christiane K Fæste
Berit A Stensby
Eliann Egaas
Martinus Løvik
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404, Nydalen, Oslo NO-0403, Norway. ellen.namork@fhi.no
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3144-55
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Food Hypersensitivity - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Immunoglobulin E - blood
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lupinus - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Registries
Sex Distribution
Trigonella - immunology
Abstract
The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling and contamination. Cases are reported on a voluntary basis by first line doctors, and submitted together with a serum sample for specific IgE analysis. The register has received a total of 877 reports from 1 July, 2000 to 31 December, 2010. Two age groups, small children and young adults are over-represented, and the overall gender distribution is 40:60 males-females. The legumes lupine and fenugreek have been identified as two "new" allergens in processed foods and cases of contamination and faults in production of processed foods have been revealed. The highest frequency of food specific IgE is to hazelnuts and peanuts, with a marked increase in reactions to hazelnuts during the last three years. The Food Allergy Register has improved our knowledge about causes and severity of food allergic reactions in Norway. The results show the usefulness of population based national food allergy registers in providing information for health authorities and to secure safe food for individuals with food allergies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21909296 View in PubMed
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[Morbidity among senior preschool children in Magnitogorsk].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131474
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Jul-Aug;(4):34-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
T B Legostaeva
F I Ingel'
N A Antipanova
V V Iurchenko
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Jul-Aug;(4):34-40
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Child Welfare - trends
Child, Preschool
Disease - classification - etiology
Environmental health
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Metallurgy
Morbidity
Retrospective Studies
Siberia
Urban Population
Abstract
The publication is the third fragment of the multiparameter study. The level and causes of genome instability and sensitivity are assessed in children living in Magnitogorsk, a city with one of the largest mills in Russia. The city is in the list of the world's 35 most polluted ones. A transverse retrospective analysis found no differences in primary morbidity among 5-7-year-old children who had been living in different districts of Magnitogorsk since birth and were going to municipal kindergartens located adjacent to their house. Contrary to the expectations, the prevalence of morbidity and diseases that were markers for an industrial town was significantly lower among the children residing in the settlements situated around the mills than that in the city's other districts. There were 9 organic compounds that had no hygienic standards, the content of which in the snow samples collected in the areas of the examined kindergartens correlated with the prevalence of the children's morbidity. Family social and living conditions were shown to affect the children's morbidity.
PubMed ID
21901884 View in PubMed
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[The specific features of microbiocenoses in children living under conditions of anthropogenic pressing].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature131518
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Jul-Aug;(4):22-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
E B Rakova
S M Popkova
U M Nemchenko
N V Efimova
I V Myl'nikova
N A Taranenko
E L Kichigina
Iu P Dzhioev
E A Kungurtseva
E G Lamskov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2011 Jul-Aug;(4):22-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Bifidobacterium - isolation & purification
Catchment Area (Health)
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Industry
Intestinal Mucosa - microbiology
Laryngeal Mucosa - microbiology
Nasal Mucosa - microbiology
Siberia
Abstract
The specific features of enteric and nasopharyngeal microbiocenoses and the species composition of bifidobacteria have been studied in children living in the industrial towns of the Irkutsk Region under the existing anthropogenic load. Ambient air pollution is characterized and a presumptive human health risk assessed.
PubMed ID
21899096 View in PubMed
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Childhood tuberculosis and exposure to indoor air pollution: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269091
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2015
Author
N. Jafta
P M Jeena
L. Barregard
R N Naidoo
Source
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2015 May;19(5):596-602
Date
May-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects
Male
Needs Assessment
Pediatrics
Risk assessment
Sweden
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Abstract
Indoor air pollution (IAP) from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and biomass fuel smoke (BMS) poses respiratory health risks, with children and women bearing the major burden.
We used a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the relation between childhood tuberculosis (TB) and exposure to ETS and BMS.
We searched three databases for epidemiological studies that investigated the association of childhood TB with exposure to ETS and BMS. We calculated pooled estimates and heterogeneity for studies eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and stratified studies on ETS by outcome.
Five case-control and three cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis and quality assessment. Pooled effect estimates showed that exposure to ETS is associated with tuberculous infection and TB disease (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.9) among exposed compared to non-exposed children. TB disease in ETS studies produced a pooled OR of 2.8 (95%CI 0.9-4.8), which was higher than the OR for tuberculous infection (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.9-2.9) for children exposed to ETS compared to non-exposed children. Studies on BMS exposure were too few and too small to permit a conclusion.
Exposure to ETS increases the risk of childhood TB disease or tuberculous infection.
PubMed ID
25868030 View in PubMed
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Peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months and asthma development: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269313
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Maria C Magnus
Hein Stigum
Siri E Håberg
Per Nafstad
Stephanie J London
Wenche Nystad
Source
PLoS One. 2015;10(1):e0116362
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - physiopathology
Body Height
Body Weight
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Mothers
Norway
Sample Size
Siblings
Abstract
The immediate postnatal period is the period of the fastest growth in the entire life span and a critical period for lung development. Therefore, it is interesting to examine the association between growth during this period and childhood respiratory disorders.
We examined the association of peak weight and height velocity to age 36 months with maternal report of current asthma at 36 months (n = 50,311), recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) by 36 months (n = 47,905) and current asthma at 7 years (n = 24,827) in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Peak weight and height velocity was calculated using the Reed1 model through multilevel mixed-effects linear regression. Multivariable log-binomial regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks (adj.RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We also conducted a sibling pair analysis using conditional logistic regression.
Peak weight velocity was positively associated with current asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.22 (95%CI: 1.18, 1.26) per standard deviation (SD) increase], recurrent LRTIs by 36 months [adj.RR 1.14 (1.10, 1.19) per SD increase] and current asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.13 (95%CI: 1.07, 1.19) per SD increase]. Peak height velocity was not associated with any of the respiratory disorders. The positive association of peak weight velocity and asthma at 36 months remained in the sibling pair analysis.
Higher peak weight velocity, achieved during the immediate postnatal period, increased the risk of respiratory disorders. This might be explained by an influence on neonatal lung development, shared genetic/epigenetic mechanisms and/or environmental factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25635872 View in PubMed
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Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature269345
Source
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug;8(8):e3116
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Rachel M Lee
Laura B Moore
Maria Elena Bottazzi
Peter J Hotez
Source
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Aug;8(8):e3116
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
North America - epidemiology
Risk factors
Toxocariasis - epidemiology - parasitology - prevention & control - transmission
Young Adult
Abstract
Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25166906 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sun exposure behaviour among subgroups of the Danish population. Based on personal electronic UVR dosimetry and corresponding exposure diaries.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87408
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2008
Author
Thieden Elisabeth
Author Affiliation
The Skin Clinic, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. et01@bbh.regionh.dk
Source
Dan Med Bull. 2008 Feb;55(1):47-68
Date
Feb-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - prevention & control
Female
Health Behavior
Health Status Indicators
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Radiometry
Retrospective Studies
Risk-Taking
Solar System
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the most important etiological factor in skin cancer development. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve an objective, basic knowledge of the individual UVR exposure dose pattern and to reveal the factors and with which power they influence on the UVR dose among the Danes. Eight open prospective, observational studies and one study analyzing the compliance and reliability of data were performed in healthy Danish volunteers with an age range of 4-68 years. The subjects were chosen to cover an age span group of children, adolescents, and indoor workers and in addition, groups with expected high UVR exposure, sun worshippers, golfers, and gardeners. We developed a personal, electronic UVR dosimeter in a wristwatch (SunSaver). The subjects wore the UVR dosimeter that measured time-stamped UVR doses in standard erythema doses (SED) and completed diaries with data on their sun exposure behaviour. This resulted in corresponding UVR dosimeter and diary data from 346 sun-years where one sun-year is one person participating in one summer half-year (median 119 days). The annual UVR doses were calculated based on the personal and ambient measured UVR doses. We found a huge variation in annual UVR exposure dose within the total population sample, median 173 SED (range, 17-980 SED). The inter-group variation in annual UVR dose was from median 132 SED among indoor workers to median 224 SED among gardeners. No significant correlation was found between annual UVR dose and age either within the total population or among the adults. But the subjects below 20 years of age had an increase in annual UVR dose of 5 SED per year. Young people before the age of 20 years did not get a higher proportion of the lifetime UVR dose than expected (25%) when assuming a life expectancy of 80 years. There was no significant difference in annual UVR dose between males and females in the total population sample. But, among children, girls received a significantly higher UVR dose than boys due to more days with risk behaviour (sunbathing or exposing shoulders outdoors). This exposure pattern, with females having more risk behaviour than males, was also found among adolescents and adults. Sunbathing or exposing shoulders (risk behaviour) outside the beach resulted in a median of 2.5 SED per day in northern Europe and 3.2 SED per day in southern Europe, while the corresponding values were 4.6 SED and 6.9 SED per day at the beach. UVR doses above 10 SED per day were connected with risk behaviour. The subjects had a median of 13 days with risk behaviour (range, 0-93 days). The subjects used sunscreen on a median of five days (range, 0-130 days), but have a median of seven days with risk behaviour without sunscreen applied (range, 0-47 days). They had a median of one sunburn per sun-year (range 0-10). Fifty percent of the UVR dose was received between 12.00 and 15.00. Only the gardeners received the main part of their UVR dose on workdays. Conclusions : - High UVR doses are connected with risk behaviour. Reduction of cumulative lifetime UVR dose could be obtained by minimizing risk behaviour. - Sunburns were highly correlated to risk behaviour. - Use of sunscreen correlated with days "sunbathing with the intention to tan", indicating that sunscreens were used to avoid sunburn during risk behaviour. - Scheduling lunch breaks and other breaks indoors at noon, where ambient UVR peaks, could reduce the occupational UVR exposure significantly. - In the winter-half-year in Denmark. the UVR dose received from solar exposure is negligible and no UVR precautions are needed. This study documented that high subject compliance rate and data reliability could be obtained in long-time UVR dosimeter study as ours by being service minded but persistent, offering dosimeter maintenance service within 24 hours and scrutinizing data for errors and mistakes just after data collection.
PubMed ID
18321444 View in PubMed
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Genetics and gene-environment interactions in atopic diseases. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87519
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2008
Author
Håberg Siri E
Nafstad Per
Nystad Wenche
Magnus Per
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. siri.haberg@fhi.no
Source
Hum Hered. 2008;65(4):195-8
Date
2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Fathers
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Infant
Male
Mothers
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) aims to provide new insights in a broad variety of diseases. The goal of the study is to understand pathways in disease development, and identify preventive measures. Several designs are suitable for studying genetics in complex diseases like asthma and allergy, in MoBa. METHODS: MoBa is a prospective population based cohort of 100 000 pregnancies, following offspring into adulthood. Enrollment started in 1999, and will be completed in 2008. A biobank with samples from the mother, father and child, together with detailed questionnaires from early pregnancy and childhood constitute the basis of the study. When studying complex diseases like asthma, a design with case-parent triads is useful. Parental effects and interactions between maternal and fetal genes can be detected. Stratifying triads by environmental exposure enables assessment of gene-environment interactions. RESULTS: By July 2006, more than 73,000 pregnancies have been included, with nearly 7,000 siblings and 1,300 pairs of twins enrolled. Biological samples are processed and stored at the biobank. The first children are reaching age seven in 2006. CONCLUSION: The MoBa cohort provides an excellent basis for studying genetic, epigenetic and environmental influences on complex diseases.
PubMed ID
18073489 View in PubMed
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Does relative melanoma distribution by body site 1960-2004 reflect changes in intermittent exposure and intentional tanning in the Swedish population?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87772
Source
Eur J Dermatol. 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):428-34
Publication Type
Article
Author
Dal Henrik
Boldemann Cecilia
Lindelöf Bernt
Author Affiliation
Centre for Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur J Dermatol. 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):428-34
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Back - pathology
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Extremities - pathology
Female
Head - pathology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Melanoma - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Middle Aged
Recreation
Registries
Sex Factors
Skin Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Sunlight - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Tanning - trends
Thorax - pathology
Abstract
Intermittent exposure to UV-radiation at an early age is a known important factor in the aetiology of malignant melanoma. We surveyed data from the Swedish Cancer Registry for melanoma by body site for age and gender cohorts from 1960 to 2004, in an attempt to discern a reflection of major behavioural and societal changes in the relative distribution of melanoma by body site. The study comprised patients with malignant melanoma from the Swedish Cancer Registry, including information on body site of tumour (January 1, 1960 - December 31, 2004). In total, 46,337 malignant melanomas were diagnosed in 44,623 patients. Trends were assessed by incidence per site, and relative site distribution per age group and calendar period, and dividing body sites by exposure type to the sun: head (mostly continuous), trunk (mostly intermittent), and limbs (mixed exposure). Between calendar periods 1960-1964 and 2000-2004 melanomas increased most rapidly on the upper limbs (men 885%, women 1216%) on the trunk (men 729%, women 759%) and on the lower limbs (men 418%, women 289%) in both genders. The incidence increase of head tumors was slower. Across the life span, melanomas of the trunk and lower limbs dominate among patients or= 70 years. Tumors of the trunk formed an increasing proportion of all melanomas during the period studied, particularly in females. The relative shift of melanomas from the head to the trunk with mostly intermittent UV exposure coincides with behavioral and societal changes with regard to sun exposure. This supports the hypothesis of a relationship between intentional exposure to ultraviolet radiation and malignant melanoma.
PubMed ID
17673388 View in PubMed
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Declining vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in London over the 20th century.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95736
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jul 1;164(1):77-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2006
Author
Carson Claire
Hajat Shakoor
Armstrong Ben
Wilkinson Paul
Author Affiliation
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Jul 1;164(1):77-84
Date
Jul-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Body temperature
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease - epidemiology - mortality
Climate
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Female
Greenhouse Effect
Heat Stress Disorders - history - mortality
History, 20th Century
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Hypothermia - history - mortality
Infant
Infant, Newborn
London - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Poisson Distribution
Seasons
Temperature
Abstract
The degree to which population vulnerability to outdoor temperature is reduced by improvements in infrastructure, technology, and general health has an important bearing on what realistically can be expected with future changes in climate. Using autoregressive Poisson models with adjustment for season, the authors analyzed weekly mortality in London, United Kingdom, during four periods (1900-1910, 1927-1937, 1954-1964, and 1986-1996) to quantify changing vulnerability to seasonal and temperature-related mortality throughout the 20th century. Mortality patterns showed an epidemiologic transition over the century from high childhood mortality to low childhood mortality and towards a predominance of chronic disease mortality in later periods. The ratio of winter deaths to nonwinter deaths was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.34) in 1900-1910, 1.54 (95% CI: 1.42, 1.68) in 1927-1937, 1.48 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.64) in 1954-1964, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.31) in 1986-1996. The temperature-mortality gradient for cold deaths diminished progressively: The increase in mortality per 1 degree C drop below 15 degrees C was 2.52% (95% CI: 2.00, 3.03), 2.34% (95% CI: 1.72, 2.96), 1.64% (1.10, 2.19), and 1.17% (95% CI: 0.88, 1.45), respectively, in the four periods. Corresponding population attributable fractions were 12.5%, 11.2%, 8.7%, and 5.4%. Heat deaths also diminished over the century. There was a progressive reduction in temperature-related deaths over the 20th century, despite an aging population. This trend is likely to reflect improvements in social, environmental, behavioral, and health-care factors and has implications for the assessment of future burdens of heat and cold mortality.
PubMed ID
16624968 View in PubMed
Less detail

Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95794
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2005 Nov;50(2):121-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
O'Neill Marie S
Hajat Shakoor
Zanobetti Antonella
Ramirez-Aguilar Matiana
Schwartz Joel
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan, 1214 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA. marieo@umich.edu
Source
Int J Biometeorol. 2005 Nov;50(2):121-9
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - analysis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cities
Cold Temperature - adverse effects
Environmental monitoring
Greenhouse Effect
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Humidity
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Mexico
Mortality
Ozone - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Abstract
We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent temperature (AT) and daily mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean daily AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter
PubMed ID
15912362 View in PubMed
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A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95843
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2004 Sep 1;330(1-3):71-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2004
Author
El-Zein Abbas
Tewtel-Salem Mylene
Nehme Gebran
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, American University of Beirut, PO Box 11-0236, Lebanon. abbas.elzein@aub.edu.lb
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2004 Sep 1;330(1-3):71-80
Date
Sep-1-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Child
Child, Preschool
Climate
Female
Hot Temperature - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Lebanon - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Mortality - trends
Public Health
Abstract
The literature on the association between health and weather in the temperate to semi-arid cities of the Eastern Mediterranean is scarce. The quantification of the relationship between temperature and daily mortality can be useful for developing policy interventions such as heat-warning systems. A time-series analysis of total daily mortality and weather data for the city of Beirut was carried out. The study covered the period between 1997 and 1999. Poisson auto-regressive models were constructed, with mean daily temperature and mean daily humidity as explanatory variables. Delayed effects, up to 2 weeks, were accounted for. The regression models were used next to assess the effect of an average increase in temperature on yearly mortality. The association between temperature and mortality was found to be significant. A relatively high minimum-mortality temperature (TMM) of 27.5 degrees C was calculated. A 1 degrees C rise in temperature yielded a 12.3% increase (95% confidence interval: 5.7-19.4%) and 2.9% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2-3.7%) in mortality, above and below TMM, respectively. Lag temperature variables were found to be significant below TMM but not above it. Where the temperature change was less than 0.5 degrees C, annual above-TMM losses were offset by below-TMM gains, within a 95% confidence interval. TMM for Beirut fell within the range usually associated with warm climates. However, the mild below-TMM and steep above-TMM slopes were more typical of cities with temperate to cold climates. Our findings suggest that heat-related mortality at moderately high temperatures can be a significant public health issue in countries with warm climates. Moreover, at the projected climate change over the next 50 years, heat-related losses are unlikely to be offset by cold-related gains.
PubMed ID
15325159 View in PubMed
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Air pollution from traffic at the residence of children with cancer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature19980
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):433-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2001
Author
O. Raaschou-Nielsen
O. Hertel
B L Thomsen
J H Olsen
Author Affiliation
Danish Cancer Society, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen 0, Denmark. ole@cancer.dk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2001 Mar 1;153(5):433-43
Date
Mar-1-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects
Benzene - adverse effects
Brain Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant
Leukemia - epidemiology - etiology
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Registries
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Residence Characteristics
Risk factors
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Vehicle Emissions - adverse effects
Abstract
The hypothesis that exposure to traffic-related air pollution increases the risk of developing cancer during childhood was investigated. The authors enrolled 1,989 children reported to the Danish Cancer Registry with a diagnosis of leukemia, tumor of the central nervous system, or malignant lymphoma during 1968-1991 and 5,506 control children selected at random from the entire childhood population. The residential histories of the children were traced from 9 months before birth until the time of diagnosis of the cases and a similar period for the controls. For each of the 18,440 identified addresses, information on traffic and the configuration of streets and buildings was collected. Average concentrations of benzene and nitrogen dioxide (indicators of traffic-related air pollution) were calculated for the relevant period, and exposures to air pollution during pregnancy and during childhood were calculated separately. The risks of leukemia, central nervous system tumors, and all selected cancers combined were not linked to exposure to benzene or nitrogen dioxide during either period. The risk of lymphomas increased by 25% (p for trend = 0.06) and 51% (p for trend = 0.05) for a doubling of the concentration of benzene and nitrogen dioxide, respectively, during the pregnancy. The association was restricted to Hodgkin's disease.
PubMed ID
11226975 View in PubMed
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Childhood leukaemia in areas with different radon levels: a spatial and temporal analysis using GIS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20205
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Nov;54(11):822-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2000
Author
S. Kohli
H. Noorlind Brage
O. Löfman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Informatics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Public Health Centre, University Hospital, S-581 85, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000 Nov;54(11):822-6
Date
Nov-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects
Carcinogens, Environmental - adverse effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Leukemia, Radiation-Induced - etiology - mortality
Male
Radon - adverse effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relation between exposure to ground radon levels and leukaemia among children using existing population and disease registers. DESIGN: Ecological correlation study. SETTING: The county of Ostergötland in Sweden. METHODS: Every child born in the county between 1979 and 1992 was mapped to the property centroid coordinates by linking addresses in the population and property registers. Population maps were overlaid with radon maps and exposure at birth and each subsequent year was quantified as high, normal, low or unknown. This was analysed with data from the tumour registry. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the age and sex specific rates for Sweden for the year 1995. RESULTS: 90 malignancies occurred among 53 146 children (498 887 person years) who formed the study population. SMRs for acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) among children born in high, normal and low risk areas were 1.43, 1.17 and 0.25 respectively. The relative risk for the normal risk group and high risk group as compared with the low risk group was 4.64 (95% CI 1.29, 28.26) and 5. 67 (95% CI 1.06, 42.27). The association between ALL and continued residence at normal or high risk areas showed a similar trend. No association between radon risk levels and any other malignancy was seen. CONCLUSION: Children born in and staying at areas where the risk from ground radon has been classified as low are less likely to develop ALL than those born in areas classified as normal and high risk.
PubMed ID
11027195 View in PubMed
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803 records – page 1 of 41.