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Lead absorption by children living near a primary copper smelter.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature234737
Source
Can J Public Health. 1987 Sep-Oct;78(5):295-8
Publication Type
Article

Distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukemia--an analysis of confounding by and interaction with other potential risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263553
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107096
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Camilla Pedersen
Elvira V Bräuner
Naja H Rod
Vanna Albieri
Claus E Andersen
Kaare Ulbak
Ole Hertel
Christoffer Johansen
Joachim Schüz
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107096
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Electric Wiring - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Leukemia - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Radon - adverse effects
Registries
Residence Characteristics
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged
Notes
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PubMed ID
25259740 View in PubMed
Less detail

Quantity and diversity of environmental microbial exposure and development of asthma: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264087
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
H. Rintala
M. Korppi
M. Täubel
G. Doekes
U. Gehring
H. Renz
P I Pfefferle
J. Genuneit
L. Keski-Nisula
S. Remes
J. Lampi
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Microbiology
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with the development of allergies. The aim of the study was to identify better ways to characterize microbial exposure as a predictor of respiratory symptoms and allergies.
A birth cohort of 410 children was followed up until 6 years of age. Bacterial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, N-acetyl-muramic acid, fungal extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from Penicillium and Aspergillus spp., ß-D-glucan, ergosterol, and bacterial or fungal quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) were analyzed from dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Asthma, wheezing, cough, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using repeated questionnaires. Specific IgEs were determined at the age of 1 and 6 years.
Only few associations were found between single microbial markers and the studied outcomes. In contrast, a score for the total quantity of microbial exposure, that is, sum of indicators for fungi (ergosterol), Gram-positive (muramic acid) bacteria, and Gram-negative (endotoxin) bacteria, was significantly (inverted-U shape) associated with asthma incidence (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
24931137 View in PubMed
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Bronchiolitis and pneumonia requiring hospitalization in young first nations children in Northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264115
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Oct;33(10):1023-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Sarah McCuskee
Michael Kirlew
Len Kelly
Sonya Fewer
Thomas Kovesi
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Oct;33(10):1023-6
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bacteria - classification - isolation & purification
Bronchiolitis - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Pneumonia - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Viruses - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
High rates of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), including bronchiolitis and pneumonia, have been reported in Inuit infants living in arctic Canada. We examined rates of LRTI in First Nations Canadian infants living in the Sioux Lookout Zone, in Northern Ontario.
A retrospective review of hospital admissions for LRTI during a 5-year period, in patients
PubMed ID
24751861 View in PubMed
Less detail

Hospital contacts with infection and risk of schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study with linkage of Danish national registers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264133
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2014 Nov;40(6):1526-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Philip R Nielsen
Michael E Benros
Preben B Mortensen
Source
Schizophr Bull. 2014 Nov;40(6):1526-32
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Hospitals - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infection - epidemiology
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Schizophrenia - epidemiology - etiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Infections and immune responses have been suggested to play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several studies have reported associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and the child's risk of schizophrenia; however, infection during childhood and adolescence unrelated to maternal infection during pregnancy has not been studied to nearly the same extent and the results are far from conclusive. Data were drawn from 2 population-based registers, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. We used a historical population-based cohort design and selected all individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 1996 (n = 843 390). We identified all individuals with a first-time hospital contact with schizophrenia from 1991 through 2010. Out of the 3409 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, a total of 1549 individuals had had a hospital contact with infection before their schizophrenia diagnosis (45%). Our results indicate that individuals who have had a hospital contact with infection are more likely to develop schizophrenia (relative risk [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.32-1.51) than individuals who had not had such a hospital contact. Bacterial infection was the type of infection that was associated with the highest risk of schizophrenia (RR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.47-1.82). Our study does not exclude that a certain type of infection may have a specific effect; yet, it does suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a wide range of infections. This association may be due to inflammatory responses affecting the brain or genetic and environmental risk factors aggregating in families.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24379444 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Main trends in children's population health in the Republic of Tatarstan].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264394
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):92-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
N V Stepanova
E R Valeeva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015 Jan-Feb;94(1):92-7
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child Welfare - trends
Child, Preschool
Environmental health
Environmental Illness - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Public Health - trends
Risk factors
Tatarstan - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
There was performed a comparative analysis of the dynamics of newly diagnosed and the overall morbidity of children's population of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the city of Kazan of main classes of diseases for 2004- 2012 according to the statistical reporting form N12. As an assessment of the possible impact of environmental factors on the formation of separate groups of diseases and changes in the systems of the body there was used health risk assessment according to annual average concentrations of chemicals in the ambient air Average annual indices of prevalence for the most of classes of diseases in children (0-14 years) of the population of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) and the city of Kazan 2004-2012 (per 1000 children) showed significant differences for most classes of diseases and their rise in children of the city. Results of the assessment of the non-carcinogenic risk based on evolutionary models determined the magnitude of additional risks for the respiratory system. Non-carcinogenic health risk is assessed before the age of 19 years as negligible, until the age of 36 years as a moderate, until the age of 45 years as highfor persons over 46 years as very high.
PubMed ID
26031050 View in PubMed
Less detail

The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290062
Source
J Safety Res. 2017 Sep; 62:89-100
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Anders Jonsson
Carl Bonander
Finn Nilson
Fredrik Huss
Author Affiliation
Division of Risk Management, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Centre for Public Safety, Karlstad University, Sweden. Electronic address: anders.jonsson@kau.se.
Source
J Safety Res. 2017 Sep; 62:89-100
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Burns - mortality
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Female
Fires - statistics & numerical data
Housing
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Public Health Surveillance
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events.
Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering.
Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%).
Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required.
Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire mortality in Sweden.
PubMed ID
28882281 View in PubMed
Less detail

Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290064
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 09 05; 17(1):685
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-05-2017
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Margaretha Haugen
Synnve Schjølberg
Per Magnus
Gunnar Brunborg
Martine Vrijheid
Jan Alexander
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposures and Epidemiology, Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, 0403, Oslo, Norway.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 09 05; 17(1):685
Date
09-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cell Phone Use - statistics & numerical data
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Communication
Female
Humans
Language Development
Male
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Motor Skills
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years.
This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.
No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills.
We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28870201 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between physical home environmental factors and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds: the BRA-study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290267
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 May; 20(7):1173-1183
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Date
May-2017
Author
Anne Lene Kristiansen
Mona Bjelland
Anne Himberg-Sundet
Nanna Lien
Lene Frost Andersen
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition,Institute of Basic Medical Sciences,University of Oslo,PO Box 1046 Blindern,0316 Oslo,Norway.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 May; 20(7):1173-1183
Date
May-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Keywords
Adult
Child, Preschool
Choice Behavior
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Food Preferences
Fruit
Health Behavior
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Mental Recall
Middle Aged
Norway
Nutrition Assessment
Parent-Child Relations
Pilot Projects
Principal Component Analysis
Social Environment
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Vegetables
Young Adult
Abstract
First, to explore item pools developed to measure the physical home environment of pre-school children and assess the psychometric properties of these item pools; second, to explore associations between this environment and vegetable consumption among Norwegian 3-5-year-olds.
Data were collected in three steps: (i) a parental web-based questionnaire assessing the child's vegetable intake and factors potentially influencing the child's vegetable consumption; (ii) direct observation of the children's fruit, berry and vegetable intakes at two meals in one day in the kindergarten; and (iii) a parental web-based 24 h recall.
The target group for this study was pre-school children born in 2010 and 2011, attending public or private kindergartens in the counties of Vestfold and Buskerud, Norway.
A total of 633 children participated.
Principal component analysis on the thirteen-item pool assessing availability/accessibility resulted in two factors labelled 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home', while the eight-item pool assessing barriers resulted in two factors labelled 'serving barriers' and 'purchase barriers'. The psychometric properties of these factors were satisfactory. Linear regression of the associations between vegetable intake and the factors showed generally positive associations with 'availability at home' and 'accessibility at home' and negative associations with 'serving barriers'.
This age group has so far been understudied and there is a need for comparable studies. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting the physical home environment of pre-school children in future interventions as there are important modifiable factors that both promote and hinder vegetable consumption in this environment.
PubMed ID
27995831 View in PubMed
Less detail

Mold and dampness exposure and allergic outcomes from birth to adolescence: data from the BAMSE cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290271
Source
Allergy. 2017 Jun; 72(6):967-974
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
J D Thacher
O Gruzieva
G Pershagen
E Melén
J C Lorentzen
I Kull
A Bergström
Author Affiliation
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Allergy. 2017 Jun; 72(6):967-974
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Fungi - pathogenicity
Humans
Humidity - adverse effects
Hypersensitivity - etiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Rhinitis - etiology
Risk factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
Exposure to moldy or damp indoor environments is associated with allergic disease in young children, but it is unclear whether the effects persist to adolescence. Our objective was to assess whether exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increases the risk of asthma, rhinitis, or IgE sensitization in children followed from birth to 16 years of age.
We collected questionnaire derived reports of mold or dampness indicators and allergic outcomes from 3798 children in a Swedish birth cohort (BAMSE). Sensitization was assessed from blood samples in 3293 children. Longitudinal associations between prevalent asthma, rhinitis, and IgE sensitization and mold or dampness indicators were assessed using generalized estimating equations.
Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with asthma up to 16 years of age (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.08-1.59), while exposure to mold odor (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.03-1.62) and visible mold (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.04-1.58) were associated with rhinitis. Increased risks were observed for nonallergic asthma (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.27-2.55) and rhinitis (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.03-1.93). No association was observed between mold or dampness indicators and IgE sensitization. Exposure to any mold or dampness indicator was associated with persistent asthma (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.20-2.50), but not with early-transient or late-onset asthma.
Exposure to mold or dampness during infancy increased the risk of asthma and rhinitis up to 16 years of age, particularly for nonallergic disease. Early exposure to mold or dampness appeared particularly associated with persistent asthma through adolescence.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27925656 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Environmental pollution with fluoride compounds and their influence on children health].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290296
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(12):1133-7
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
T I Shalina
L A Nikolaeva
M F Savchenkov
Y N Bykov
R S Manueva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(12):1133-7
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Bone Development - drug effects
Bone and Bones - diagnostic imaging
Child
Child Health - standards - statistics & numerical data
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Environmental Illness - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Female
Fluorine Compounds - adverse effects - analysis
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Musculoskeletal Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Siberia - epidemiology
Abstract
Data of hygienic studies of air and soil during last 20 years have confirmed their correlating relationship with the general morbidity and a group of musculoskeletal diseases in children living in cities with the technogenic pollution of the environment. Their bones were established to grow unevenly and disproportionally, in 76% of children there have been violations in the development and growth of bones. The results of X-ray examination of hand bones in children and adolescents in the Irkutsk and Shelekhov cities are presented. Significant differences in morbidity patterns among children and adolescents including an increased incidence of musculoskeletal diseases by 5.6 in children and by 12 in adolescents have been revealed.
PubMed ID
29446281 View in PubMed
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Moisture damage and childhood asthma: a population-based incident case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166519
Source
Eur Respir J. 2007 Mar;29(3):509-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
J. Pekkanen
A. Hyvärinen
U. Haverinen-Shaughnessy
M. Korppi
T. Putus
A. Nevalainen
Author Affiliation
Dept of Environmental Health, National Public Health Institute, P.O.Box 95, 70701 Kuopio, Finland. juha.pekkanen@ktl.fi
Source
Eur Respir J. 2007 Mar;29(3):509-15
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Finland
Fungi - growth & development
Housing
Humans
Humidity - adverse effects
Infant
Prospective Studies
Respiratory Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - etiology
Risk factors
Abstract
Most previous studies on the association between moisture damage and asthma have been cross-sectional and relied on self-reported exposure and health. The present authors studied the association by carrying out careful home inspections among new, clinically determined cases of asthma and controls. New cases of asthma aged 12-84 months (n = 121) were recruited prospectively and matched for year of birth, sex and living area with two randomly selected population controls (n = 241). Trained engineers visited all homes. Both cases and controls had lived >or=75% of their lifetime or the past 2 yrs in their current home. Risk of asthma increased with severity of moisture damage and presence of visible mould in the main living quarters but not in other areas of the house. Cases more often had damage in their bedroom. Associations were comparable for atopic and nonatopic asthma and for children aged >30 months or
PubMed ID
17107993 View in PubMed
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Radionuclides in the lichen-caribou-human food chain near uranium mining operations in northern Saskatchewan, Canada

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature20969
Source
Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Jul;107(7):527-537
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
  1 website  
Author
Thomas, PA
Gates, TE
Author Affiliation
Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. thomasp@sask.usask.ca
Source
Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Jul;107(7):527-537
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Food chain
Food contamination, radioactive
Gamma Rays
Humans
Lichens - metabolism
Male
Mining
Radiation Dosage
Radioisotopes - analysis
Reindeer - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Uranium - analysis
Abstract
The richest uranium ore bodies ever discovered (Cigar Lake and McArthur River) are presently under development in northeastern Saskatchewan. This subarctic region is also home to several operating uranium mines and aboriginal communities, partly dependent upon caribou for subsistence. Because of concerns over mining impacts and the efficient transfer of airborne radionuclides through the lichen-caribou-human food chain, radionuclides were analyzed in tissues from 18 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Radionuclides included uranium (U), radium (226Ra), lead (210Pb), and polonium (210Po) from the uranium decay series; the fission product (137Cs) from fallout; and naturally occurring potassium (40K). Natural background radiation doses average 2-4 mSv/year from cosmic rays, external gamma rays, radon inhalation, and ingestion of food items. The ingestion of 210Po and 137Cs when caribou are consumed adds to these background doses. The dose increment was 0.85 mSv/year for adults who consumed 100 g of caribou meat per day and up to 1.7 mSv/year if one liver and 10 kidneys per year were also consumed. We discuss the cancer risk from these doses. Concentration ratios (CRs), relating caribou tissues to lichens or rumen (stomach) contents, were calculated to estimate food chain transfer. The CRs for caribou muscle ranged from 1 to 16% for U, 6 to 25% for 226Ra, 1 to 2% for 210Pb, 6 to 26% for 210Po, 260 to 370% for 137Cs, and 76 to 130% for 40K, with 137Cs biomagnifying by a factor of 3-4. These CRs are useful in predicting caribou meat concentrations from the lichens, measured in monitoring programs, for the future evaluation of uranium mining impacts on this critical food chain.
PubMed ID
10378999 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Modification of cancer risk in offspring by parental cancer (Sweden).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature21060
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Apr;10(2):125-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1999
Author
K. Hemminki
P. Vaittinen
P. Kyyrönen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences at Novum, Karolinska Institute, CNT Novum, Huddinge, Sweden.
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 1999 Apr;10(2):125-9
Date
Apr-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Family Health
Female
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Genetic Diseases, Inborn - genetics
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Male
Melanoma - epidemiology - genetics
Neoplasms - classification - epidemiology - genetics
Organ Specificity - genetics
Parents
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Skin Neoplasms - epidemiology - genetics
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Familial cancer risks were studied in offspring whose parents had a similar (concordant) or a different (discordant) cancer in order to assess the modification of cancer risks from one generation to another. METHODS: We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate familial rate ratios (FRRs) to the offspring when their parents had concordant and discordant cancers. Cancer sites were included if there was at least one pair of parents with the same cancer. In situ cancers were included in a separate analysis in order to increase the numbers of cases. RESULTS: The risk of colon, all bowel, lung and breast cancer and melanoma increased 1.1-1.2 times when one parent and 1.3-1.6 times when two parents had any discordant cancer, suggesting involvement of environmental and hereditary effects shared by many forms of cancer. When both parents had colon cancer or melanoma, the respective risks in the offspring were 3.0 and 9.3 but only based on single triplets. For all bowel cancer the risk was 3.4, approximately multiplicative from the familial one parent-offspring risk. For concordant lung and breast cancer triplets the risk in offspring was 11.8 and 29.4, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Even discordant cancer in parents increased cancer risk in offspring. This may be due to environmental and hereditary causes, and deserves consideration in epidemiological studies. The high risks in families where both parents had the same cancer suggest interactions of hereditary and environmental factors.
PubMed ID
10231161 View in PubMed
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A randomized controlled trial of the effect of pertussis vaccines on atopic disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15715
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Aug;152(8):734-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1998
Author
L. Nilsson
N I Kjellman
B. Björkstén
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Environment, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Hospital, Linköping, Sweden.
Source
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1998 Aug;152(8):734-8
Date
Aug-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child, Preschool
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine - administration & dosage
Double-Blind Method
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - etiology
Incidence
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Pertussis Vaccine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Skin Tests
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Whooping Cough - prevention & control
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Pertussis vaccination in infancy has been suggested to increase the risk for development of asthma and allergy. OBJECTIVE: To assess sensitization rates and development of atopic diseases in a prospective randomized controlled trial of pertussis vaccine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 669 children were randomized to 1 of 4 vaccine groups (2-component acellular pertussis, 5-component acellular pertussis, whole-cell pertussis vaccines, and placebo [diphtheria and tetanus toxoids]). Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were also given to the children in the pertussis vaccine groups. The children were evaluated by means of questionnaires at age 2 months, 7 months, and 2 1/2 years; skin prick tests at age 7 months and 2 1/2 years; and blinded clinical investigation at age 2 1/2 years. The families were contacted at regular intervals to assess possible adverse effects after the vaccinations and symptoms of whooping cough. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of atopic diseases was 30% and incidence rates were similar in the 4 groups after adjusting for family history. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and home dampness did not confound these results. The frequency of adverse effects did not differ appreciably between atopic and nonatopic children, with the exception that a nodule at the vaccination site was more frequent after whole-cell pertussis vaccination in the nonatopic children. Among 47 children with proven pertussis, atopic disease appeared in 19 (40%). Of these 47 children, 9 (19%) developed asthma, as compared with 58 (9%) noninfected children (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found no support for a drastic increase in allergic manifestations after pertussis vaccination. There was a positive association between whooping cough and asthma by 2 1/2 years of age. There seems to be little reason to withhold pertussis vaccination from infants, irrespective of family history of allergy.
PubMed ID
9701130 View in PubMed
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Hospitalization for lower respiratory disease during 20 yrs among under 5 yr old children in Stockholm County: a population based survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15750
Source
Eur Respir J. 1998 Feb;11(2):366-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
M. Wickman
B Y Farahmand
P G Persson
G. Pershagen
Author Affiliation
Dept of Environmental Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Eur Respir J. 1998 Feb;11(2):366-70
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Child, Preschool
Female
Health Surveys
Hospitalization
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Population Surveillance
Respiratory Tract Diseases - therapy
Sex Distribution
Sweden
Abstract
Lower respiratory disease (LRD) is a common cause of hospitalization in infants, and episodes of obstructive LRD increase the risk for asthma later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess time trends and geographical variation of first time hospitalization for LRD among children in Stockholm County, Sweden. Data on first time admittance for LRD among children aged up to 5 yrs from 1973 through 1992 were obtained from the Stockholm County Council hospital discharge register, and population register data were used for estimation of the population at risk. Municipal data were available for 1982-1992 on outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections and socio-economic factors. A total of 12,450 children had been hospitalized for the first time with LRD. For children aged
PubMed ID
9551740 View in PubMed
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The role of passive smoking in the development of bronchial obstruction during the first 2 years of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15804
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 May;8(3):293-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1997
Author
P. Nafstad
J. Kongerud
G. Botten
J A Hagen
J J Jaakkola
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Health Sciences, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Epidemiology. 1997 May;8(3):293-7
Date
May-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
We assessed the effect of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in a 2-year cohort study of 3,754 children born in Oslo, Norway, during a period of 15 months in 1992-1993. We collected questionnaire information on the child's health and environmental exposures at birth and when the child was age 6 months (follow up rate = 95%), 12 months (92%), 18 months (92%), and 24 months (81%). The outcome of interest was defined as two or more episodes of bronchial obstruction or one obstruction lasting more than 1 month, and it was verified by a specialist group evaluating data from questionnaires, clinical examinations, and health records. The risk of bronchial obstruction was increased in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (cumulative incidence = 0.109) compared with unexposed children (0.071), with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.1]. The effect was seen for maternal smoking alone (odds ratio = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.6), paternal smoking alone (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.2), and both parents smoking (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.0-2.2). There was no clear exposure-response pattern. The findings indicate that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke such as is experienced in Norwegian housing increases the risk of developing bronchial obstruction during the first 2 years of life.
PubMed ID
9115025 View in PubMed
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Frequency of patients with acute asthma in relation to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, other pollutants of ambient air and meteorological observations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15820
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;69(5):317-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
A. Holmén
J. Blomqvist
H. Frindberg
Y. Johnelius
N E Eriksson
K A Henricson
P. Herrström
B. Högstedt
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;69(5):317-22
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adolescent
Adult
Air - analysis
Air Pollutants, Environmental - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Nitrogen Dioxide - adverse effects - analysis
Ozone - adverse effects - analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Weather
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of the daily frequency of registration of patients with acute asthma at the emergency department of a central hospital in the south-west of Sweden with levels of air pollution and meteorological observations. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was made of asthma patients taken from a hospital registry. This information was correlated with measurements of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, toluene, temperature and relative humidity. Patients were from the catchment area of the Central Hospital of Halmstad containing around 120,000 inhabitants. A total of 4127 visits of patients with acute asthma to the emergency department at the Central Hospital of Halmstad were registered during a period of 1247 days from January 1990 to May 1993. The differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique was used to monitor levels of air pollutants over a distance of 1000 m in the central part of the town of Halmstad. Data on temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and wind direction for the time period were supplied by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). RESULTS: There were many statistically significant correlations between the levels of air pollutants and the meteorological measurements and a strong negative correlation between ozone and nitrogen dioxide. There was a statistically significant effect on asthma visits in children of low temperature and high nitrogen dioxide levels, and on asthma visits in adults of high temperature and high levels of ozone. CONCLUSIONS: There was a different reaction pattern in children and adults with asthma regarding temperature and ozone/nitrogen dioxide. The strong correlations between temperature and air pollution and between the levels of ozone and nitrogen dioxide made the true relation between asthma, air pollution and temperature hard to evaluate statistically.
PubMed ID
9192215 View in PubMed
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The problem of asthma in the Ukraine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15902
Source
Allergy Proc. 1995 Sep-Oct;16(5):269-73
Publication Type
Article
Author
A. Markov
Author Affiliation
Institute for Asthma and Allergy, George Washington University Hospital, Washington, D.C., USA.
Source
Allergy Proc. 1995 Sep-Oct;16(5):269-73
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Asthma - drug therapy - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Drug Utilization
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Morbidity
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
Although health statistics in Ukraine are difficult to obtain, there does appear to be an increase in the occurrence of asthma. Overall reporting of asthma is less frequent than in Western Europe, perhaps due to insufficient diagnostic capabilities at the present time. Asthma therapy in the Ukraine tends toward the use of theophylline and beta 2-agonists, rather than inhaled corticosteroids. Asthma morbidity differs in various regions of Ukraine, perhaps as a consequence of increased environmental exposure in some areas.
PubMed ID
8566742 View in PubMed
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[Disorders of interferon status in bronchopulmonary diseases in children living under conditions of elevated background radiation]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15940
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 1994 Nov;39(11):48-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1994
Author
L F Iakovenko
N Ia Spivak
L A Ganova
L D Krivokhatskaia
A F Mazalevskii
N A Radchenko
F I Ershov
Source
Antibiot Khimioter. 1994 Nov;39(11):48-52
Date
Nov-1994
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Radiation
Bronchial Diseases - blood - drug therapy
Child
Child, Preschool
Chronic Disease
English Abstract
Environmental health
Humans
Interferon Type I, Recombinant - therapeutic use
Interferons - biosynthesis - blood
Leukocytes - drug effects - metabolism - radiation effects
Lung Diseases - blood - drug therapy
Power Plants
Recurrence
Ukraine
Abstract
Impairments in the interferon status of children with chronic and recurring diseases of the respiratory organs were investigated and its correction was shown possible with the use of alpha 2-interferon (reaferon). Suppression of the interferon-producing capacity of the immunocytes was observed in all the cases of the disease aggravation. The level of the suppression correlated with the severity of the infection. In the patients affected by radiation the suppression of the interferonogenesis was more marked. However, in these cases no dependence of the detected impairments in the interferon status on the level of the radiation pollution of the territory of the children residence was shown. The inclusion of reaferon to the basal therapy resulted in a significant increase of the alpha-interferon production in the cases of bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis as well as its recovery to the normal in the cases of recurring bronchitis and chronic pneumonia. In all the cases of bronchopulmonary diseases only a tendency towards normalization of the alpha-interferon indices was recorded.
PubMed ID
7537490 View in PubMed
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