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The Legal Position of the Sami in the Exploitation of Mineral Resources in Finland, Norway and Sweden

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301483
Source
Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University. vii, 85 pages.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
introduction is in place. In Finland, the mining process is regulated by the Mining Act 27 of 2011 together with other laws (among others: the Reindeer Husbandry Act of 1990, the Act on the Protection of Wilderness Reserves of 1991, the Land Use and Building Act of 1999 and the Environmental
  1 document  
Author
Amatulli, Giuseppe
Source
Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University. vii, 85 pages.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Norway
Sweden
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1268271
Keywords
Indigenous peoples
Land rights
Natural resources
National legistation
Abstract
The situation of indigenous peoples in the world is difficult. They have to struggle against the states in order to see their rights recognised. The right to land takes a special place among these. This is one of the most important rights for indigenous peoples, due to the fact that one of the features that differentiate indigenous peoples from other groups or minorities is their relationship with ancestral lands. Moreover, if we consider the amount of natural resources that can be found in indigenous areas, it is easy to understand how complex the situation of indigenous peoples is.
The focus of this work is on the situation of the indigenous people (the Sami) of three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway and Sweden), in particular regarding the management of natural resources that can be exploited in their areas. Northern Europe is, in fact, rich in natural and subsoil resources and it is not easy for the governments to reach a balance between the rights of the Sami and the rights of the other citizens of the state. By means of analysing the Mining Acts of the three above-mentioned states, we will examine whether national law safeguards Sami rights in a satisfactory way. In order to see if there is compliance between the provisions established in national law and in international law, a comparison between the Mining Acts and ILO Convention No. 169 will be made.
This comparison is important, given the fact that one of the aims of this study is to point out the actions taken by the states in order to protect indigenous rights. Furthermore, it will be analysed whether the states are respecting the international provisions established for the protection of indigenous rights in national legislation, also without ratification of the relevant international instruments. The other goals of this study are: to analyse whether the obligations established in the Mining Acts are sufficient to guarantee a good protection of Sami rights in case of mining activities, whether the Sami are involved during the decision-making process and whether there are mechanisms of participation and legal remedies for the Sami.
Notes
European Master’s Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation, Academic year 2013/2014
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2015-Amatulli-The-legal-position-of-the-Sami-in-the-exploitation-of-mineral-resources.pdf

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Structural racism and Indigenous health: a critical reflection of Canada and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301485
Source
University of Oulu Graduate School, Faculty of Medicine, Thule Institute. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis D Medica 1413.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2017
experience diseases and how economic, social and environmental factors influence health (Baum 1995). Modern public health is characterized by the use of different scientific perspectives and of different methodologies (Dahlgren, Emmelin & Winkvist 2007). Bhopal (2007:307) predicted: ‘in the future
  1 document  
Author
Juutilainen, Sandra Alexis
Source
University of Oulu Graduate School, Faculty of Medicine, Thule Institute. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis D Medica 1413.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Finland
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
4109889
Keywords
Boarding schools
Health inequality
Indigenous peoples
Research ethics
Structural racism
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to broaden understanding of structural racism by examining the relationships between Indigenous peoples and nation-states in the context of education and how this affects Indigenous lives. This thesis delves into understanding both the theoretical and methodological contributions that more critical analyses can have on: the role of de-colonial approaches to Indigenous health research methodologies so that the most urgent health inequities are addressed through more rigorous and Indigenous specific research processes; and to improve our understanding of the complex interactions that historical and contemporary legacies of residential schools and boarding schools have on the health and well-being of Indigenous populations in Canada and Finland.
The research design was a qualitative multiple case study informed by a public health critical race praxis. The study was completed in two phases; consisting of a literature study using content analysis of Indigenous research ethics protocols and policies, in Canada and the Nordic countries; and, three case studies developed from open ended questions from structured interview research comparing discriminatory experiences and its impact on self-perceived health with participants from Six Nations of the Grand River, Canada (n = 25) and the Sámi in Inari, Finland (n = 20); and their family members. The case studies were analyzed using both Western and Indigenous methodologies.
Results of Phase one shows how Indigenous resistance to colonial structures within academia in Canada and Finland has resulted in dialogical processes to create an ethical space for working between the differing worldviews of academia and Indigenous communities with the aim to produce ethically valid knowledge. Phase two results shows that regardless of contextual differences of the experiences in Canada and Finland, the main parallel outcomes are similar, i.e. the teachings of shame received in these educational environments. This produces both vulnerabilities and resiliencies and the negative effects of shame require an ongoing healing journey for both individuals and their families and communities at large.
Conclusion: For a more in depth understanding of structural racism and its influence on Indigenous health, investigations require methodological choices by both Western and Indigenous methodologies.
Notes
Academic dissertation to be presented with the assent of the Doctoral Training Committee of Health and Biosciences of the University of Oulu for public defence in Kuusamonsali (YB210), Linnanmaa, on 19 May 2017, at 12 noon
ISBN 978-952-62-1551-8 (Paperback) ISBN 978-952-62-1552-5 (PDF)
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Health and Wellbeing in the Arctic: The Critical Issues of Food Insecurity and Suicide Among Indigenous people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296454
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
August 2018
discuss the mental health of Arctic indigenous people, with particular emphasis on high prevalence of suicide and how it is derived from past and present trauma and maintained by social, economic and environmental factors and conditions. Keywords: The Arctic, indigenous people, health and well
  1 document  
Author
Smáradóttir, Sveinbjörg
Author Affiliation
Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Sciences
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Date
August 2018
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
451032
Keywords
Arctic
Indigenous peoples
Health and welfare
Food insecurity
Spiritual health
Suicide
Abstract
Frumbyggjar Norðurslóða eru almennt við verri heilsu en aðrir íbúar svæðisins. Síðan afkomendur Evrópubúa hófu að leggja undir sig heimalönd frumbyggjanna, og fram á síðari hluta 20. aldar, gengu þeir í gegnum átakamiklar félagslegar- og efnahagslegar umbyltingar, voru neyddir til að yfirgefa heimalönd sín, samlagast og „nútímavæðast“ vestrænni menningu með alvarlegum afleiðingum fyrir heilsu þeirra og velferð. Í þessari ritgerð er fjallað um tvo mikilvæga þætti er varða heilsu og velferð frumbyggja á Norðurslóðum. Annarsvegar er það fæðu-óöryggi, orsakir og afleiðingar, og sambandið milli hefðbundinnar fæðu og leiða til fæðuöflunar og „vestræns“ mataræðis. Hinsvegar er fjallað andlega heilsu frumbyggjanna, með sérstaka áherslu á sjálfsvíg, orsakir og afleiðingar, hvernig þau tengjast atburðum og áföllum fortíðar og er viðhaldið af áskorunum sem frumbyggjarnir standa frammi fyrir í dag.
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Riddu Riddu, joik or rock-n-roll? A study of Riddu Riddu Festivála and its role as a cultural tool for ethnic revialization [sic].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297029
Source
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
April 2008
  1 document  
Author
Leonenko, Anastassia Valerievna
Source
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Date
April 2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1656646
Keywords
International Indigenous Riddu Riddu Festivála
Manndalen
Coastal Saami
Culture
Language
Lifestyle
Revitalisation
Abstract
The International Indigenous Riddu Riddu Festivála has taken place every year since 1991 in Manndalen, a Coastal Saami hamlet, in the municipality of Kåfjord in the county of Troms in the North of Norway. The festival represents by itself an independent event that through indigenous management and developed ethno-relations inside the country, promoting the idea of cultural awareness and sensitivity to all ethnic groups, however different they might be, and support them in terms of preservation of their culture, language, and lifestyle in our global and developed world.
This thesis is intended to show the ambiguity and complexity of the Coastal Saami identity in Manndalen, not only with relation to Norwegians, but also with reference to the situation among locals, between adults and youth, traditions and modernity. In other words, which relations between traditions and modernity does Riddu Riddu demonstrate? Therefore this thesis will try to find out the relation of manndalinger to the cultural invention and show their chosen way of the invasion of traditions and how far they accept distortions as authentic to their heritage during the process of cultural invention and which sign-substitutions can be defined in relation to Coastal Saami culture today. Moreover, the purpose of this thesis is to understand the process by which means invented portions of culture acquire authenticity. In other words, how the social reproduction of culture – the process whereby people learn, embody, and transmit the conventional behaviours of their society (Hanson 1989:898) – is happening in the Coastal Saami community today. Therefore the Riddu Riddu festival will be considered further as one of the examples of Coastal Saami cultural invention with the purpose of revitalization an ethnic identity.
Thus, the Riddu Riddu festival can be seen as a visible tool in Manndalen’s process of ethnic revitalisation. In this case, can the festival be considered as an example of an imagined community (Anderson 1983), created as a cultural arena for the Saami political debates and bringing Saami people, the young and the old generation, together? Further, the festival can be seen as an important tool in the process of Coastal Saami ethnic revitalisation with perspectives on northern indigenous and in general world community nowadays. What is the role of this imagined community for its participants? What challenges do manndalinger have in creating both a local and a global symbolic community?
This master thesis is tended to bring up questions for further discussions and become one of the colourful pieces in the mosaic of understanding the Riddu Riddu festival and its role in the revitalisation of Saami identity.
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