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Food customs of rural and urban Inupiaq elders and their relationships to select nutrition parameters, food insecurity, health, and physical and mental functioning

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274183
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2007
FLORIDA INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY Miami, Florida FOOD CUSTOMS OF RURAL AND URBAN INUPIAQ ELDERS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS TO SELECT NUTRITION PARAMETERS, FOOD INSECURITY, HEALTH, AND PHYSICAL AND MENTAL FUNCTIONING A dissertation submitted in partial
  1 document  
Author
Smith, Janell
Author Affiliation
Florida International University
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1102377
Keywords
Alaska
Customs
Diet
Elders
Food
Inupiaq
Mental health
Native foods
Subsistence lifestyle
Abstract
The Inupiaq Tribe resides north of the Arctic Circle in northwestern Alaska. The people are characterized by their continued dependence on harvested fish, game and plants, known as a subsistence lifestyle (Lee 2000:35-45). Many are suggesting that they leave their historical home and move to urban communities, places believed to be more comfortable as they age. Tribal Elders disagree and have stated, "Elders need to be near the river where they were raised" (Branch 2005:1). The research questions focused on differences that location had on four groups of variables: nutrition parameters, community support, physical functioning and health. A total of 101 Inupiaq Elders ≥50 years were surveyed: 52 from two rural villages, and 49 in Anchorage. Location did not influence energy intake or intake of protein; levels of nutrition risk and food insecurity; all had similar rates between the two groups. Both rural and urban Elders reported few limitations of ADLs and IADLs. Self-reported general health scores (SF-12.v2 GH) were also similar by location. Differences were found with rural Elders reporting higher physical functioning summary scores (SF-12.v2 PCS), higher mental health scores (SF-12.v2 MH), higher vitality and less pain even though the rural mean ages were five years older than the urban Elders. Traditional food customs appear to support the overall health and well being of the rural Inupiaq Elders as demonstrated by higher intakes of Native foods, stronger food sharing networks and higher family activity scores than did urban Elders. The rural community appeared to foster continued physical activity. It has been said that when Elders are in the rural setting they are near "people they know" and it is a place "where they can get their Native food" (NRC 2005). These factors appear to be important as Inupiaq Elders age, as rural Inupiaq Elders fared as well or better than Inupiaq Elders in terms of diet, mental and physical health.
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The nature of Inuit Self-governance in Nunavut Territory.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294491
Source
Dartmouth College. Hannover, NH: Senior Honors Thesis for Native American Studies.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
Spring 2009
Inuit, especially in the areas of health, education, and culture, legislators, bureaucrats, and many ordinary citizens are conversant in or at least have a concept of what is important to them as Inuit living in Inuit society. In my view, this is what makes Nunavut especially intriguing: the
  1 document  
Author
Argetsinger, Timothy H. Aqukkasuk
Source
Dartmouth College. Hannover, NH: Senior Honors Thesis for Native American Studies.
Date
Spring 2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
894970
Keywords
Nunavut
Alaska
Inuit
History
Land claims
Education
Self-governance
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argetsingerthesis2009.pdf

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Vitamin C in the Inuit diet: past and present.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295968
Source
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal. ix, 137 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
July 2000
provided personal financial aid. With respect to project support, my thanks to the Northern Scientific Training Program (DIAND) for allowing me to travel north to collect food samples and conduct qualitative interviews. Nick Hidiroglou and Rene Madère (Health Canada) are thanked for their expertise
  1 document  
Author
Fediuk, Karen
Source
School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Montreal. ix, 137 p.
Date
July 2000
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1489428
Keywords
Inuit
Women
Vitamin C
Traditional diet
Baffin Island
Abstract
This thesis explored the place of vitamin C in the Inuit diet through analysis of traditional food sources, assessment of contemporary intake among women aged 20 - 40 years, estimation of a pre contact intake of vitamin C and qualitative interviews to contextualize current food choices that can affect vitamin C intake. This thesis provides the first reports of vitamin C values for several Inuit traditional foods. There are rich sources of vitamin C in the Inuit traditional food although they are infrequently consumed by this group of women. On average half of the women interviewed in each season met the 1990 Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) set at 30 mg/day, however, only 34% of the group met the new Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 60 mg/day. Historically, ample vitamin C was obtained through the traditional Inuit food system.
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Managing mountains, past and present conditions for traditional summer farming and Sami reindeer husbandry in northern Scandinavia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295941
Source
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Umea : Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2017:80.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2017
ecological knowledge 11 1.2 Traditional land uses in northern Scandinavia 12 2 Objectives 16 3 Research context 18 4 Methods 21 4.1 Study systems 21 4.1.1 Summer farming 21 4.1.2 Sami reindeer husbandry 24 4.2 Environmental setting 27 4.3 Analysis of historical records in paper II and III 28
  1 document  
Author
Linkowski, Weronika Izabella Axelsson
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Forest Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeå
Source
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Umea : Acta Universitatis agriculturae Sueciae 2017:80.
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
3416260
Keywords
Boreal forests
Traditional ecological knowledge
Historical perspective
Forest grazing
Transhumance
Carnivores
Land use changes
Pastoralism
Abstract
Traditional land use and conditions for maintenance of biodiversity are often interlinked. When land use changes and ecosystems change as a result, there is a risk to loose both the traditional ecological knowledge and the biodiversity connected to this land use. This thesis focuses on traditional land use, summer farming and Sami reindeer husbandry, in the mountain areas of northern Scandinavia (mainly Sweden), in a historical and contemporary perspective. The overall aim is to contribute to the understanding of the conditions for the traditional land use in the Scandinavian (mainly Swedish) mountains, using the concepts of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) and a historical-ecological perspective. Both summer farming and reindeer husbandry are under strong external pressure and face large challenges today. Some of these challenges are shared and some differ between the two types of northern pastoralism. Scandinavian summer farmers experience that different views on their land use from different authorities affect them negatively. The increasing populations of large carnivores also worry the summer farmers. Recent depredation rates are in fact of the same level as historically (around 1900). Interviews showed that traditional knowledge about protective measures had eroded during years without carnivores, but also that farming practices have changed recently and that new knowledge developed. Sami plant use has been studied historically, but information about Sami plant management of Angelica archangelica was not documented. We argue that Sami ecological knowledge should be used to ensure sustainable harvest methods. Today traditional reindeer husbandry faces severe problems due to the reduction of winter grazing land by different encroachments, most importantly from modern forestry. The negative effects are even larger since increasingly difficult winter conditions create a need for a wider range of good grazing areas. Traditional knowledge is essential in the herders´ daily work, but the usability of the knowledge is severely constrained by recent changes. In the future planning of an ecologically and socially sustainable mountain management it is necessary to work with traditional land users and integrate their traditional knowledge.
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axelsson_linkowski_w_170906.pdf

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Sami lifestyle and health : epidemiological studies from northern Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295942
Source
Umea Universitet, Dean of Medical Faculty. Medical dissertation, New series no 1475. 78 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2012
Sami lifestyle and health epidemiological studies from northern Sweden Lena Maria Nilsson Public health and clinical medicine Nutritional research Umeå 2012 Responsible publisher under Swedish law: the Dean of the Medical Faculty This work is protected by the Swedish
  1 document  
Author
Nilsson, Lena Maria
Source
Umea Universitet, Dean of Medical Faculty. Medical dissertation, New series no 1475. 78 p.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1806673
Keywords
Sami
Traditional diet
Traditional lifestyle
Cohort
Mortality
Cancer
Cardiovascular disease
Abstract
The aim of this PhD thesis was to expand the current knowledge of “traditional Sami” diet and lifestyle, and to test aspects of the Sami diet and lifestyle, specifically dietary pattern, macronutrient distribution and coffee consumption, in population-based epidemiological studies of mortality and incident cardiovascular disease and cancer in a general population...
Notes
ISBN 978-91-7459-359-4
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Sami traditions: Márkomeannu's contribution to the revitalization of Sami food traditions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295943
Source
University of Tromsø Norway. Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. Master of Philosophy in Indigenous Studies.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
Autumn 2014
are several indigenous research ethics guidelines and reports. One of them is the Indigenous Peoples Health Research Centre’s (IPHRC, 2004) research ethics involving indigenous peoples. These guidelines are developed to embrace 5 decolonizing methods and to conduct research on indigenous
  1 document  
Author
Berg, Elisabeth
Source
University of Tromsø Norway. Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education. Master of Philosophy in Indigenous Studies.
Date
Autumn 2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
3175632
Keywords
Skånland
Sami
Traditional diet
Articulation
Revitalization
Globalization
Modernization
Abstract
This thesis focuses on the Márkomeannu festival’s contribution to the revitalization of food traditions. The study was conducted on the Márkomeannu festival in Skånland in Troms County, specifically in the Markasami areas in the rural hills of Skånland. The festival was chosen because it is an important arena for expression of indigeneity and culture. Many areas within the Sami community have suffered from assimilation and have afterwards gone through a process of revitalization. The process of revitalization of the culture, language, politics and history has been thoroughly studied and written about, but the revitalization of Sami traditional food has not been studied in detail. Food is an important cultural marker which works as building stones of each cultural foundation. Food can be both symbolic and be a purely practical necessity for a culture. The thesis establishes that some traditional dishes are adopted and adapted from international dishes. The results shows that traditional dishes are used to articulate the Sami culture, and that traditions can be adapted to a modern outlook, and also adapted to fit a Sami cultural profile. Márkomeannu as a cultural arena contributes to revitalization of food by creating a platform for cultural expression which can lead to a stronger Sami identity and a feeling of safety in expressing culture.
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"Cross-adaptation": the effect cold habituation has on the physiological responses to acute hypoxia in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295221
Source
University of Portsmouth. 246 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2010
fulfilment of its requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Portsmouth. Portsmouth December 2010 ABSTRACT I ABSTRACT Physiological adaptation to environmental stressors is often studied in isolation, but
  1 document  
Author
Lunt, Heather
Source
University of Portsmouth. 246 p.
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
2398449
Keywords
Acclimatization
Hypoxia
Physiology
Humans
Heart rate
Breathing
Exercise
Water immersion
Catecholamine
Abstract
Physiological adaptation to environmental stressors is often studied in isolation, but these stressors are frequently combined outside of laboratory settings, for example cold and hypoxia at altitude. There is also limited information about the effect that adaptation to one environment has on exposure to another. The five studies in this thesis were conducted in humans to assess the effect cold habituation has on the response to a simulated hypoxic exposure, and also to investigate a possible mechanism through which any change may occur.
A possible site for the =cross-adaptation‘ between cold habituation and hypoxia is the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an non-invasive measurement technique which has been used to quantify autonomic activity. The two main frequency bands of interest when using HRV are referred to as the Low-Frequency (LF) band (the power found between 0.04 and 0.15 Hz) and the High-Frequency (HF) band (the power found between 0.15 and 0.4 Hz). Study One assessed the reliability of heart rate variability as a technique to indicate autonomic activity during both paced (breathing in time to a standard audible signal) and spontaneous breathing conditions, and at different cycling exercise intensities in a thermoneutral environment. It was hypothesised that within each condition HRV indices would be reliable between repeated recordings, which were separated by 96 hours. Eight participants performed each condition on the two occasions. Analysis of the data (coefficients of variation [CV] and intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC]) showed that the paced breathing condition was the most reliable condition, and time domain HRV indices were reliable, whilst not all frequency domain HRV indices were. Normalising and log transforming the raw data did improve reliability and log transformed total and high frequency (Ln HF) power and low:high frequency ratio (Ln LF:HF) met the a priori criteria (CV r=0.8). It was concluded that most log transformed HRV indices were reliable at rest, during paced breathing and during moderate intensity exercise. Thus, the hypothesis was accepted, but caution was advised as several of the indices were close to exceeding the reliability criteria (Ln total power, Ln HF and Ln LF:HF) and a second autonomic measurement technique may be considered to substantiate its use.
The previous study identified that Ln HF power increased when breathing frequency was reduced at rest. Study Two investigated the effect that alterations in breathing patterns had on HRV indices during rest and unloaded seated cycle ergometery (0 Watts) in 16 male participants. It was hypothesised that breathing which was externally paced would increase HF power compared to spontaneous breathing conditions. HF power was elevated during the paced breathing conditions in comparison to spontaneous breathing at rest and during unloaded exercise. Consequently, the hypothesis was accepted. Thus, ventilatory variables should be recorded in following studies as there may be links between ventilation and HRV indices.
The previous studies used participants‘ freely chosen cadence when cycling, this may have influenced the HRV. The third study tested the hypothesis that cycling cadence affected HRV indices. HRV indices from 16 male participants were analysed when cycling at 40, 60, 80 and 100 revs.min-1 on an unloaded (0 Watts) and loaded (100 Watts) seated cycle ergometer. HRV indices declined as cadence was increased. Thus, the hypothesis was accepted. If HRV indices were to be calculated during subsequent experiments, both cadence and power output would have to be standardised.
The first three studies provided information on the conditions which must be present to produce reliable HRV data during moderate intensity exercise. These studies also indicated that an additional means of measuring autonomic activity should be included.
Study Four was designed to establish if one hypoxic exposure would influence a second exposure, if there was no effect the model could be adopted for the final experiment. This study also examined the effect of hypoxia on HRV indices at rest and during exercise. It was hypothesised that exercise and hypoxia would exert separate and additive effects on HRV indices and catecholamine concentrations. Twelve male participants rested and exercised on a loaded cycle ergometer (100 Watts) in normoxic (faction of inspired Oxygen, FIo2 0.2093) and hypoxic conditions (FIo2 0.15) on two occasions, separated by 96 hours. HRV and catecholamine concentrations were similar between the normoxic and hypoxic resting conditions. During exercise in normoxia catecholamine concentrations increased and Ln HF power was reduced, further increases in catecholamine concentrations and a reduction in Ln HF power were found during exercise in hypoxic conditions. The hypothesis was rejected for resting conditions, and accepted for the exercise conditions. It was also found that the first hypoxic exposure did not influence the HRV indices and catecholamine concentrations of the second hypoxic exposure and this model could therefore be used for the final experiment.
The final study (Study Five) tested for the presence of a 'cross-adaptation‘ response in cold habituated humans to hypoxic exposures during rest and moderate intensity exercise. This study was designed on the basis of the information obtained from the previous four experiments and tested the hypothesis that cold habituation by repeated cold-water immersions would reduce the sympathetic activity and cardio-respiratory responses during loaded cycling (100 W) in hypoxic conditions (FIo2 0.12). Thirty-two male participants underwent six, five minute immersions in either cold (12 °C) or thermoneutral (35 °C) water over a three day period. The normoxic and hypoxic exposures were performed before and after the water immersions. It was established that cold habituation attenuated the sympathetic response to loaded exercise during an acute hypoxic exposure and reduced the number and severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms. The study provides the first evidence of a cross-adaptation between cold habituation and hypoxic exposure in humans. This was not found in participants who performed thermoneutral water immersions. Therefore, the hypothesis was accepted. In conclusion, in four of four participants whose catecholamine concentrations were analysed and eight from 16 volunteers whose HRV was analysed, showed that cold habituation reduces the sympathetic response to an acute hypoxic stimulus during loaded cycling. However, it is not known if this cross-adaptation provides an adaptive or maladaptive response to prolonged exposure to hypoxia or altitude. ABSTRACT IV Additionally, the permanence of the cross-adaptation also requires further investigation.
Notes
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of its requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Portsmouth.
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Death and prices: the political economy of Russia's alcohol crisis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296385
Source
University of California, Los Angeles.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
August 2009
percent of the 13 Feshbach (1999) argued that: “Environmental issues lurk behind much of the public-health problem.” 14 Data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey suggest the prevalence of smoking among men rose from 57 percent in 1992 to
  1 document  
Author
Treisman, Daniel
Author Affiliation
University of California, Los Angeles. Department of Political Science
Source
University of California, Los Angeles.
Date
August 2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
216782
Keywords
Alcohol
Mortality
Price regulation
Abstract
Most experts agree that alcohol abuse has been a major cause of Russia’s soaring mortality rate. But why have ever more Russians been drinking themselves to death? Some attribute this to despair in the face of painful economic change. I present evidence that, in fact, the surge in alcohol-related deaths—and premature deaths in general— was fueled by a dramatic fall in the real price of vodka, which dropped 77 percent between December 1990 and December 1994. Variation in vodka prices—both over time and across Russia’s regions—closely matches variation in mortality. Although market competition and weak excise collection help explain the fall in prices, the main reason appears to be populist price regulation during inflationary periods.
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Death-and-Prices-Final-Sept-09.pdf

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Suicides in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296388
Source
The Arctic University of Norway. Faculty of Health Sciences, The Department of Community Medicine. 90 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
September 2016
was suppressed by the invasion of state and private mining companies, and the balance of ethnicity and nature was broken. The environmental changes, along with an undeveloped infrastructure, affected lifestyle, livelihood, culture, and physical and mental health and well-being [89]. In the 1990s
  1 document  
Author
Sumarokov, Yury A.
Source
The Arctic University of Norway. Faculty of Health Sciences, The Department of Community Medicine. 90 p.
Date
September 2016
Language
English
Russian
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
3070579
Keywords
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO)
Arkhangelsk Oblast (AO)
Suicide rates
Relative risks
Person-years
Indigenous Nenets
Suicide methods
Seasonality
Alcohol
Abstract
This is a study of suicides in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), a region with a large proportion of indigenous Nenets. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the problem of suicide in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Russian Arctic. Our study aim was to assess suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the NAO, as well as the socio-demographic characteristics, differences in suicide methods, seasonal variations, and the potential role of alcohol in suicides in these two populations.
We conducted a retrospective, population-based mortality study of suicides in the NAO, using data from the autopsy reports of suicide victims in the region in 2002-2012. Sociodemographic data were obtained from passports and medical records, and then linked to total population data from the 2002 and 2010 censuses. Suicide rates for indigenous Nenets and the non-indigenous population were calculated according to different socio-demographic characteristics, and corresponding relative risks for these two populations were compared. Variations in suicide methods, seasonal variations, and variations in the day of the week suicides occurred in the NAO were compared with national data from the Russian Federal Statistics Service (Rosstat). Data on the presence of alcohol in the blood and blood alcohol content in suicide cases from the NAO were compared with data from the neighboring Arkhangelsk Oblast.
Suicide rates in the NAO were higher than corresponding national figures. Suicide rates were higher among the indigenous Nenets than the non-indigenous population, and were associated with different socio-demographic characteristics. We showed different relative frequencies of suicide by hanging, cutting, and firearm, as well as differences in suicide occurrence by month and day of the week in the NAO when compared with Russia as a whole.
The study results and conclusions may be useful to create suicide prevention programs that are targeted to different population groups in the Russian Arctic.
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Health and Wellbeing in the Arctic: The Critical Issues of Food Insecurity and Suicide Among Indigenous people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296454
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
August 2018
discuss the mental health of Arctic indigenous people, with particular emphasis on high prevalence of suicide and how it is derived from past and present trauma and maintained by social, economic and environmental factors and conditions. Keywords: The Arctic, indigenous people, health and well
  1 document  
Author
Smáradóttir, Sveinbjörg
Author Affiliation
Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Sciences
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Date
August 2018
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
451032
Keywords
Arctic
Indigenous peoples
Health and welfare
Food insecurity
Spiritual health
Suicide
Abstract
Frumbyggjar Norðurslóða eru almennt við verri heilsu en aðrir íbúar svæðisins. Síðan afkomendur Evrópubúa hófu að leggja undir sig heimalönd frumbyggjanna, og fram á síðari hluta 20. aldar, gengu þeir í gegnum átakamiklar félagslegar- og efnahagslegar umbyltingar, voru neyddir til að yfirgefa heimalönd sín, samlagast og „nútímavæðast“ vestrænni menningu með alvarlegum afleiðingum fyrir heilsu þeirra og velferð. Í þessari ritgerð er fjallað um tvo mikilvæga þætti er varða heilsu og velferð frumbyggja á Norðurslóðum. Annarsvegar er það fæðu-óöryggi, orsakir og afleiðingar, og sambandið milli hefðbundinnar fæðu og leiða til fæðuöflunar og „vestræns“ mataræðis. Hinsvegar er fjallað andlega heilsu frumbyggjanna, með sérstaka áherslu á sjálfsvíg, orsakir og afleiðingar, hvernig þau tengjast atburðum og áföllum fortíðar og er viðhaldið af áskorunum sem frumbyggjarnir standa frammi fyrir í dag.
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Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species in the Bering Sea to Climate Change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297000
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2017
2017 Committee: David Fluharty Kristin Laidre Program Authorized to Offer Degree: Marine and Environmental Affairs ãCopyright 2017 Grace A. Ferrara University of Washington Abstract Assessing the Vulnerability of Marine Mammal Subsistence Species
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Author
Ferrara, Grace A.
Source
University of Washington. School of Marine and Environmental Affairs, College of the Environment.
Date
2017
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1604269
Keywords
Alaska
Bering Sea
Marine mammals
Climate change
Abstract
The Bering Sea is a highly productive region of the Pacific Arctic. Native Alaskan communities rely heavily on the marine resources of the Bering Sea for survival. The timing of the formation and thaw of sea ice each year has a significant impact on the structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. In its current state, the northern Bering Sea is a benthic-dominated ecosystem that supports many species of marine invertebrates, fish, birds, and mammals. Eight of these mammal species are relied on heavily by Native Alaskans for subsistence. However, this region is already experiencing the effects of climate change in ways that threaten the persistence of these communities as a result of changes in the timing of sea ice advance and retreat. As these changes progress, understanding the ways in which the ecosystem is vulnerable to climate change will be essential for resource managers and local communities to prepare to adapt. Climate change vulnerability analyses (CCVAs) provide a framework for quantifying vulnerability that can be useful for developing, implementing, and monitoring management solutions to reduce vulnerability. This study uses a CCVA to quantify the vulnerability of eight species of marine mammals in the Bering Sea as a first step in understanding how the communities that rely on them for subsistence are also vulnerable. Although some species are more vulnerable than others, this method allows managers to pinpoint sources of vulnerability for each one to develop strategies for reducing their vulnerability.
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Apportionment of genetic variation in contemporary Aleut and Eskimo populations of Alaska using anthropometrics and classical genetic markers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295955
Source
University of Kansas, Graduate Program in Anthropology. ix, 114 pp.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2007
(Lees and Crawford 1976, Relethford et al 1980). Multivariate statistics have now challenged Boas’ original claims concerning the plasticity of anthropometric traits. Studies have shown that craniometric traits are influenced by environmental plasticity, but not to the degree that was originally
  1 document  
Author
Justice, Anne Elizabeth
Source
University of Kansas, Graduate Program in Anthropology. ix, 114 pp.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
5763864
Keywords
Aleut
Eskimo
Linguistics
Biology
Morphology
Genetic markers
Bering Sea
Abstract
This thesis attempts to answer: 1) How has history and evolution shaped the relationship of Aleut and Eskimo populations? and 2) What is the relationship of Aleuts and Eskimos to other Native American populations? Questions are addressed using anthropometric measurements and classical genetic markers. Relethford- Blangero method was applied to athropometrics of the study populations. Results were compared to Nei’s genetic distance matrix of classical genetic markers. Multivariate analyses were used to determine relationships among Aleuts, Eskimos and other American Indians. This study shows a close phylogenetic relationship among Aleuts and Eskimos. Anthropometrics reveal a close relationship between Savoonga, Gambell and St. Paul due to shared European admixture. Despite shared population history, St. George did not cluster with the other Bering Sea natives in the PCA, NJT, or unscaled R-matrices; highlighting affects of genetic drift on St. George. A close relationship between Aleuts, Eskimos, Northwest, and Northeast Natives was evident.
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'Bushcraft' and 'Indigenous Knowledge' transformations of a concept in the modern world.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297019
Source
School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent. 320 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2016
and craft engagement with the material affordances in the landscape. It is argued that motivations for practice foreground a relationship with an environmental experience that counters ‘alienation’ through the development of techniques required to spend un-insulated time in nature which
  1 document  
Author
Fenton, Lisa
Source
School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent. 320 p.
Date
2016
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
29597515
Keywords
Saami Kuksa
Traditional knowledge
Bushcraft
Sami
Bow-drill
Trapping
Abstract
The relationship between ‘bushcraft’ and ‘indigenous knowledge’ is investigated through a historical review, an examination of ethnographic literature, fieldwork amongst bushcraft practitioners, and through original case studies. Fieldwork was carried out in Sweden, the USA, and the UK. Case studies of the Saami ‘kuksa’, the ‘figure 4’ deadfall trap, and making fire by friction are used to explore a number of themes in the contemporary bushcraft world: the role of skilled-practice, ethical values, notions of an individually experienced connection with nature, practice as a personal transformative experience, and as an intersubjective relationship between practitioner and craft engagement with the material affordances in the landscape. It is argued that motivations for practice foreground a relationship with an environmental experience that counters ‘alienation’ through the development of techniques required to spend un-insulated time in nature which counter modern Western technocratic lifestyles. Bushcraft destabilises apparently similar categories of activity, particularly tourism, outdoor adventure recreation and education, historical reenactment and survivalism.
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207Bushcraft-and-Indigenous-Knowledge--transformations-of-a-concept-in-the-m.pdf

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Riddu Riddu, joik or rock-n-roll? A study of Riddu Riddu Festivála and its role as a cultural tool for ethnic revialization [sic].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297029
Source
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
April 2008
  1 document  
Author
Leonenko, Anastassia Valerievna
Source
Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tromsø, Norway.
Date
April 2008
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1656646
Keywords
International Indigenous Riddu Riddu Festivála
Manndalen
Coastal Saami
Culture
Language
Lifestyle
Revitalisation
Abstract
The International Indigenous Riddu Riddu Festivála has taken place every year since 1991 in Manndalen, a Coastal Saami hamlet, in the municipality of Kåfjord in the county of Troms in the North of Norway. The festival represents by itself an independent event that through indigenous management and developed ethno-relations inside the country, promoting the idea of cultural awareness and sensitivity to all ethnic groups, however different they might be, and support them in terms of preservation of their culture, language, and lifestyle in our global and developed world.
This thesis is intended to show the ambiguity and complexity of the Coastal Saami identity in Manndalen, not only with relation to Norwegians, but also with reference to the situation among locals, between adults and youth, traditions and modernity. In other words, which relations between traditions and modernity does Riddu Riddu demonstrate? Therefore this thesis will try to find out the relation of manndalinger to the cultural invention and show their chosen way of the invasion of traditions and how far they accept distortions as authentic to their heritage during the process of cultural invention and which sign-substitutions can be defined in relation to Coastal Saami culture today. Moreover, the purpose of this thesis is to understand the process by which means invented portions of culture acquire authenticity. In other words, how the social reproduction of culture – the process whereby people learn, embody, and transmit the conventional behaviours of their society (Hanson 1989:898) – is happening in the Coastal Saami community today. Therefore the Riddu Riddu festival will be considered further as one of the examples of Coastal Saami cultural invention with the purpose of revitalization an ethnic identity.
Thus, the Riddu Riddu festival can be seen as a visible tool in Manndalen’s process of ethnic revitalisation. In this case, can the festival be considered as an example of an imagined community (Anderson 1983), created as a cultural arena for the Saami political debates and bringing Saami people, the young and the old generation, together? Further, the festival can be seen as an important tool in the process of Coastal Saami ethnic revitalisation with perspectives on northern indigenous and in general world community nowadays. What is the role of this imagined community for its participants? What challenges do manndalinger have in creating both a local and a global symbolic community?
This master thesis is tended to bring up questions for further discussions and become one of the colourful pieces in the mosaic of understanding the Riddu Riddu festival and its role in the revitalisation of Saami identity.
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Canadian Inuit use of caribou and Swedish Sami use of reindeer in entrepreneurship.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297035
Source
University of Canterbury. 460 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
xiii xiv xv Glossary ACIA. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. ACL. Arctic Co-operatives Limited. The central service federation for 35 retail cooperatives across Arctic Canada. AEPS. Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. AMAP. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment
  1 document  
Author
Mason, Aldene Helen Meis
Source
University of Canterbury. 460 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
8230174
Keywords
Reindeer herding
Entrepreneurship
Economic development
Inuit
Sami
Subsistence hunting
Documents

MeisMason_thesis_fulltext.pdf

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Behavior of organic contaminants in permafrost-affected soils.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297120
Source
University of Hamburg, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Natural Sciences. 194 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
steht, in der der Einfluss des klimatischen Wandels eine zusätzliche Variable darstellt. ABBREVIATIONS XI ABBREVIATIONS dpm decays per minute dw dry weight DOM dissolved organic matter EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency IUSS International Union of Soil
  1 document  
Author
Zschocke, Anne.
Source
University of Hamburg, Department of Geosciences, Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Natural Sciences. 194 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
7407547
Keywords
Permafrost
Contaminants
Soils
Freezing
Oil exploration
Arctic
Abstract
From Introduction: Organic contaminants entering soils pose a threat to soil functions and properties (Valentín et al., 2013; White & Claxton, 2004; Yaron et al., 2012). In freezing soils, especially permafrost-affected soils, the freezing process leads to changes in soil’s physical and chemical properties (Yershov, 1998). Soils represent a complex heterogeneous, multi-phase system, with a large interfacial area, which causes phenomena such as adsorption of water and chemicals, ion exchange and capillarity (Hillel, 2003). Therefore the interaction of freezing soils and organic contaminants is characterized by high complexity and a variety of processes, whose effects may accumulate or abate each other.
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Engaging Inupiaq values in land management for health through an action research appreciative inquiry process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294064
Source
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center: San Francisco, CA. April 2007.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2007
ENGAGING INUPIAQ VALUES IN LAND MANAGEMENT FOR HEALTH THROUGH AN ACTION RESEARCH APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PROCESS A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree
  1 document  
Author
Hild CM
Source
Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center: San Francisco, CA. April 2007.
Date
2007
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1172267
Keywords
Alaska
Kotzebue
Tribal Doctor Program
Maniilaq Association
Abstract
The investigation identified organizational system processes, which allow indigenous cultural values to be formally incorporated into planning and sustainable caring of traditionally used landscapes that promote healing and well-being. This community-based participatory research was based on a two-year effort to identify research needs within the Maniilaq Association’s Tribal Doctor Program in Kotzebue, Alaska. Information was requested on the processes required to utilize places of ancient traditional healing (PATH) that are now on public lands managed by the federal government. Ernest T. Stringer’s community-based action research of 1999 was utilized to engage 27 stakeholders from 14 interest groups, which included six traditional healers and one Alaska Native medical doctor. Appreciative inquiry was employed to solicit information, insights, ideas, and innovations for how best to assure that a well-known place of ancient traditional healing can be used in a sustainable manner. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a naturalistic process after archival research and preliminary discussions yielded a foundation for the inquiry. Information was placed into a case dynamics matrix to assess thematic content. To provide for meaning-making, all participants reviewed all of the comments and provided their own written or oral interpretation of what was being said. These results were synthesized to include the multicultural worldviews of the participants through the use of their direct interpretations and recommendations for action. The participants told personal stories that reflected the contemporary spiritual and healing attributes of this ancient site. They repeatedly requested that its solitary and rustic nature be preserved. The primary indigenous values identified with the place are: respect for nature, spirituality, knowledge of the language, sharing, respect for elders, respect for others, and cooperation. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) provides for traditional cultural practices to be discussed under formal agreements with tribal bodies and the federal government. The process being proposed for future application is the one used within this dissertation: Multicultural Engagement for Learning and Understanding (MELU) through action research and the use of appreciative inquiry. To assure the sustainable utilization of these PATH the process must employ geopiety, a respect for the natural healing quality of place.
Notes
A dissertation presented to the Faculty of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Systems.
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Traditional food access for Alaska Native Elders in Anchorage long term care facilities

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature77033
Source
RARE RA997.5.A4 S45 2006
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2006
TRADITIONAL FOOD ACCESS FOR ALASKA NATIVE ELDERS IN ANCHORAGE LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES by Mariko Selle THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the College of Health and Social Welfare University of Alaska Anchorage In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree
  1 document  
Author
Selle, Mariko
Author Affiliation
University of Alaska Anchorage, Master's Thesis
Source
RARE RA997.5.A4 S45 2006
Date
2006
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Traditional foods
Alaska
Elders
Long Term Care
Health and hygiene
Food service
Natives
Abstract
This project explored access to traditional native foods for Alaska Native elders residing in Anchorage long term care facilities. The study implemented a telephone survey of long term care facilities (N=64), qualitative key informant interviews with 11 long-term care facility operators, and qualitative key informant interviews with 14 Alaska Native elders and/or their family members with experience in long term care. It was found that Alaska Native elders in long term care generally had limited access to Native foods. Elders and their caregivers had differing perceptions on two key issues: 1) the perceived access elders had to traditional foods and 2) perceived importance of native foods. Cross cultural issues are important considerations in Anchorage?s long term care environment, due to the high number of ethnic minority caregivers in addition to the increasing number of ethnic minority residents. Several recommendations addressing barriers to traditional native food access are discussed.
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traditional_foods_ltc_facilities.pdf

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Competitive binding of persistent organic pollutants to the thyroid hormone transport protein transthyretin in glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus ).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297153
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. ix, 63, 12 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
, precipitation, sea ice conditions) and combined with the effect of contaminations and anthropogenic stressors, organisms may be vulnerable to detrimental effects (Bustnes et al., 2008). Climate change might adverse this by increasing the amount of stress in wildlife when adapting to the environmental
  1 document  
Author
Mortensen, Åse-Karen
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. ix, 63, 12 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
2569706
Keywords
Arctic
Glaucous gull
Persistent orgnic pollutants (POPS)
Metabolites
Thyroid
Svalbard
Abstract
The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) is one of the largest avian top predators in the Arctic. High levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their metabolites have been detected in the glaucous gull, and several studies indicate that high levels of different POPs can contribute to detrimental effects. The mechanism behind these disruptions could be that chemicals interfere with the endocrine system. Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for thermogenesis, reproduction, growth and differentiation. They are transported in the circulation system of glaucous gull mainly bound to the transport proteins globulin, albumin and transthyretin (TTR). The aim of this study was to use molecular modeling to construct a homology model of the TTR in glaucous gull and to dock several well-known and new emerging POPs in the models to predict the binding affinity of POPs to the TH binding site in glaucous gull TTR...
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Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Affect the Thyroid Hormone System, Body Condition, and Body Mass in Two Arctic Seabird Species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297154
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. xii, 60 p.
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
2015
Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Affect the Thyroid Hormone System, Body Condition, and Body Mass in Two Arctic Seabird Species Amalie Vigdel Ask Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Supervisor: Bjørn Munro Jenssen, IBI Co-supervisor: Geir Wing Gabrielsen, Norsk
  1 document  
Author
Ask, Amalie Vigdel
Source
Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Biology. xii, 60 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
1810790
Keywords
Arctic
Wildlife
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)
Thyroid
Kittiwakes
Arctic skuas
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are being transported into the Arctic where they are frequently detected in wildlife. These compounds are suspected thyroid hormone (TH) disruptors due to their structural similarity to triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), in addition to their propensity to bind to proteins. Therefore, PFASs may affect THs by competitive binding to the thyroid binding proteins in the blood. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of PFASs and THs, and examine effects of PFASs on THs, body condition, and body mass in black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and arctic skuas (Stercorarius parasiticus).
Blood was collected from breeding black-legged kittiwakes and arctic skuas. Black-legged kittiwakes (hereafter kittiwakes) were sampled in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard in 2013 and 2014. Arctic skuas were sampled on Brensholmen, Norway and in Kongsfjorden in 2014. The blood was analyzed for perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA), perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrDA), perfluorotetradecanoate (PFTeDA), perfluorohexane sulfonate anion (PFHxS), branched and linear perfluorooctane sulfonate anion (brPFOS and linPFOS), perfluorodecane sulfonate anion (PFDS), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). The analyses were performed on plasma samples for the black-legged kittiwakes and on whole blood samples for the arctic skuas. PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFDS, and PFHxS were not detected in either bird species. Furthermore, total THs (TT3 and TT4) were quantified from plasma samples in both species. The resulting data was analyzed statistically to examine if there were associations between PFASs, THs, body condition (BC), and body mass.
The dominant PFASs in both kittiwakes and arctic skuas were linPFOS and PFUnDA. In both species, males generally had significantly higher concentrations of PFASs than the females. Furthermore, positive correlations between PFASs and THs were identified in both kittiwakes and arctic skuas. Male kittiwakes with high levels of PFDoDA, PFTrDA, and PFTeDA were in a better body condition than males with lower levels. Conversely, in female kittiwakes and male arctic skuas PFASs were negatively correlated to BC and body mass. The results indicate that PFASs affect the thyroid system, BC, and body mass in the two seabird species.
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