Childhood lead exposure has been associated with growth delay. However, the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has not been characterized in a large cohort with low-level lead exposure.
We recruited 394 boys 8-9 years of age from an industrial Russian town in 2003-2005 and followed them annually thereafter. We used linear regression models to estimate the association of baseline BLLs with serum IGF-1 concentration at two follow-up visits (ages 10-11 and 12-13 years), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic covariates.
At study entry, median BLL was 3 µg/dL (range,
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Epidemiologic studies suggest a temporal trend of earlier onset and longer duration of puberty, raising concerns regarding the potential impact of environmental factors on pubertal development. Lead exposure has been associated with delayed pubertal onset in girls; however, epidemiologic data in boys are limited.
We used multivariable logistic regression models to explore the cross-sectional association of blood lead levels with growth and pubertal onset based on physician-assessed testicular volume (TV) and pubertal staging in 489 boys 8-9 years of age from Chapaevsk, Russia. We used multivariable linear regression models to assess associations of blood lead levels with somatic growth at the study entry visit.
The median (25th-75th percentile) blood lead level was 3 microg/dL (2-5 microg/dL). Height, weight, body mass index, birth weight, and gestational age were predictive of the onset of puberty as assessed either by TV (> 3 mL), genitalia stage (G2), or both. Blood lead level was inversely associated with height (p or = 5 microg/dL had 43% reduced odds of having entered G2 compared with those with lower levels (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.95, p = 0.03).
Relatively low environmental blood lead levels were associated with decreased growth and differences in pubertal onset in periadolescent Russian boys. Future analyses of this prospective cohort will address pubertal onset and progression in relation to lead and other environmental chemicals.
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Exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters.
We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men.
From 2003 through 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8-9 years and followed for up to 10 years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At 18-19 years, 133 young men provided 1 or 2 semen samples (256 samples) collected approximately 1 week apart, which were analyzed for volume, sperm concentration, and motility. Unadjusted and adjusted linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of quartiles of lipid-standardized concentrations of dioxins [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)], furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and corresponding toxic equivalents (TEQs) with semen parameters.
The median (range) for TCDD was 2.9 (0.4-12.1) pg/g lipid and PCDD TEQ was 8.7 (1.0-36.0) pg TEQ/g lipid. Higher quartiles of TCDD and PCDD TEQs were associated with lower sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count (p-trends = 0.05). The highest quartile of peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations was associated with a decrease (95% CI) of 40% (18, 66%), 29% (3, 64%), and 30% (2, 70%) in sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motile sperm count, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. Similar associations were observed for serum PCDD TEQs with semen parameters. Serum PCBs, furans, and total TEQs were not associated with semen parameters.
Higher peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations and PCDD TEQs were associated with poorer semen parameters. Citation: M?nguez-Alarc?n L, Sergeyev O, Burns JS, Williams PL, Lee MM, Korrick SA, Smigulina L, Revich B, Hauser R. 2017. A longitudinal study of peripubertal serum organochlorine concentrations and semen parameters in young men: the Russian Children's Study. Environ Health Perspect 125:460-466; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP25.
Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels.
We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.
We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log(10)-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.
The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2-20.6).
Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant.
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Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Childhood blood lead levels (BLL) have been associated with growth impairment.
We assessed associations of peripubertal BLL with adolescent growth and near adult height in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys.
481 boys were enrolled at ages 8-9years and followed annually to age 18. At enrollment, BLL was measured, and height, weight, and pubertal staging were obtained annually during 10years of follow-up. Mixed effects models were used to assess the associations of BLL with longitudinal age-adjusted World Health OrganizationZ-scores for height (HT-Z) and body mass index (BMI-Z), and annual height velocity (HV). Interactions between boys' age and BLL on growth outcomes were evaluated.
The median (range) BLL was 3.0 (0.5-31.0) µg/dL. At age 18years, 79% of boys had achieved near adult height (HV
Cites: Environ Health. 2015 Dec 30;14:95 PMID 26715556
Maternal exposures to organochlorines prior to pregnancy are considered a risk to neonatal welfare, specifically in relation to neurocognitive functions. There is growing interest in the evaluation of maternal blood testing as a marker for fetal exposure as well as the variable geographic distribution of these priority chemicals.
Three hundred and twenty-three women in the second trimester of pregnancy entered the study at a prenatal clinic providing genetic counselling information. Subjects who had an indication for genetic amniocentesis based on late maternal age were eligible to participate. Two hundred and thirty-eight completed an environmental questionnaire. A sample of amniotic fluid was taken for karyotype analysis in 323 women and blood samples during pregnancy (209), at birth (105) and from the umbilical cord (97) and breast milk (47) were also collected. These samples were tested for 29 PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides.
The concentrations of PCB 153 in these media were relatively low in relation to other studies. Sigma PCBs measurements in samples taken during the second trimester of pregnancy, at birth and in the umbilical cord were strongly correlated. Specific measurements of PCB 153 and PCB 180 among those subjects with completed sampling of blood samples from mothers and cord samples were significantly correlated. The concentrations of PCBs and pesticides did not differ in relation to prior spontaneous abortion history. There were no organochlorines present in the amniotic fluid at the current level of quantification.
Pregnant women from the Western Canada region of Calgary, Alberta are exposed to relatively low concentrations of organochlorines. Measurement of maternal blood during the second trimester of pregnancy can reliably estimate the fetal exposure to PCBs. This estimate is reliable for Group 2 and 3 PCBs as well as PCB 153 and PCB 180. The amniotic fluid does not contain measurable concentrations of pesticides and PCBs under the conditions of the levels of quantification.
Toxicological studies and limited human studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and adverse developmental and reproductive health effects. Given that children may be particularly susceptible to reproductive and developmental effects of organochlorines, and the paucity of information available regarding childhood exposures to dioxins in particular, we undertook a pilot study to describe the distribution of, and identify potential predictors of exposure to, dioxin-like compounds and dioxins among adolescent boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. The pilot study was also designed to guide the development of a large prospective cohort study on the relationship of exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs with growth and pubertal development in peri-pubertal Chapaevsk boys.
221 boys age 14 to 17 participated in the pilot study. Each of the boys, with his mother, was asked to complete a nurse-administered detailed questionnaire on medical history, diet, and lifestyle. The diet questions were used to measure the current and lifetime consumption of locally grown or raised foods. Blood samples from 30 of these boys were sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for analysis of dioxins, furans and PCBs.
The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentrations for total PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were 95.8 pg/g lipids (40.9, 144), 33.9 pg/g lipids (20.4, 61.8), and 120 pg/g lipids (77.6, 157), respectively. For WHO-TEQs, the median (25th, 75th percentile) for total PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs were 0.29 (0.1, 9.14), 7.98 (5.27, 12.3), and 7.39 (4.51, 11.9), respectively. Although TCDD was largely non-detectable, two boys had high TCDD levels (17.9 and 21.7 pg/g lipid). Higher serum levels of sum of dioxin-like compounds and sum of dioxin TEQs were positively associated with increased age, consumption of fish, local meats other than chicken, PCB 118, and inversely with weeks of gestation.
The total TEQs among Chapaevsk adolescents were higher than most values previously reported in non-occupationally exposed populations of comparable or even older ages. Dietary consumption of local foods, as well as age and weeks of gestation, predicted dioxin exposure in this population.
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, 686 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA. Electronic address: email@example.com.
The association of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the peripubertal period with subsequent sperm DNA methylation is unknown.
We examined the association of peripubertal serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations with whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) of sperm collected in young adulthood.
The Russian Children's Study is a prospective cohort of 516 boys who were enrolled at 8-9 years of age and provided semen samples at 18-19 years of age. WGBS of sperm was conducted to identify differentially methylated regions (DMR) between highest (n?=?4) and lowest (n?=?4) peripubertal TCDD groups.
We found 52 DMRs that distinguished lowest and highest peripubertal serum TCDD concentrations. One of the top scoring networks, "Cellular Assembly and Organization, Cellular Function and Maintenance, Carbohydrate Metabolism", identified estrogen receptor alpha as its central regulator.
Findings from our limited sample size suggest that peripubertal environmental exposures are associated with sperm DNA methylation in young adults.
Cites: Biotechniques. 2015 Jun 01;58(6):293-300 PMID 26054765
Few studies have evaluated predictors of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), a class of lipophilic persistent chemicals.
Our goal was to identify predictors of serum OCP concentrations-hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE)-among boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.
Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8-9 years of age were recruited in a prospective cohort. The initial study visit included a physical examination; blood collection; health, lifestyle, and food-frequency questionnaires; and determination of residential distance from a local factory complex that produced HCB and ?-HCH. Fasting serum samples were analyzed for OCPs at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of the boys' serum HCB, ?-HCH, and p,p?-DDE concentrations.
Among 355 boys with OCP measurements, median serum HCB, ?-HCH, and p,p?-DDE concentrations were 158, 167, and 284 ng/g lipid, respectively. Lower body mass index, longer breastfeeding duration, and local dairy consumption were associated with higher concentrations of OCPs. Boys who lived 3 years in Chapaevsk predicted higher ?-HCH concentrations, and having parents who lacked a high school education predicted higher p,p?-DDE concentrations.
Among this cohort of prepubertal Russian boys, predictors of serum OCPs included consumption of local dairy products, longer local residence, and residential proximity to the local factory complex.
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Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations.
We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region.
Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8-9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment.
The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4-175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses.
Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation.
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 May;111(5):737-4112727603
Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Building I, Room 1404E, Boston, MA 02115, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
We evaluated the associations of serum dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with longitudinally assessed growth measurements among peripubertal Russian boys.
A total of 499 boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, aged 8 to 9 years were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2005 and were followed prospectively for 3 years. Blood samples were collected and physical examinations were conducted at entry and repeated at annual study visits. Multivariate mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures were used to examine the associations of serum dioxins and PCBs with longitudinal measurements of BMI, height, and height velocity.
Serum dioxin (total 2005 toxic equivalency [TEQ] median: 21.1 pg/g lipid) and PCBs (median sum of PCBs: 250 ng/g lipid) were measured in 468 boys. At study entry and during 3 years of follow-up, >50% of the boys had age-adjusted BMI and height z scores within 1 SD of World Health Organization-standardized mean values for age. Boys in the highest exposure quintile of the sum of dioxin and PCB concentrations and total TEQs had a significant decrease in mean BMI z scores of 0.67 for dioxins and TEQs and 1.04 for PCBs, compared with boys in the lowest exposure quintile. Comparison of the highest versus the lowest quintile revealed that higher serum PCB concentrations were associated with significantly lower height z scores (mean z-score decrease: 0.41) and height velocity (mean decrease: 0.19 cm/year) after 3 years of follow-up.
Our findings suggest that exposures to dioxins and PCBs are associated with reduced growth during the peripubertal period and may compromise adult body mass, stature, and health.
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Feb;112(2):257-6514754581
Naphthalene exposures for most non-occupationally exposed individuals occur primarily indoors at home. Residential indoor sources include pest control products (specifically moth balls), incomplete combustion such as cigarette smoke, woodstoves and cooking, some consumer and building products, and emissions from gasoline sources found in attached garages. The study aim was to assess naphthalene exposure in pregnant women from Canada, using air measurements and biomarkers of exposure.
Pregnant women residing in Ottawa, Ontario completed personal and indoor air sampling, and questionnaires. During pregnancy, pooled urine voids were collected over two 24-hour periods on a weekday and a weekend day. At 2-3 months post-birth, they provided a spot urine sample and a breast milk sample following the 24-hour air monitoring. Urines were analyzed for 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol and breast milk for naphthalene. Simple linear regression models examined associations between known naphthalene sources, air and biomarker samples.
Study recruitment rate was 11.2% resulting in 80 eligible women being included. Weekday and weekend samples were highly correlated for both personal (r?=?0.83, p?
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Few human studies have evaluated the impact of childhood exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) on pubertal development.
We evaluated associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH), and p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE)] with age at attainment of sexual maturity among boys.
From 2003 through 2005, 350 8- to 9-year-old boys from Chapaevsk, Russia, with measured OCPs were enrolled and followed annually for 8 years. We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with three physician-assessed measures of sexual maturity: Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth, Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth, or testicular volume (TV) = 20 mL in either testis.
In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations achieved sexual maturity reflected by TV = 20 mL a mean of 3.1 months (95% CI: -1.7, 7.8), 5.3 months (95% CI: 0.6, 10.1), and 5.0 months (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.04). Tanner stage 5 for genitalia growth was attained a mean of 2.2 months (95% CI: -3.1, 7.5), 5.7 months (95% CI: 0.4, 11.0), and 3.7 months (95% CI: -1.7, 9.1) later for quartiles Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, of ?HCH compared with Q1 (p trend = 0.09). Tanner stage 5 for pubic hair growth occurred 6-9 months later on average for boys in the highest versus lowest quartile for HCB (p trend
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Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like, have been linked to alterations in puberty.
We examined the association of peripubertal serum levels of these compounds [and their toxic equivalents (TEQs)] with pubertal onset and maturity among Russian boys enrolled at ages 8-9 years and followed prospectively through ages 17-18 years.
At enrollment, 473 boys had serum dioxin-like compounds and PCBs measured. At the baseline visit and annually until age 17-18 years, a physician performed pubertal staging [genitalia (G), pubarche (P), and testicular volume (TV)]. Three hundred fifteen subjects completed the follow-up visit at 17-18 years of age. Pubertal onset was defined as TV > 3 mL, G2, or P2. Sexual maturity was defined as TV = 20 mL, G5, or P5. Multivariable interval-censored models were used to evaluate associations of lipid-standardized concentrations with pubertal timing.
Medians (interquartile ranges) of the sum of dioxin-like compounds, TEQs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were 362 pg/g lipid (279-495), 21.1 pg TEQ/g lipid (14.4-33.2), and 250 ng/g lipid (164-395), respectively. In adjusted models, the highest compared to lowest TEQ quartile was associated with later pubertal onset [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 3.8, 19.4); G2 = 10.1 months (95% CI: 1.4, 18.8)] and sexual maturity [TV = 11.6 months (95% CI: 5.7, 17.6); G5 = 9.7 months (95% CI: 3.1, 16.2)]. However, the highest compared to the lowest quartile of non-dioxin-like PCBs, when co-adjusted by TEQs, was associated with earlier pubertal onset [TV = -8.3 months (95% CI:-16.2, -0.3)] and sexual maturity [TV = -6.3 months (95% CI:-12.2, -0.3); G5 = -7.2 months (95% CI:-13.8, -0.6)]; the non-dioxin-like PCB associations were only significant when adjusted for TEQs. TEQs and PCBs were not significantly associated with pubic hair development.
Our results suggest that TEQs may delay, while non-dioxin-like PCBs advance, the timing of male puberty. Citation: Burns JS, Lee MM, Williams PL, Korrick SA, Sergeyev O, Lam T, Revich B, Hauser R. 2016. Associations of peripubertal serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations with pubertal timing among Russian boys. Environ Health Perspect 124:1801-1807; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP154.
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The association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorine chemicals and blood lead with growth and pubertal development in a longitudinal cohort of boys: a review of published results from the Russian Children's Study.
Organochlorine chemicals and lead are environmental exposures that have endocrine disrupting properties (EDCs) which interfere with many aspects of hormone action. Childhood and adolescence are windows of susceptibility for adverse health effects of EDCs. Our ongoing study, the Russian Children's Study (RCS), is one of the few longitudinal studies investigating the impact of EDCs on growth and puberty in boys. It is conducted in the historically contaminated city of Chapaevsk, in the Samara region. The study focuses on evaluating the associations of persistent organochlorine chemicals and lead with growth and pubertal timing. At enrollment in 2003-2005, we collected blood from 516 boys at ages 8-9 years to measure dioxins, furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides and lead. At enrollment and at annual visits through the ages of 18-19 years, a physician performed physical examinations that included pubertal staging and testicular volume measurements. We review the history of Chapaevsk as a research site and summarize published RCS data on the association of peripubertal serum concentrations of organochlorines and blood lead levels with growth, pubertal onset and sexual maturity. Overall, we found that persistent organochlorines and lead negatively affected growth during puberty. Our results also suggest that total toxic equivalents (TEQs), dioxin-like compounds, organochlorine pesticides and lead may delay, while nondioxin-like-PCBs may advance, the timing of male puberty. These findings promoted remediation programs in Chapaevsk, with improvement in health indicators, resulting in Chapaevsk being designated a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) network "Healthy Cities" in 2015.
The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity.
Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009), and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry.
The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ) decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid), and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid). Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index.
This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Oct;117(10):1593-920019911
Limited human data suggest an association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with adverse effects on children's growth.
We evaluated the associations of OCPs with longitudinally assessed growth among peripubertal boys from a Russian cohort with high environmental OCP levels.
A cohort of 499 boys enrolled in the Russian Children's Study between 2003 and 2005 at 8-9 years of age were followed prospectively for 4 years. At study entry, 350 boys had serum OCPs measured. Physical examinations were conducted at entry and annually. The longitudinal associations of serum OCPs with annual measurements of body mass index (BMI), height, and height velocity were examined by multivariate mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures, controlling for potential confounders.
Among the 350 boys with OCP measurements, median serum hexachlorobenzene (HCB), ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?HCH), and p,p?-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p?-DDE) concentrations were 159 ng/g lipid, 168 ng/g lipid, and 287 ng/g lipid, respectively. Age-adjusted BMI and height z-scores generally fell within the normal range per World Health Organization standards at entry and during follow-up. However, in adjusted models, boys with higher serum HCB, ?HCH, and p,p?-DDE had significantly lower mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] BMI z-scores, by -0.84 (-1.23, -0.46), -1.32 (-1.70, -0.95), and -1.37 (-1.75, -0.98), respectively, for the highest versus lowest quintile. In addition, the highest quintile of p,p?-DDE was associated with a significantly lower mean (95% CI) height z-score, by -0.69 (-1.00, -0.39) than that of the lowest quintile.
Serum OCP concentrations measured at 8-9 years of age were associated with reduced growth, particularly reduced BMI, during the peripubertal period, which may affect attainment of optimal adult body mass and height.
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Animal studies have demonstrated that timing of pubertal onset can be altered by prenatal exposure to dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but studies of human populations have been quite limited.
We assessed the association between maternal serum concentrations of dioxins and PCBs and the sons' age of pubertal onset in a prospective cohort of 489 mother-son pairs from Chapaevsk, Russia, a town contaminated with these chemicals during past industrial activity. The boys were recruited at ages 8 to 9 years, and 4 years of annual follow-up data were included in the analysis. Serum samples were collected at enrollment from both mothers and sons for measurement of dioxin and PCB concentrations using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The sons' pubertal onset--defined as pubertal stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G) or pubic hair (P), or testicular volume >3 mL--was assessed annually by the same physician.
In multivariate Cox models, elevated maternal serum PCBs were associated with earlier pubertal onset defined by stage G2 or higher (4th quartile hazard ratio = 1.7 [95% confidence interval = 1.1- 2.5]), but not for stage P2 or higher or for testicular volume >3 mL. Maternal serum concentrations of dioxin toxic equivalents were not consistently associated with the sons' pubertal onset, although a dose-related delay in pubertal onset (only for G2 or higher) was seen among boys who breast-fed for 6 months or more.
Maternal PCB serum concentrations measured 8 or 9 years after sons' births--which may reflect sons' prenatal and early-life exposures--were associated with acceleration in some, but not all, measures of pubertal onset.
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Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent and bioaccumulative toxic chemicals that are ubiquitous in the environment. We assessed predictors of their serum concentrations among women living in a Russian town contaminated by past industrial activity. Blood samples from 446 mothers aged 23-52 years were collected between 2003-2005 as part of the Russian Children's Study. Serum dioxin, furan, and PCB concentrations were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Potential determinants of exposure were collected through interviews. Multivariate linear regression models were used to identify predictors of serum concentrations and toxic equivalencies (TEQs). The median total PCB concentrations and total TEQs were 260 ng/g lipid and 25 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In multivariate analyses, both total PCB concentrations and total TEQs increased significantly with age, residential proximity to a local chemical plant, duration of local farming, and consumption of local beef. Both decreased with longer breastfeeding, recent increases in body mass index, and later blood draw date. These demographic and lifestyle predictors showed generally similar associations with the various measures of serum dioxins, furans, and PCBs.
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