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Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134747
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Roberta F White
Carole L Palumbo
Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
Kristin J Heaton
Pal Weihe
Frodi Debes
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. rwhite@bu.edu
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - drug effects
Adolescent Development - drug effects
Age Factors
Brain - drug effects - pathology
Brain Mapping - methods
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Motor Activity - drug effects
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Photic Stimulation
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Seafood - adverse effects
Abstract
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction.
PubMed ID
21545807 View in PubMed
Less detail

Identification of sex-specific DNA methylation changes driven by specific chemicals in cord blood in a Faroese birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290636
Source
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(3):290-300
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Yuet-Kin Leung
Bin Ouyang
Liang Niu
Changchun Xie
Jun Ying
Mario Medvedovic
Aimin Chen
Pal Weihe
Damaskini Valvi
Philippe Grandjean
Shuk-Mei Ho
Author Affiliation
a Division of Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology.
Source
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(3):290-300
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Faroe islanders consume marine foods contaminated with methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other toxicants associated with chronic disease risks. Differential DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in cord blood may serve as a surrogate biomarker of health impacts from chemical exposures. We aimed to identify key environmental chemicals in cord blood associated with DNA methylation changes in a population with elevated exposure to chemical mixtures. We studied 72 participants of a Faroese birth cohort recruited between 1986 and 1987 and followed until adulthood. The cord blood DNA methylome was profiled using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We determined the associations of CpG site changes with concentrations of MeHg, major PCBs, other organochlorine compounds [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane], and perfluoroalkyl substances. In a combined sex analysis, among the 16 chemicals studied, PCB congener 105 (CB-105) exposure was associated with the majority of differentially methylated CpG sites (214 out of a total of 250). In female-only analysis, only 73 CB-105 associated CpG sites were detected, 44 of which were mapped to genes in the ELAV1-associated cancer network. In males-only, methylation changes were seen for perfluorooctane sulfonate, HCB, and p,p'-DDE in 10,598, 1,238, and 1,473 CpG sites, respectively, 15% of which were enriched in cytobands of the X-chromosome associated with neurological disorders. In this multiple-pollutant and genome-wide study, we identified key epigenetic toxicants. The significant enrichment of specific X-chromosome sites in males implies potential sex-specific epigenome responses to prenatal chemical exposures.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29560787 View in PubMed
Less detail

Partition of environmental chemicals between maternal and fetal blood and tissues.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138555
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Feb 1;45(3):1121-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1-2011
Author
Larry L Needham
Philippe Grandjean
Birger Heinzow
Poul J Jørgensen
Flemming Nielsen
Donald G Patterson
Andreas Sjödin
Wayman E Turner
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Feb 1;45(3):1121-6
Date
Feb-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - blood - metabolism
Caprylates - blood - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - blood - metabolism
Environmental Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fetal Blood - metabolism
Fluorocarbons - blood - metabolism
Hair - metabolism
Humans
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Metals, Heavy - blood - metabolism
Milk, Human - metabolism
Pesticides - blood - metabolism
Placenta - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - metabolism
Pregnancy
Umbilical Cord - metabolism
Young Adult
Abstract
Passage of environmental chemicals across the placenta has important toxicological consequences, as well as for choosing samples for analysis and for interpreting the results. To obtain systematic data, we collected in 2000 maternal and cord blood, cord tissue, placenta, and milk in connection with births in the Faroe Islands, where exposures to marine contaminants is increased. In 15 sample sets, we measured a total of 87 environmental chemicals, almost all of which were detected both in maternal and fetal tissues. The maternal serum lipid-based concentrations of organohalogen compounds averaged 1.7 times those of cord serum, 2.8 times those of cord tissue and placenta, and 0.7 those of milk. For organohalogen compounds detectable in all matrices, a high degree of correlation between concentrations in maternal serum and the other tissues investigated was generally observed (r(2) > 0.5). Greater degree of chlorination resulted in lower transfer from maternal serum into milk. Concentrations of pentachlorbenzene, ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, and several polychlorinated biphenyl congeners with low chlorination were higher in fetal samples and showed poor correlation with maternal levels. Perfluorinated compounds occurred in lower concentrations in cord serum than in maternal serum. Cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium were all detected in fetal samples, but only mercury showed close correlations among concentrations in different matrices. Although the environmental chemicals examined pass through the placenta and are excreted into milk, partitions between maternal and fetal samples are not uniform.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21166449 View in PubMed
Less detail

Identification of sex-specific DNA methylation changes driven by specific chemicals in cord blood in a Faroese birth cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298287
Source
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(3):290-300
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
2018
Author
Yuet-Kin Leung
Bin Ouyang
Liang Niu
Changchun Xie
Jun Ying
Mario Medvedovic
Aimin Chen
Pal Weihe
Damaskini Valvi
Philippe Grandjean
Shuk-Mei Ho
Author Affiliation
a Division of Environmental Genetics and Molecular Toxicology.
Source
Epigenetics. 2018; 13(3):290-300
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Adult
Chromosomes, Human, X - drug effects - genetics
DNA Methylation - drug effects - genetics
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Epigenesis, Genetic - genetics
Female
Fetal Blood - drug effects
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Sex Characteristics
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Faroe islanders consume marine foods contaminated with methylmercury (MeHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other toxicants associated with chronic disease risks. Differential DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in cord blood may serve as a surrogate biomarker of health impacts from chemical exposures. We aimed to identify key environmental chemicals in cord blood associated with DNA methylation changes in a population with elevated exposure to chemical mixtures. We studied 72 participants of a Faroese birth cohort recruited between 1986 and 1987 and followed until adulthood. The cord blood DNA methylome was profiled using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We determined the associations of CpG site changes with concentrations of MeHg, major PCBs, other organochlorine compounds [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane], and perfluoroalkyl substances. In a combined sex analysis, among the 16 chemicals studied, PCB congener 105 (CB-105) exposure was associated with the majority of differentially methylated CpG sites (214 out of a total of 250). In female-only analysis, only 73 CB-105 associated CpG sites were detected, 44 of which were mapped to genes in the ELAV1-associated cancer network. In males-only, methylation changes were seen for perfluorooctane sulfonate, HCB, and p,p'-DDE in 10,598, 1,238, and 1,473 CpG sites, respectively, 15% of which were enriched in cytobands of the X-chromosome associated with neurological disorders. In this multiple-pollutant and genome-wide study, we identified key epigenetic toxicants. The significant enrichment of specific X-chromosome sites in males implies potential sex-specific epigenome responses to prenatal chemical exposures.
PubMed ID
29560787 View in PubMed
Less detail

Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143850
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):693-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Jennifer J Schlezinger
Pamela L Bernard
Amelia Haas
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
David H Sherr
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 , USA. jschlezi@bu.edu
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):693-8
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cell Line
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Humans
Ligands
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Pregnancy
Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon - agonists - blood
Risk assessment
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - blood - toxicity
Abstract
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands adversely affect many biological processes. However, assessment of the significance of human exposures is hampered by an incomplete understanding of how complex mixtures affect AhR activation/inactivation.
These studies used biological readouts to provide a broader context for estimating human risk than that obtained with serum extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS)-based assays alone.
AhR agonist activity was quantified in sera from dioxin-treated mice, commercial human sources, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-exposed Faroe Islanders using an AhR-driven reporter cell line. To validate relationships between serum AhR agonist levels and biological outcomes, AhR agonist activity in mouse sera correlated with toxic end points. AhR agonist activity in unmanipulated ("neat") human sera was compared with these biologically relevant doses and with GC/MS-assayed PCB levels.
Mouse serum AhR agonist activity correlated with injected dioxin dose, thymic atrophy, and heptomegaly, validating the use of neat serum to assess AhR agonist activity. AhR agonist activity in sera from Faroe Islanders varied widely, was associated with the frequency of recent pilot whale dinners, but did not correlate with levels of PCBs quantified by GC/MS. Surprisingly, significant "baseline" AhR activity was found in commercial human sera.
An AhR reporter assay revealed cumulative levels of AhR activation potential in neat serum, whereas extraction may preclude detection of important non-dioxin-like biological activity. Significant levels of AhR agonist activity in commercial sera and in Faroe Islander sera, compared with that from experimentally exposed mice, suggest human exposures that are biologically relevant in both populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
20435556 View in PubMed
Less detail

High latitude and marine diet: vitamin D status in elderly Faroese.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97099
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 May 5;:1-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-5-2010
Author
Christine Dalgård
Maria Skaalum Petersen
Anne V Schmedes
Ivan Brandslund
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, JB Winslowsvej 17, 2nd Floor, 5000 Odense C, Denmark.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2010 May 5;:1-5
Date
May-5-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Human subjects obtain their vitamin D from the diet, especially from marine food, and from endogenous synthesis following cutaneous sun exposure. The risk of an insufficient vitamin D synthesis is increased in northern populations, but it may be counteracted by a high intake of marine food in fishing populations, e.g. at the Faroe Islands. We examined the vitamin D status and its statistical determinants in a cross-sectional study of 713 elderly Faroese aged 70-74 years, about two-thirds of all the eligible residents in this age group. Clinical examination included measurement of body weight and height, and marine food intake was estimated using a questionnaire. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) by LC-MS/MS in 669 of the 713 subjects in whom sufficient serum was available. Of the population, 19 % had S-25(OH)D3 concentrations 80 nmol/l. In a logistic regression analysis, BMI 80 nmol/l. The high prevalence of low vitamin D levels among the elderly Faroese population reflects the low skin synthesis during most months of the year, which is caused by the limited sun exposure and insufficient benefits from marine diet. Thus, even in a population with a high intake of marine food, the northern latitude causes a low vitamin D status. Efforts to improve vitamin D status in this population are warranted.
PubMed ID
20441671 View in PubMed
Less detail

Serum vaccine antibody concentrations in children exposed to perfluorinated compounds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127640
Source
JAMA. 2012 Jan 25;307(4):391-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-25-2012
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Elisabeth Wreford Andersen
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Flemming Nielsen
Kåre Mølbak
Pal Weihe
Carsten Heilmann
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 401 Park Dr, EOME 3E-110, Boston, MA 02215, USA. pgrand@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
JAMA. 2012 Jan 25;307(4):391-7
Date
Jan-25-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibody Formation - drug effects
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark
Diphtheria Toxoid - administration & dosage - immunology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - toxicity
Food Contamination
Humans
Immune Tolerance
Immunity, Humoral
Immunization
Male
Maternal Exposure
Milk, human - chemistry
Odds Ratio
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Seafood
Tetanus Toxoid - administration & dosage - immunology
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as important food contaminants. They cause immune suppression in a rodent model at serum concentrations similar to those occurring in the US population, but adverse health effects of PFC exposure are poorly understood.
To determine whether PFC exposure is associated with antibody response to childhood vaccinations.
Prospective study of a birth cohort from the National Hospital in the Faroe Islands. A total of 656 consecutive singleton births were recruited during 1997-2000, [corrected] and 587 participated in follow-up through 2008.
Serum antibody concentrations against tetanus and diphtheria toxoids at ages 5 and 7 years.
Similar to results of prior studies in the United States, the PFCs with the highest serum concentrations were perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Among PFCs in maternal pregnancy serum, PFOS showed the strongest negative correlations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, for which a 2-fold greater concentration of exposure was associated with a difference of -39% (95% CI, -55% to -17%) in the diphtheria antibody concentration. PFCs in the child's serum at age 5 years showed uniformly negative associations with antibody levels, especially at age 7 years, except that the tetanus antibody level following PFOS exposure was not statistically significant. In a structural equation model, a 2-fold greater concentration of major PFCs in child serum was associated with a difference of -49% (95% CI, -67% to -23%) in the overall antibody concentration. A 2-fold increase in PFOS and PFOA concentrations at age 5 years was associated with odds ratios between 2.38 (95% CI, 0.89 to 6.35) and 4.20 (95% CI, 1.54 to 11.44) for falling below a clinically protective level of 0.1 IU/mL for tetanus and diphtheria antibodies at age 7 years.
Elevated exposures to PFCs were associated with reduced humoral immune response to routine childhood immunizations in children aged 5 and 7 years.
Notes
Comment In: JAMA. 2012 May 9;307(18):1910; author reply 1910-122570452
Erratum In: JAMA. 2012 Mar 21;307(11):1142
PubMed ID
22274686 View in PubMed
Less detail

Vitamin D status in relation to glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in septuagenarians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135024
Source
Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1284-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Christine Dalgård
Maria Skaalum Petersen
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. cdalgaard@health.sdu.dk
Source
Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1284-8
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Blood Glucose - metabolism
Calcifediol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood
Female
Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated
Humans
Male
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood - epidemiology
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is thought to be a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes, and elderly subjects at northern latitudes may therefore be at particular risk.
Vitamin D status was assessed from serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] in 668 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population). We determined type 2 diabetes prevalence from past medical histories, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, and/or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)).
We observed 70 (11%) new type 2 diabetic subjects, whereas 88 (13%) were previously diagnosed. Having vitamin D status
Notes
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PubMed ID
21515843 View in PubMed
Less detail

Visual evoked potentials in children prenatally exposed to methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115045
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2013 Jul;37:15-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2013
Author
Takashi Yorifuji
Katsuyuki Murata
Kristian S Bjerve
Anna L Choi
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Ecology, Okayama University Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2013 Jul;37:15-8
Date
Jul-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body Burden
Breast Feeding
Child
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - blood
Evoked Potentials, Visual - drug effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - metabolism
Hair - metabolism
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects - blood
Neuropsychological Tests
Norway
Phospholipids - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Reaction Time - drug effects
Risk factors
Time Factors
Up-Regulation
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to methylmercury can cause both neurobehavioral deficits and neurophysiological changes. However, evidence of neurotoxic effects within the visual nervous system is inconsistent, possibly due to incomplete statistical adjustment for beneficial nutritional factors. We evaluated the effect of prenatal methylmercury exposure on visual evoked potential (VEP) latencies in Faroese children with elevated prenatal methylmercury exposure. A cohort of 182 singleton term births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1994-1995. At age 7 years, VEP tracings were obtained from 139 cohort subjects after exclusion of subjects with abnormal vision conditions. We used multiple regression analysis to evaluate the association of mercury concentrations in cord blood and maternal hair at parturition with VEP latencies after adjustment for potential confounders that included the cord-serum phospholipid concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and the duration of breastfeeding. Unadjusted correlations between mercury exposure and VEP latencies were equivocal. Multiple regression models showed that increased mercury concentrations, especially in maternal hair, were associated with delayed latencies for VEP peak N145. After covariate adjustment, a delay of 2.22 ms (p=0.02) was seen for each doubling of the mercury concentration in maternal hair. In agreement with neuropsychological findings, the present study suggests that prenatal methylmercury exposure may have an adverse effect on VEP findings despite the absence of clinical toxicity to the visual system. However, this association was apparent only after adjustment for n-3 PUFA status.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23548974 View in PubMed
Less detail

Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7 years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123383
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012 Jul;34(4):466-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2012
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
Flemming Nielsen
Birger Heinzow
Frodi Debes
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. pgrand@health.sdu.dk
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012 Jul;34(4):466-72
Date
Jul-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - diagnosis - physiopathology
Cognition Disorders - chemically induced - diagnosis - physiopathology
Cohort Studies
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food, Formulated - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - blood - chemically induced - physiopathology
Seafood - adverse effects
Abstract
To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7 years. Major PCB congeners (118, 138, 153, and 180), the calculated total PCB concentration, and the PCB exposure estimated in a structural equation model showed weak associations with test deficits, with statistically significant negative associations only with the Boston Naming test. Likewise, neither hexachlorobenzene nor p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene showed clear links to neurobehavioral deficits. Thus, these associations were much weaker than those associated with the cord-blood mercury concentration, and adjustment for mercury substantially attenuated the regression coefficients for PCB exposure. When the outcomes were joined into motor and verbally mediated functions in a structural equation model, the PCB effects remained weak and virtually disappeared after adjustment for methylmercury exposure, while mercury remained statistically significant. Thus, in the presence of elevated methylmercury exposure, PCB neurotoxicity may be difficult to detect, and PCB exposure does not explain the methylmercury neurotoxicity previously reported in this cohort.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22705177 View in PubMed
Less detail

Reproductive hormone profile and pubertal development in 14-year-old boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122162
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Dec;34(4):498-503
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Ciea Grønlund
Ina M Kjær
Tina Kold Jensen
Nicolina Sørensen
Anna-Maria Andersson
Anders Juul
Niels E Skakkebæk
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, 5000 Odense, Denmark. pgrand@sdu.dk
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2012 Dec;34(4):498-503
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Denmark - epidemiology
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Follicle Stimulating Hormone - blood
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Luteinizing Hormone - blood
Male
Maternal Exposure
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Puberty
Sexual Maturation - physiology
Testis - growth & development
Testosterone - blood
Abstract
Because polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause endocrine disruption, we examined 438 adolescent boys from a birth cohort in the Faroe Islands, where PCB exposures are elevated. We measured PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cord blood and in serum from clinical examination at age 14. Higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with lower serum concentrations of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. In addition, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was positively associated with both prenatal and concurrent PCB exposures. The PCB-SHBG association was robust to covariate adjustment. In a structural equation model, a doubling in prenatal PCB exposure was associated with a decrease in LH of 6% (p=0.03). Prenatal exposure to PCB and DDE showed weak, non-significant inverse associations with testicular size and Tanner stage. DDE was highly correlated with PCB and showed slightly weaker associations with the hormone profile. These findings suggest that delayed puberty with low serum-LH concentrations associated with developmental exposure to non dioxin-like PCBs may be due to a central hypothalamo-pituitary mechanism.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22841741 View in PubMed
Less detail

Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136604
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):410-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Jan Erik Henriksen
Anna L Choi
Maria Skaalum Petersen
Christine Dalgård
Flemming Nielsen
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. pgrand@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):410-7
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Blood Glucose - analysis
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food chain
Food Contamination
Humans
Incidence
Insulin - blood
Male
Norway
Odds Ratio
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Risk assessment
Seafood - adverse effects
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after the age of 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects from a fishing population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the food chain.
Clinical examinations of 713 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population) included fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Lifetime exposure to persistent environmental chemicals from pilot whale and other traditional food was estimated from a dietary questionnaire and by analysis of blood samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related food contaminants.
Septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. In nondiabetic subjects, the fasting insulin concentration decreased by 7% (95% CI = -12% to -2%) for each doubling of the PCB concentration after adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 20. Conversely, the fasting glucose concentration increased by 6% (-1% to 13%) for each doubling in PCB. Similar associations were seen in subjects without impaired fasting glycemia, while further adjustment for current body mass index and lipid metabolism parameters attenuated some of the associations.
Impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21364465 View in PubMed
Less detail

Underestimation of risk due to exposure misclassification.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature179518
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2004;17(1):131-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Niels Keiding
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. PGrandjean@health.sdu.dk
Source
Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2004;17(1):131-6
Date
2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Cohort Studies
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Methylmercury Compounds - blood
Models, Statistical
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Risk assessment
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
Exposure misclassification constitutes a major obstacle when developing dose-response relationships for risk assessment. A non-differentional error results in underestimation of the risk. If the degree of misclassification is known, adjustment may be achieved by sensitivity analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine the full magnitude of measurement error in determining the prenatal exposure to methylmercury. We used data from a prospective study of a Faroese birth cohort. Two biomarkers of methylmercury exposure were available, i.e., the mercury concentrations in cord blood and in maternal hair (sampled at the time of parturition). The laboratory imprecision on both chemical analyses was thought to be below 5% coefficient of variation (CV). As a third exposure parameter, we used the dietary questionnaire response on frequency of whale meat dinners. Factor analysis and structural equation analysis were applied to assess the full extent of the imprecision. The calculated total imprecision much exceeded the known laboratory variation: the CV was 28-30% for the cord-blood concentration and 52-55% for the maternal hair concentration. The dietary questionnaire response was even more imprecise. These findings illustrate that measurement error may be greatly underestimated if judged solely from reproducibility or laboratory quality data. Adjustment by sensitivity analysis is meaningful only if realistic measurement errors are applied. When exposure measurement errors are overlooked or underestimated, decisions based on the precautionary principle will not appropriately reflect the degree of precaution that was intended.
PubMed ID
15212216 View in PubMed
Less detail

Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289794
Source
Environ Int. 2017 10; 107:205-215
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
10-2017
Author
Damaskini Valvi
Youssef Oulhote
Pal Weihe
Christine Dalgård
Kristian S Bjerve
Ulrike Steuerwald
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: dvalvi@hsph.harvard.edu.
Source
Environ Int. 2017 10; 107:205-215
Date
10-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Diabetes, Gestational - blood - epidemiology
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fetal Macrosomia - blood
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury - analysis - blood
Pregnancy - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased availability of glucose and macronutrients in fetal circulation and macrosomia. Therefore, the role of GDM in the association between metabolism-disrupting chemicals and birth size deserves attention.
We examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures.
We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs: polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)), and five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and hair and cord blood mercury concentrations were measured. We used regression (single-pollutants) and structural equation models (SEMs) (multiple-pollutant analyses using latent constructs of OCs, PFASs and mercury) to estimate the associations with GDM and birth size measures, accounting for mediation and/or effect modification by GDM.
Serum-DDE and hair-mercury concentrations were associated with GDM (adjusted OR per concentration doubling: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.77 for DDE, and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99 for mercury), but in multiple pollutant-adjusted SEMs only a positive association between OC exposure and GDM remained significant (change in GDM odds per OC doubling: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86). PCB and overall OC exposure were positively associated with head circumference (SEM; mean change per OC doubling: 0.13cm; 95% CI, 0.01. 0.25). Overall PFAS exposure was inversely associated with birth weight (SEM; mean change per PFAS doubling: -169g; 95% CI: -359, 21), and for many single-PFASs we found a pattern of inverse associations with birth weight and head circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures.
We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence.
Notes
Cites: Endocr Rev. 2014 Aug;35(4):557-601 PMID 24483949
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PubMed ID
28753482 View in PubMed
Less detail

Gestational diabetes and offspring birth size at elevated environmental pollutant exposures.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286603
Source
Environ Int. 2017 Oct;107:205-215
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Damaskini Valvi
Youssef Oulhote
Pal Weihe
Christine Dalgård
Kristian S Bjerve
Ulrike Steuerwald
Philippe Grandjean
Source
Environ Int. 2017 Oct;107:205-215
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased availability of glucose and macronutrients in fetal circulation and macrosomia. Therefore, the role of GDM in the association between metabolism-disrupting chemicals and birth size deserves attention.
We examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures.
We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000. Maternal pregnancy serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs: polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)), and five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and hair and cord blood mercury concentrations were measured. We used regression (single-pollutants) and structural equation models (SEMs) (multiple-pollutant analyses using latent constructs of OCs, PFASs and mercury) to estimate the associations with GDM and birth size measures, accounting for mediation and/or effect modification by GDM.
Serum-DDE and hair-mercury concentrations were associated with GDM (adjusted OR per concentration doubling: 1.29; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.77 for DDE, and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.99 for mercury), but in multiple pollutant-adjusted SEMs only a positive association between OC exposure and GDM remained significant (change in GDM odds per OC doubling: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.86). PCB and overall OC exposure were positively associated with head circumference (SEM; mean change per OC doubling: 0.13cm; 95% CI, 0.01. 0.25). Overall PFAS exposure was inversely associated with birth weight (SEM; mean change per PFAS doubling: -169g; 95% CI: -359, 21), and for many single-PFASs we found a pattern of inverse associations with birth weight and head circumference in boys, and positive or null associations in girls. None of the environmental pollutants was associated with offspring length. GDM neither modified nor mediated the associations with birth size measures.
We found associations with GDM and offspring birth size to be specific to the environmental pollutant or pollutant group. Associations with birth size measures appear to be independent of GDM occurrence.
Notes
Cites: Endocr Rev. 2014 Aug;35(4):557-60124483949
Cites: Diabetes Metab. 2014 Feb;40(1):1-1424262435
Cites: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Jul-Aug;18(4):495-5002505694
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PubMed ID
28753482 View in PubMed
Less detail

Early-life exposures to persistent organic pollutants in relation to overweight in preschool children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289302
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:145-153
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
03-2017
Author
Martina Karlsen
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
Ulrike Steuerwald
Youssef Oulhote
Damaskini Valvi
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
Source
Reprod Toxicol. 2017 03; 68:145-153
Date
03-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Anthropometry
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Endocrine Disruptors - blood - toxicity
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - toxicity
Humans
Infant
Overweight - blood - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - blood - chemically induced - epidemiology
Prevalence
Abstract
Current knowledge on obesogenic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is equivocal. We therefore evaluated the associations between early-life POP exposures and body mass index (BMI) in 444 Faroese children born in 2007-2009. POPs were measured in maternal 2-week postpartum serum and child age-5 serum. Linear regression and generalised linear models assessed the associations with continuous and dichotomous BMI z-scores, respectively, at ages 18 months and/or 5 years. Maternal serum concentrations of HCB, PFOS and PFOA were associated with increased BMI z-scores and/or overweight risk (i.e. BMI z-score=85th WHO percentile). No clear association was found for maternal serum-PCBs, p,p'-DDE, PFHxS, PFNA and PFDA. In cross-sectional analyses, we observed a pattern of inverse associations between child serum-POPs and BMI z-scores at age 5, perhaps due to reverse causation that requires attention in future prospective analyses. Findings in this recent cohort support a role of maternal exposure to endocrine disruptors in the childhood obesity epidemic.
Notes
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Cites: Obes Rev. 2012 Nov;13(11):985-1000 PMID 22731928
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Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):141-8 PMID 8685706
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May;95(5):1113-35 PMID 22456657
Cites: Environ Res. 1995 Oct;71(1):29-38 PMID 8757236
Cites: New Solut. 2015 Aug;25(2):147-63 PMID 26084549
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Jul;123(7):730-6 PMID 25742056
Cites: Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 May;214(5):559-65 PMID 26829510
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Feb 1;45(3):1121-6 PMID 21166449
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2015 Sep 1;49(17):10466-73 PMID 26291735
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Cites: Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:62-9 PMID 24742729
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Dec 1;172(11):1230-7 PMID 20940176
PubMed ID
27496715 View in PubMed
Less detail

Effect of hemoglobin adjustment on the precision of mercury concentrations in maternal and cord blood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102707
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:407-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Byung-Mi Kim
Anna L Choi
Eun-Hee Ha
Lise Pedersen
Flemming Nielsen
Pal Weihe
Yun-Chul Hong
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Philippe Grandjean
Source
Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:407-12
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Biological Markers - blood
Blood Chemical Analysis - standards
Cohort Studies
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Hemoglobins - metabolism
Humans
Linear Models
Maternal Exposure
Mercury - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - blood
Pregnancy
Selenium - blood
Abstract
The cord-blood mercury concentration is usually considered the best biomarker in regard to developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity. However, the mercury concentration may be affected by the binding of methylmercury to hemoglobin and perhaps also selenium. As cord-blood mercury analyses appear to be less precise than suggested by laboratory quality data, we studied the interrelationships of mercury concentrations with hemoglobin in paired maternal and cord blood samples from a Faroese birth cohort (N=514) and the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health study in Korea (n=797). Linear regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses were used to ascertain interrelationships between the exposure biomarkers and the possible impact of hemoglobin as well as selenium. Both methods showed a significant dependence of the cord-blood concentration on hemoglobin, also after adjustment for other exposure biomarkers. In the SEM, the cord blood measurement was a less imprecise indicator of the latent methylmercury exposure variable than other exposure biomarkers available, and the maternal hair concentration had the largest imprecision. Adjustment of mercury concentrations both in maternal and cord blood for hemoglobin improved their precision, while no significant effect of the selenium concentration in maternal blood was found. Adjustment of blood-mercury concentrations for hemoglobin is therefore recommended.
PubMed ID
24853977 View in PubMed
Less detail

Estimated exposures to perfluorinated compounds in infancy predict attenuated vaccine antibody concentrations at age 5-years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291577
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2017 12; 14(1):188-195
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Date
12-2017
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Carsten Heilmann
Pal Weihe
Flemming Nielsen
Ulla B Mogensen
Amalie Timmermann
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
a Department of Environmental Health , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health , Boston , MA , USA.
Source
J Immunotoxicol. 2017 12; 14(1):188-195
Date
12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Keywords
Antibodies - blood
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diphtheria Toxoid - immunology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood - immunology - toxicity
Humans
Immunity, Humoral
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Prognosis
Prospective Studies
Tetanus Toxoid - immunology
Vaccination
Abstract
Perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) are highly persistent and may cause immunotoxic effects. PFAS-associated attenuated antibody responses to childhood vaccines may be affected by PFAS exposures during infancy, where breastfeeding adds to PFAS exposures. Of 490 members of a Faroese birth cohort, 275 and 349 participated in clinical examinations and provided blood samples at ages 18 months and 5 years. PFAS concentrations were measured at birth and at the clinical examinations. Using information on duration of breastfeeding, serum-PFAS concentration profiles during infancy were estimated. As outcomes, serum concentrations of antibodies against tetanus and diphtheria vaccines were determined at age 5. Data from a previous cohort born eight years earlier were available for pooled analyses. Pre-natal exposure showed inverse associations with the antibody concentrations five years later, with decreases by up to about 20% for each two-fold higher exposure, while associations for serum concentrations at ages 18 months and 5 years were weaker. Modeling of serum-PFAS concentration showed levels for age 18 months that were similar to those measured. Concentrations estimated for ages 3 and 6 months showed the strongest inverse associations with antibody concentrations at age 5 years, particularly for tetanus. Joint analyses showed statistically significant decreases in tetanus antibody concentrations by 19-29% at age 5 for each doubling of the PFAS exposure in early infancy. These findings support the notion that the developing adaptive immune system is particularly vulnerable to immunotoxicity during infancy. This vulnerability appears to be the greatest during the first 6 months after birth, where PFAS exposures are affected by breast-feeding.
PubMed ID
28805477 View in PubMed
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Consequences of exposure measurement error for confounder identification in environmental epidemiology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63481
Source
Stat Med. 2003 Oct 15;22(19):3089-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2003
Author
Esben Budtz-Jørgensen
Niels Keiding
Philippe Grandjean
Pal Weihe
Roberta F White
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. ebj@biostat.ku.dk
Source
Stat Med. 2003 Oct 15;22(19):3089-100
Date
Oct-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bias (epidemiology)
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiologic Methods
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Mercury - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Abstract
Non-differential measurement error in the exposure variable is known to attenuate the dose-response relationship. The amount of attenuation introduced in a given situation is not only a function of the precision of the exposure measurement but also depends on the conditional variance of the true exposure given the other independent variables. In addition, confounder effects may also be affected by the exposure measurement error. These difficulties in statistical model development are illustrated by examples from a epidemiological study performed in the Faroe Islands to investigate the adverse health effects of prenatal mercury exposure.
PubMed ID
12973789 View in PubMed
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Assessment of xenoestrogenic exposure by a biomarker approach: application of the E-Screen bioassay to determine estrogenic response of serum extracts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61592
Source
Environ Health. 2003 Oct 15;2(1):12
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2003
Author
Thomas Høj Rasmussen
Flemming Nielsen
Helle Raun Andersen
Jesper Bo Nielsen
Pal Weihe
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. thoj@health.sdu.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2003 Oct 15;2(1):12
Date
Oct-15-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Assay - methods
Biological Markers - blood
Chromatography, Gas
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Diet
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Estrogens, Non-Steroidal - analysis - blood
Female
Humans
In Vitro
Maternal Exposure
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Pregnancy
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Women's health
Xenobiotics - analysis - blood
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological documentation of endocrine disruption is complicated by imprecise exposure assessment, especially when exposures are mixed. Even if the estrogenic activity of all compounds were known, the combined effect of possible additive and/or inhibiting interaction of xenoestrogens in a biological sample may be difficult to predict from chemical analysis of single compounds alone. Thus, analysis of mixtures allows evaluation of combined effects of chemicals each present at low concentrations. METHODS: We have developed an optimized in vitro E-Screen test to assess the combined functional estrogenic response of human serum. The xenoestrogens in serum were separated from endogenous steroids and pharmaceuticals by solid-phase extraction followed by fractionation by high-performance liquid chromatography. After dissolution of the isolated fraction in ethanol-DMSO, the reconstituted extract was added with estrogen-depleted fetal calf serum to MCF-7 cells, the growth of which is stimulated by estrogen. After a 6-day incubation on a microwell plate, cell proliferation was assessed and compared with the effect of a 17-beta-estradiol standard. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: To determine the applicability of this approach, we assessed the estrogenicity of serum samples from 30 pregnant and 60 non-pregnant Danish women thought to be exposed only to low levels of endocrine disruptors. We also studied 211 serum samples from pregnant Faroese women, whose marine diet included whale blubber that contain a high concentration of persistent halogenated pollutants. The estrogenicity of the serum from Danish controls exceeded the background in 22.7 % of the cases, while the same was true for 68.1 % of the Faroese samples. The increased estrogenicity response did not correlate with the lipid-based concentrations of individual suspected endocrine disruptors in the Faroese samples. When added along with the estradiol standard, an indication of an enhanced estrogenic response was found in most cases. Thus, the in vitro estrogenicity response offers a promising and feasible approach for an aggregated exposure assessment for xenoestrogens in serum.
PubMed ID
14613489 View in PubMed
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