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Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263756
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
M S Petersen
J. Halling
P. Weihe
T K Jensen
P. Grandjean
F. Nielsen
N. Jørgensen
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Endocrine Disruptors - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fluoroimmunoassay
Gonadal Hormones - blood
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Male
Middle Aged
Peptide Hormones - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Semen - chemistry - drug effects
Semen Analysis
Spermatogenesis - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions.
The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men.
Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters.
A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables.
In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25766940 View in PubMed
Less detail

Methylmercury exposure biomarkers as indicators of neurotoxicity in children aged 7 years.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33231
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug 1;150(3):301-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-1999
Author
P. Grandjean
E. Budtz-Jørgensen
R F White
P J Jørgensen
P. Weihe
F. Debes
N. Keiding
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Aug 1;150(3):301-5
Date
Aug-1-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - analysis - blood
Child
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Iceland
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Intelligence - drug effects
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Memory - drug effects
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects - blood
Neuropsychological Tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
The mercury concentration in blood or scalp hair has been widely used as a biomarker for methylmercury exposure. Because of the increased risks associated with exposures during prenatal and early postnatal development, biomarker results must be interpreted with regard to the age-dependent susceptibility. The authors compared regression coefficients for five sets of exposure biomarkers in 917 children from the Faroe Islands examined at birth, 1 year, and 7 years. Outcome variables were the results of neuropsychologic examination carried out in 1993-1994 at age 7 years. After adjustment for covariates, the cord-blood concentration showed the clearest associations with deficits in language, attention, and memory. Fine-motor function deficits were particularly associated with the maternal hair mercury at parturition. Mercury concentrations in the child's blood and hair at age 7 years were significant predictors only of performance on memory for visuospatial information. These findings emphasize the usefulness of the cord-blood mercury concentration as a main risk indicator. They also support the notion that the greatest susceptibility to methylmercury neurotoxicity occurs during late gestation, while early postnatal vulnerability is less, and they suggest that the time-dependent susceptibility may vary for different brain functions.
PubMed ID
10430235 View in PubMed
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Prenatal methylmercury exposure as a cardiovascular risk factor at seven years of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature33268
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):370-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
N. Sørensen
K. Murata
E. Budtz-Jørgensen
P. Weihe
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Public Health, Faroese Hospital System, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands.
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):370-5
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Blood Pressure - drug effects
Cardiovascular System - drug effects
Child
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Abstract
Blood pressure in childhood is an important determinant of hypertension risk later in life, and methylmercury exposure is a potential environmental risk factor. A birth cohort of 1,000 children from the Faroe Islands was examined for prenatal exposure to methylmercury, and at age 7 years, blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were determined. After adjustment for body weight, diastolic and systolic blood pressure increased by 13.9 mmHg [95% confidence limits (CL) = 7.4, 20.4] and 14.6 mmHg (95% CL = 8.3, 20.8), respectively, when cord blood mercury concentrations increased from 1 to 10 microg/liter cord blood. Above this level, which corresponds to a current exposure limit, no further increase was seen. Birth weight acted as a modifier, with the mercury effect being stronger in children with lower birth weights. In boys, heart rate variability decreased with increasing mercury exposures, particularly from 1 to 10 microg/liter cord blood, at which the variability was reduced by 47% (95% CL = 14%, 68%). These findings suggest that prenatal exposure to methylmercury may affect the development of cardiovascular homeostasis.
PubMed ID
10401870 View in PubMed
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Exposure to persistent organic pollutants and sperm sex chromosome ratio in men from the Faroe Islands.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259317
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:359-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
L. Kvist
A. Giwercman
P. Weihe
T. Kold Jensen
P. Grandjean
J. Halling
M. Skaalum Petersen
Y. Lundberg Giwercman
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:359-64
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chromosomes, Human, X
Chromosomes, Human, Y
Denmark
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Greenland
Humans
Male
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Spermatozoa - chemistry
Sweden
Abstract
People in the Arctic as well as fishermen on the polluted Swedish east coast are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These compounds have been shown to affect the sperm Y:X chromosome ratio. In present study, the aim was to investigate whether polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2,-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDE) influence sperm sex chromosome ratio in Faroese men, and whether these men differ regarding Y:X ratio compared to Greenland Inuit and Swedish fishermen. The study population (n=449) consisted of young men from the general population (n=276) as well as proven fertile men (n=173). The Y:X ratio was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Serum concentrations of POPs were measured using gas chromatography. Associations between POP concentrations and Y:X ratio were calculated using linear and non-linear regression models as well as trend analysis and pairwise comparison of exposure data categorized into quartiles. The selected POPs were associated with Y:X ratio in fertile Faroese men, but not in the total population; p,p'-DDE (95% CI for B=-0.005 to -0.001, p=0.005) and SPCB (95% CI for B=-0.005 to -0.001, p=0.012). Since p,p'-DDE and SPCB correlated significantly (r=0.927, p
PubMed ID
25222300 View in PubMed
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International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36480
Source
Neurotoxicology. 1993 Summer-Fall;14(2-3):9-14
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 1993 Summer-Fall;14(2-3):9-14
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure
History, Ancient
Humans
Lead Poisoning - epidemiology - history
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced
Paleopathology
Abstract
Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
8247415 View in PubMed
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Scientific dishonesty: a Danish proposal for evaluation and prevention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature221919
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1993;3 Suppl 1:265-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
P. Grandjean
D. Andersen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1993;3 Suppl 1:265-70
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiologic Studies
Ethics Committees - organization & administration
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Organizational Objectives
Scientific Misconduct - legislation & jurisprudence
Abstract
The term scientific dishonesty covers the wide scope from consciously fraudulent actions to gross negligence and refers both to character trait and to actions. Scientific dishonesty may occur in any country, but reactions in Europe have been slow to emerge. On the basis of a thorough review, the Danish Medical Research Council therefore has made recommendations on how to handle and how to prevent scientific dishonesty. Suspected cases must be referred directly to a national committee chaired by a High Court judge. An ad hoc investigatory committee may be appointed in each case. If dishonesty is established, the institution then is asked to implement appropriate sanctions and to report on the actions taken to the national committee. Prevention of scientific dishonesty forms an essential part of good scientific practice and must have an impact on research training, requirements for data storage, guidelines for scientific publication, and criteria for evaluating grant proposals and promotions.
PubMed ID
9857310 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Physicians' and medical students' perception of environmental risks]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22479
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Sep 16;158(38):5291-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-16-1996
Author
P. Grandjean
J B Nielsen
Author Affiliation
Institut for Sygdomsforebyggelse og Helsetjenesteforskning, fagområdet for miljømedicin. Odense Universitet.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Sep 16;158(38):5291-5
Date
Sep-16-1996
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Denmark
Education, Medical, Continuing
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Humans
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Physicians - psychology
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Students, Medical - psychology
Abstract
Evaluation of environmental risks involves several subjective elements, including the individual reaction to the mere presence of such risks. We have carried out a study of students participating in postgraduate courses in environmental and occupational medicine and of medical students. They received a form that contained twelve statements and were asked to indicate whether they agreed or disagreed with these statements. Almost half of the medical students agreed that one must count on developing cancer if one is exposed to a carcinogenic chemical. Responses to other statements were also contrary to the basic principle of the dose-response relationship. A majority in both groups disagreed with the statement that people are unnecessarily concerned about small amounts of pesticides in the environment. Compared to the medical students, the postgraduate students were more sceptical and less concerned regarding environmental risks. These results are in general agreement with a study carried out in the US using the same statements. The results are an indication that we do not necessarily react the same way with regard to information on risks. When communicating such information, the needs and the background of the audience must be appreciated.
PubMed ID
8966777 View in PubMed
Less detail

Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22534
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Aug;104 Suppl 4:741-803
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1996
Author
J. Toppari
J C Larsen
P. Christiansen
A. Giwercman
P. Grandjean
L J Guillette
B. Jégou
T K Jensen
P. Jouannet
N. Keiding
H. Leffers
J A McLachlan
O. Meyer
J. Müller
E. Rajpert-De Meyts
T. Scheike
R. Sharpe
J. Sumpter
N E Skakkebaek
Author Affiliation
Department of Growth and Reproduction, Juliane Marie Center, National University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Aug;104 Suppl 4:741-803
Date
Aug-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental Pollutants - pharmacology
Estrogens - pharmacology
Estrogens, Non-Steroidal - pharmacology
Genitalia, Male - drug effects
Humans
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Characteristics
Xenobiotics - pharmacology
Abstract
Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 1997 Feb;105(2):162-39105787
PubMed ID
8880001 View in PubMed
Less detail

Health implications for Faroe islanders of heavy metals and PCBs from pilot whales.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature34712
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):141-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-16-1996
Author
P. Weihe
P. Grandjean
F. Debes
R. White
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational and Public Health, Faroese Hospital System, Denmark.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1996 Jul 16;186(1-2):141-8
Date
Jul-16-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Food poisoning
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Meat - adverse effects
Mercury - adverse effects - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects
Whales - metabolism
Abstract
In the Faroe Islands marine food constitutes a considerable part of the diet. In addition to fish, both meat and blubber from pilot whales are included in the diet. Muscle tissue of pilot whales caught in the Faroe Islands contains an average mercury concentration of 3.3 micrograms/g (16 nmol/g), about half of which is methylmercury. In some years an evenly distributed annual catch of pilot whales would make the average dietary intake of mercury close to an excess of the Provisional Temporary Weekly Intake of 0.3 mg recommended by WHO. In one out of eight consecutive births, the mercury concentration in maternal hair exceeded a limit of 10 micrograms/g where a risk of neurobehavioral dysfunction in the child may occur; the maximum was 39.1 micrograms/g. Mercury concentrations in umbilical cord blood showed a similar distribution with a maximum of 351 micrograms/l. The large variation in mercury exposure is associated with differences in the frequency of whale dinners. The average PCB concentration in pilot whale blubber is very high, i.e. about 30 micrograms/g. With an estimated daily consumption of 7 g of blubber, the average daily PCB intake could therefore exceed 200 micrograms, i.e. close to the Acceptable Daily Intake. In Scandinavia, the average daily PCB intake is about 15-20 micrograms. To obtain an improved scientific basis for public health action, two major prospective studies have been initiated. A birth cohort of 1000 children has been examined at approximately 7 years of age for neurobehavioral dysfunctions associated with prenatal exposure to mercury and PCB. Preliminary analyses of the data show that several neurobehavioral tests are associated with mercury exposure parameters. With emphasis on prenatal exposures to PCB, another cohort has been generated during 1994-95, and this cohort will be followed closely during the next years.
PubMed ID
8685706 View in PubMed
Less detail

Occupational and environmental medicine in Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206172
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998 Feb;71(1):3-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
B. Netterstrøm
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Clinic of Occupational Medicine, Hillerød Hospital, Denmark.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998 Feb;71(1):3-6
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Education, Medical - trends
Environmental Medicine - education - standards
Forecasting
Humans
Occupational Medicine - education - standards
Specialization - trends
PubMed ID
9523242 View in PubMed
Less detail

Milestone development in infants exposed to methylmercury from human milk.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59342
Source
Neurotoxicology. 1995;16(1):27-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
P. Grandjean
P. Weihe
R F White
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 1995;16(1):27-33
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Animals
Breast Feeding
Child Development - drug effects
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Labor, Obstetric
Mercury - toxicity
Milk, human - chemistry
Neurotoxins - pharmacology - toxicity
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Time Factors
Weaning
Abstract
Breastfeeding seems to confer an advantage to the infant with regard to neurobehavioral development, possibly in part due to essential nutrients in human milk. However, human milk may be contaminated by environmental neurotoxicants, such as methylmercury. At the Faroe Islands where maternal consumption of pilot whale meat and blubber may well cause a considerable transfer of these neurotoxicants into human milk, 583 infants were followed by district health nurses during the first 12 months after birth. Three developmental milestones that are usually reached between between 5 and 12 months of age, i.e., sitting, creeping and standing, were examined. Infants who reached milestone criteria early had significantly higher mercury concentrations in the hair at 12 months of age. This association is contrary to what would be expected from possible neurotoxic effects of mercury. However, early milestone development was clearly associated with breastfeeding which was again related to increased hair-mercury levels. Milestone development was not associated with indicators of prenatal methylmercury exposure, such as the maternal hair-mercury concentration at parturition. The relationship between early milestone development and high hair-mercury levels in the infant therefore seems to be due to confounding caused by the duration of breastfeeding. No other potential confounder played any role in this regard. This study therefore suggests that, if methylmercury exposure from human milk had any adverse effect on milestone development in these infants, the effect was compensated for or overruled by advantages associated with nursing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PubMed ID
7603642 View in PubMed
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[Perspectives in environmental medicine. Illustrated by the element fluorine]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49396
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1983 Apr 18;145(16):1250-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-18-1983

Selection bias in determining the age dependence of waiting time to pregnancy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63898
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Sep 15;152(6):565-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-15-2000
Author
T K Jensen
T. Scheike
N. Keiding
I. Schaumburg
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense. t.koldjensen@ic.ac.uk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Sep 15;152(6):565-72
Date
Sep-15-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Comparative Study
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Fertility
Humans
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Selection Bias
Time Factors
Abstract
Many studies have found decreased fecundability, that is, the ability to conceive in a menstrual cycle, with increasing female age. To evaluate the effect of maternal age on waiting time to pregnancy, the authors reviewed hospital charts of all pregnant women attending prophylactic antenatal care at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, during 1972-1987. Only the first pregnancy of each woman and only planned pregnancies were included (n = 14,754). The fecundability odds ratio (FR) was calculated as the odds of a conception in a menstrual cycle among the older women divided by the odds among women aged 15-24 years. The FR for women aged 25-29 years was 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.20), for women aged 30-34 years it was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.30), and for women above 34 years the FR was 2.44 (95% CI: 1.84, 3.22) after adjustment for confounders. The increased fecundability with age is contrary to previous studies and may be explained by selection bias, as sterile women were not included. In addition, some very fertile young women who became pregnant by accident before efficient birth control methods were available and therefore were excluded from time to pregnancy studies may now use oral contraceptives until they plan a pregnancy later in life and are included.
PubMed ID
10997547 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fecundability in relation to body mass and menstrual cycle patterns.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature64072
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):422-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
T K Jensen
T. Scheike
N. Keiding
I. Schaumburg
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Community Health, Winsløwparken, Denmark.
Source
Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):422-8
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Body mass index
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark
Female
Fertility
Humans
Menstrual Cycle
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
Few studies have investigated the association between body mass index and fecundability, that is, the ability to conceive in a menstrual cycle, among fertile women with normal menstrual cycle pattern. We examined the independent and combined effects of duration and regularity of the menstrual cycle, body mass index, and fecundability from records on pregnant women attending antenatal care at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, between 1972 and 1987. We included only the first birth of each woman who had planned pregnancies and no pre-pregnancy disease (N = 10,903). We estimated the fecundability odds ratio (FR) as the odds of conception in a menstrual cycle. After adjusting for confounders, the fecundability for women with a body mass index >25 kg/m2 was lower than for women with a body mass index of 20-25 kg/m2 [FR = 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.84]. FR was lower for women with long (>35 days) (FR = 0.74; 95% CI = 0.63-0.87) or irregular cycles (FR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.70-0.87), even when their body mass index was within the normal range (20-25 kg/m2) and/or their cycles were regular.
PubMed ID
10401878 View in PubMed
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Lessons from a Danish study on neuropsychological impairment related to lead exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37059
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1991 Aug;94:111-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1991
Author
P. Grandjean
T. Lyngbye
O N Hansen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1991 Aug;94:111-5
Date
Aug-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Child
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infant
Lead - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Nervous System - drug effects - physiopathology
Nervous System Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology - psychology
Neuropsychological Tests
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Serious problems emerge when evaluating evidence on lead neurotoxicity in children. The extent of these problems and ways to control them were explored in a study of 1291 children from the first class in the schools of Aarhus municipality, Denmark. The lead retention in circumpulpal dentin in shed deciduous teeth was used as an indicator of cumulated lead exposure; it correlated most strongly with traffic density at the residence of each family and at the day-care institutions. In a nested case-control group selected on the basis of dentin lead concentrations, 29 of 200 children had encountered obstetrical complications and other medical risks for neurobehavioral dysfunction; these children primarily belonged to the low-lead group. As lead-related neurobehavioral effects are nonspecific, inclusion of these children in the data analysis would therefore have distorted the results toward the null hypothesis. Children from the high-lead group who had experienced neonatal jaundice showed impaired performance when compared to other high-lead children; this finding may suggest a synergistic effect. The Bender gestalt test scored by the Göttingen system was the test that was most sensitive to lead exposure. The conclusion that neurobehavioral effects can be caused by the relatively low lead exposures in Denmark may not be surprising, as current exposures to this toxic metal greatly exceed the prepollution levels to which the human body originally adapted.
PubMed ID
1954920 View in PubMed
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Reference intervals for trace elements in blood: significance of risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11869
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1992 Jun;52(4):321-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
P. Grandjean
G D Nielsen
P J Jørgensen
M. Hørder
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1992 Jun;52(4):321-37
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet
Epidemiologic Factors
Female
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Time Factors
Trace Elements - blood
Abstract
A random sample of 100 men and 100 women was examined for whole-blood concentrations of mercury, lead, cadmium and selenium, and the serum concentrations of selenium, nickel, fluoride, aluminium, zinc and copper. Major predictors were sex, hormonal factors (pregnancy, menopause, use of oral contraceptives), age, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Among notable associations, increased blood-mercury was related to the presence of more than four amalgam fillings in the teeth. Blood-mercury correlated with blood-selenium, but a relation to fish intake could only be demonstrated for the former parameter. In women, blood-lead appeared to increase with age, with the highest levels seen after the menopause. Serum-nickel was slightly lower in patients with nickel-related contact eczema. Only the selenium concentrations showed a slight increase in individuals taking mineral supplements. Serum-zinc concentrations decreased considerably during the day. Thus, due to the substantial influence of physiological and environmental factors, individual results must be interpreted in the light of the known predictors for the trace element concentration. However, population-based reference intervals for trace elements in blood are useful to explore geographic and temporal variations.
PubMed ID
1439518 View in PubMed
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Impact of maternal seafood diet on fetal exposure to mercury, selenium, and lead.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11878
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1992 May-Jun;47(3):185-95
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Grandjean
P. Weihe
P J Jørgensen
T. Clarkson
E. Cernichiari
T. Viderø
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Health, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1992 May-Jun;47(3):185-95
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Animals
Denmark
Diet Surveys
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fishes
Food Habits
Gestational Age
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Postmature
Lead - blood - chemistry
Maternal Age
Mercury - blood - chemistry
Mothers
Parity
Pilot Projects
Prospective Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Selenium - blood - chemistry
Smoking - adverse effects
Whales
Abstract
Umbilical cord blood from 1,023 consecutive births in the Faroe Islands showed a median blood-mercury concentration of 121 nmol/l (24.2 micrograms/l); 250 of those samples (25.1%) had blood-mercury concentrations that exceeded 200 nmol/l (40 micrograms/l). Maternal hair mercury concentrations showed a median of 22.5 nmol/g (4.5 micrograms/g), and 130 samples (12.7%) contained concentrations that exceeded 50 nmol/g (10 micrograms/g). Frequent ingestion of whale meat dinners during pregnancy and, to a much lesser degree, frequent consumption of fish, and increased parity or age were associated with high mercury concentrations in cord blood and hair. Blood-mercury levels were slightly lower if the mother had occasionally ingested alcoholic beverages. Mercury in blood correlated moderately with blood selenium (median, 1.40 mumol/l). Increased selenium concentrations were associated with intake of whale meat, alcohol abstention, delivery after term, and high parity. Lead in cord blood was low (median, 82 nmol/l), particularly if the mothers had frequently had fish for dinner and had abstained from smoking.
PubMed ID
1596101 View in PubMed
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Predictors of tooth-lead level with special reference to traffic. A study of lead-exposure in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature37931
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990;62(6):417-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
1990
Author
T. Lyngbye
O N Hansen
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1990;62(6):417-22
Date
1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Environmental - analysis
Breast Feeding
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Dentin - chemistry
Female
Humans
Infant
Lead - analysis
Male
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Occupations
Parents
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking
Tooth, Deciduous - chemistry
Vehicle Emissions - analysis
Water Supply - analysis
Abstract
Possible predictors of the lead burden of children were investigated in a low-exposure area. A total of 1302 school children in the first form within the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark, donated deciduous teeth for determination of the lead concentration in the circumpulpal dentin. The families were interviewed on possible sources of lead. Present and former addresses of residences and day-care institutions were obtained, and the traffic intensity was estimated at each of these addresses. Children with a high lead burden resided significantly more often in heavily-travelled streets than children with a low burden, but only during their first 3 years of life. The increased risk for a high lead burden was related to the traffic intensity in a dose-response manner. Further, children with a high lead burden more often exhibited pica, their mothers smoked more during pregnancy, and their fathers were more likely to work at a garage or shipyard. In a logistic multivariate regression, such parental occupation increased the risk for a high lead burden 1.5-fold (ORadj; P = 0.03), whereas tobacco and traffic each were of borderline significance (ORadj = 1.4, P = 0.08).
PubMed ID
1700966 View in PubMed
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Neurological deficits in children: medical risk factors and lead exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature38380
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Nov-Dec;10(6):531-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
T. Lyngbye
O N Hansen
P. Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Nov-Dec;10(6):531-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Brain Damage, Chronic - chemically induced
Denmark
Developmental Disabilities - chemically induced
Female
Fetus - drug effects
Humans
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Infant, Newborn
Jaundice, Neonatal - chemically induced
Lead
Lead Poisoning - physiopathology
Obstetric Labor Complications - chemically induced
Pregnancy
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
A study of possible undue neurobehavioral effects of low-level lead exposure was performed in Danish school children who entered first grade in 1982. Lead absorption was found to relate to impaired psychological test performance and difficulties at school. However, this relationship was confounded by medical risk factors for neurological deficit. Such factors were used as exclusionary criteria before psychological testing and were selected a prior on the basis of a critical evaluation of known etiologies of neurobehavioral dysfunction. Children characterized by a medical risk factor tended to show performance below average and, at the same time, low lead absorption. The medical risks were also associated with delayed motor activity in the first year of life, thus perhaps resulting in diminished lead intake. This confounding effect makes strict exclusion for proven medical risk factors crucial to avoid bias toward the null-hypothesis. In spite of strict exclusion, a residual confounding due to health-related variables still remained. Inconsistent findings in the field of neurobehavioral studies may be partly explained by different means of identification and statistical treatment of medical risk factors.
PubMed ID
2468990 View in PubMed
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[Blood lead concentration in the Danish population after introduction of lead-free gasoline]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10831
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Aug 10;160(33):4768-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-10-1998
Author
J B Nielsen
P. Grandjean
P J Jørgensen
Author Affiliation
Odense Universitet, Afdeling for Miljømedicin.
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1998 Aug 10;160(33):4768-71
Date
Aug-10-1998
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Denmark
English Abstract
Environmental Exposure
Female
Gasoline
Humans
Lead - blood
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Blood lead concentrations in a Danish reference population were related to information from an extensive questionnaire on work, environment and life style. The mean concentration of lead in blood was 0.167 mumol/L, i.e. significantly lower than in previous studies. This finding is in accordance with the fact that less than 10% of petrol used in Denmark contained lead additives (up to 0.15 g/L). An important finding was that the well-documented predictors for lead in blood at higher concentration levels, such as age, gender, menopausal status, and intake of alcohol, are still valid in a low-level exposure situation. In addition, a strong and negative correlation was found between blood lead concentrations and dietary supplementation with vitamins and minerals. The present data indicate that lead exposure may still constitute a health risk in a small proportion of adult males and postmenopausal women.
PubMed ID
9715658 View in PubMed
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22 records – page 1 of 2.