Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years.
This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.
No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills.
We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.
Nanoindustry encompasses very different branches of industry today. It should be noted that these are precisely the investigators who deal with researches and developments of nanomaterials will be to the largest measure exposed and hence the likelihood of the potential harm to their health is greatest. To elaborate the special regulations and programs, normative documents and guidelines designed to afford safety and health protection of the employees at work, which should consider the specific characteristics of nanotechnologies. Since 2007, work has proceeded on the safety evaluation of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Nanotechnology as a key priority in the foreseeable future poses a number of problems facing hygiene science to develop hygienic safety criteria for the production, usage, utilization and storage of various nanomaterials and to elaborate procedures for determination of nanoparticles in different media. Russia will be able to rapidly progress in solving the safety problems in emerging nanoindustry and to minimize human health and environmental risks associated with the manufacture and use of nanoproducts.
The birth cohort BraMat (n = 205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, as well as acrylamide generated in food during heat treatment. The frequency of common infections, eczema or itchiness, and periods of more than 10 days of dry cough, chest tightness or wheeze (called wheeze) in the children during the first year of life was assessed by questionnaire data (n = 195). Prenatal dietary exposure to the toxicants was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Prenatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with increased risk of wheeze and exanthema subitum, and also with increased frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and the health outcomes investigated. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs may increase the risk of wheeze and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis), characterised by severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, has an unknown aetiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate food and nutrient intake before pregnancy and the risk of developing hyperemesis in women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 7710 pregnant women answered a FFQ about their diet during the 12 months before becoming pregnant and a questionnaire about illnesses during pregnancy, including hyperemesis. Only women who were hospitalised for hyperemesis were included as cases. Nutrient intakes during the year before pregnancy did not differ between the ninety-nine women who developed hyperemesis and the 7611 who did not. However, the intake of seafood, allium vegetables and water was significantly lower among women who developed hyperemesis than among women in the non-hyperemesis group. Relative risks of hyperemesis were approximated as OR, and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women in the upper tertile of seafood consumption had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the lower tertile (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·98), and women in the second tertile of water intake had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the first tertile (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·73). The findings suggest that a moderate intake of water and adherence to a healthy diet that includes vegetables and fish are associated with a lower risk of developing hyperemesis.
Nanotechnologies find wide application in industry and medicine. The Russian market of nanotechnologies is at the very beginning of development. Rospotrebnadzor has amassed a wealth of experience in the creation of efficacious systems for estimation and sanitary-epidemiological control of the safety of goods and foodstuffs. The assessment of the safety of nanoparticles and nanomaterials has been carried out since 2007. In 2008-2009, a survey was initiated with a view to developing safety criteria for nanoproducts, nanomaterials, and nanotechnologies. In 2010, research institutions of Rospotrebnadzor were engaged in investigations aimed to develop relevant regulatory and procedural documentation. Studies are underway to work out new highly sensitive methods for the detection, identification and qualitative determination of nanomaterials in the environment, food-staffs, and biological media.
[Prospects of development of social-sanitary monitoring as a basic mechanism of providing the population's wellbeing and the role of the journal "Gigiena i Sanitariia " in covering the topical problems].
The outbreak of cholera eltor in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk has been analyzed. The fact of the import of this infection from China and its transmission mainly by the water route due to the intensive contamination of environmental objects has been substantiated. The effective purification decontamination of sewage water plays decisive role on the system of anticholera measures. The conclusion on the necessity of increasing the effectiveness of measures for the sanitary protection of the territory has been made.
Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth.
This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. =?5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression.
In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG.
Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention.
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Fish liver, fish liver oil, oily fish and seagull eggs have been major sources of vitamin D for the coastal population of Norway. They also provide dioxin and polychlorinated dioxin-like compounds (dl-compounds), which may interfere with vitamin D homeostasis. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) might be compromised by concomitant intake of dl-compounds.
We studied 182 adults participating in the Norwegian Fish and Game Study. Participants who consumed fish liver and/or seagull eggs had higher dl-compound intake and blood concentrations than non-consumers (p
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 Âµg/day and 150 Âµg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 Âµg/day from food and 166 Âµg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 Âµg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 Âµg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 Âµg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 Âµg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
There have been negative tendencies for the formation of public health to be preserved in the past decade. The most important tendency is for the worse physical development and health of children and adolescents. The 2002 All-Russian medical examination of children has provided support for the negative tendencies in the health status of children - the proportion of healthy children during the above period had reduced from 45.5% to 33.9%. The incidence of endocrine, digestive, and locomotor diseases, congenital malformations, and mental disorders has particularly increased. It should be said that the health status of the general population and primarily children is determined by the influence of a number of factors, including sociohygienic living conditions (up to 25-40%), man-made environmental pollution (above 25%), intraschool environmental factors (21-27%), and health care quality (up to 25%). School-age children account for about 70% of the pediatric population. It is in this age group that shows the greatest rise in morbidity. In recent years, the Principal Public Sanitary Inspector of the Russian Federation has published 5 regulations on various aspects of sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in children. A number of regions of the country take actions on the creation of proper conditions for the upbringing, education, and health-improvement of children. The present-day educational system is characterized by a great diversity of curriculums. At the same time, only one curriculum and one educational technology have a sanitary-and-epidemiological conclusion on health safety. Adolescents with risky forms of sexual behavior have increased in number. This in combination with underhygienic measures leads to the spread of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases among them. For children's sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the Russian Federation, it is expedient: 1) to complete the development of the adverse influence of environmental factors on the health status of children, which envisages the implementation of measures to improve their habitat (ambient air, portable water), intraschool environment, and living conditions in the families, socially poor ones in particularly, nutritional pattern, and lifestyle in children and adolescents; and 2) to introduce prophylactic syllabi at school in order to form healthy life style skills, a conscious attitude to the health status of theirs and those around them, etc. in children and adolescents.
[On the results of activities of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service for provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population of the Russian Federation in 2001 and tasks for 2002].
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
In the article there are adduced the practical aspects of realization of a concept of risk evaluation of the adverse environment factors influencing the health of the Russian population by the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. Epidemiological data on the influence of the most spread free air contaminants is summarized and a matter of monitoring food products safety is considered. There are outlined arrangements for the successful application of the evaluation of risk of the different environment factors influencing the populations health to practical activities of the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Russia.