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Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134673
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Ase Vikanes
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Andrej M Grjibovski
Per Magnus
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Allium
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Hyperemesis Gravidarum - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Seafood
Severity of Illness Index
Water - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis), characterised by severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, has an unknown aetiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate food and nutrient intake before pregnancy and the risk of developing hyperemesis in women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 7710 pregnant women answered a FFQ about their diet during the 12 months before becoming pregnant and a questionnaire about illnesses during pregnancy, including hyperemesis. Only women who were hospitalised for hyperemesis were included as cases. Nutrient intakes during the year before pregnancy did not differ between the ninety-nine women who developed hyperemesis and the 7611 who did not. However, the intake of seafood, allium vegetables and water was significantly lower among women who developed hyperemesis than among women in the non-hyperemesis group. Relative risks of hyperemesis were approximated as OR, and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women in the upper tertile of seafood consumption had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the lower tertile (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·98), and women in the second tertile of water intake had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the first tertile (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·73). The findings suggest that a moderate intake of water and adherence to a healthy diet that includes vegetables and fish are associated with a lower risk of developing hyperemesis.
PubMed ID
21554820 View in PubMed
Less detail

Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290064
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 09 05; 17(1):685
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-05-2017
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Margaretha Haugen
Synnve Schjølberg
Per Magnus
Gunnar Brunborg
Martine Vrijheid
Jan Alexander
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Exposures and Epidemiology, Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404, 0403, Oslo, Norway.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2017 09 05; 17(1):685
Date
09-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Cell Phone Use - statistics & numerical data
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Communication
Female
Humans
Language Development
Male
Mothers - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Motor Skills
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Prospective Studies
Risk assessment
Surveys and Questionnaires
Abstract
Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years.
This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations.
No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills.
We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28870201 View in PubMed
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Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins is associated with increased risk of wheeze and infections in infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134515
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1843-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Solvor Berntsen Stølevik
Unni Cecilie Nygaard
Ellen Namork
Margaretha Haugen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Joost H M van Delft
Henk van Loveren
Martinus Løvik
Berit Granum
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. solvor.berntsen@fhi.no
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1843-8
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrylamide - toxicity
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dioxins - toxicity
Eating
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - physiopathology
Respiratory Tract Infections - chemically induced
Risk factors
Abstract
The birth cohort BraMat (n = 205; a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health) was established to study whether prenatal exposure to toxicants from the maternal diet affects immunological health outcomes in children. We here report on the environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, as well as acrylamide generated in food during heat treatment. The frequency of common infections, eczema or itchiness, and periods of more than 10 days of dry cough, chest tightness or wheeze (called wheeze) in the children during the first year of life was assessed by questionnaire data (n = 195). Prenatal dietary exposure to the toxicants was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Prenatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with increased risk of wheeze and exanthema subitum, and also with increased frequency of upper respiratory tract infections. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and the health outcomes investigated. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs may increase the risk of wheeze and infectious diseases during the first year of life.
PubMed ID
21571030 View in PubMed
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Exploration of biomarkers for total fish intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98999
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Margaretha Haugen
Yngvar Thomassen
Dag G Ellingsen
Trond A Ydersbond
Tor-Arne Hagve
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-04030 Oslo, Norway. anne.lise.brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jan;13(1):54-62
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Norway
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Arsenic - administration & dosage - blood
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Cohort Studies
Diet Records
Erythrocytes - chemistry
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage - analysis
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - urine
Mercury - administration & dosage - blood
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Seafood - analysis
Selenium - administration & dosage - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Few biomarkers for dietary intake of various food groups have been established. The aim of the present study was to explore whether selenium (Se), iodine, mercury (Hg) or arsenic may serve as a biomarker for total fish and seafood intake in addition to the traditionally used n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. DESIGN: Intake of fish and seafood estimated by an FFQ was compared with intake assessed by a 4 d weighed food diary and with biomarkers in blood and urine. SETTING: Validation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). SUBJECTS: One hundred and nineteen women. RESULTS: Total fish/seafood intake (median 39 g/d) calculated with the MoBa FFQ was comparable to intake calculated by the food diary (median 30 g/d, rS = 0.37, P
Notes
RefSource: Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2536-7
PubMed ID
19490733 View in PubMed
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Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
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Maternal diet, prenatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds and birth outcomes in a European prospective mother-child study (NewGeneris).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266778
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jun 15;484:121-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-15-2014
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Manolis Kogevinas
Maria Botsivali
Marie Pedersen
Harrie Besselink
Michelle A Mendez
Sarah Fleming
Laura J Hardie
Lisbeth E Knudsen
John Wright
Silvia Agramunt
Jordi Sunyer
Berit Granum
Kristine B Gutzkow
Gunnar Brunborg
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Katerina Sarri
Leda Chatzi
Domenico F Merlo
Jos C Kleinjans
Margaretha Haugen
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jun 15;484:121-8
Date
Jun-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Dioxins - blood
Environmental Policy
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Gestational Age
Great Britain - epidemiology
Greece - epidemiology
Health Policy
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Mothers
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Spain - epidemiology
Abstract
Maternal diet can result in exposure to environmental contaminants including dioxins which may influence foetal growth. We investigated the association between maternal diet and birth outcomes by defining a dioxin-rich diet. We used validated food frequency questionnaires to assess the diet of pregnant women from Greece, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark and Norway and estimated plasma dioxin-like activity by the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay in 604 maternal blood samples collected at delivery. We applied reduced rank regression to identify a dioxin-rich dietary pattern based on dioxin-like activity (DR-CALUX®) levels in maternal plasma, and calculated a dioxin-diet score as an estimate of adherence to this dietary pattern. In the five country population, dioxin-diet score was characterised by high consumption of red and white meat, lean and fatty fish, low-fat dairy and low consumption of salty snacks and high-fat cheese, during pregnancy. The upper tertile of the dioxin-diet score was associated with a change in birth weight of -121g (95% confidence intervals: -232, -10g) compared to the lower tertile after adjustment for confounders. A small non-significant reduction in gestational age was also observed (-1.4days, 95% CI: -3.8, 1.0days). Our results suggest that maternal diet might contribute to the exposure of the foetus to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and may be related to reduced birth weight. More studies are needed to develop updated dietary guidelines for women of reproductive age, aiming to the reduction of dietary exposure to persistent organic pollutants as dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.
PubMed ID
24691212 View in PubMed
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Fish liver and seagull eggs, vitamin D-rich foods with a shadow: results from the Norwegian Fish and Game Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature127159
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Mar;56(3):388-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Bryndis E Birgisdottir
Anne L Brantsaeter
Helen E Kvalem
Helle K Knutsen
Margaretha Haugen
Jan Alexander
Ragna B Hetland
Lage Aksnes
Helle M Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. bryndis.eva.birgisdottir@fhi.no
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Mar;56(3):388-98
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Charadriiformes
Databases, Factual
Diet
Dioxins - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Eggs
Female
Fish Oils - administration & dosage
Fishes
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Liver - chemistry
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism - toxicity
Questionnaires
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - analysis
Vitamins - administration & dosage - analysis
Abstract
Fish liver, fish liver oil, oily fish and seagull eggs have been major sources of vitamin D for the coastal population of Norway. They also provide dioxin and polychlorinated dioxin-like compounds (dl-compounds), which may interfere with vitamin D homeostasis. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) might be compromised by concomitant intake of dl-compounds.
We studied 182 adults participating in the Norwegian Fish and Game Study. Participants who consumed fish liver and/or seagull eggs had higher dl-compound intake and blood concentrations than non-consumers (p
PubMed ID
22319024 View in PubMed
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Adherence of pregnant women to Nordic dietary guidelines in relation to postpartum weight retention: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256846
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:75
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Anne von Ruesten
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Kirsten Mehlig
Anna Winkvist
Lauren Lissner
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2014;14:75
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Weight
Diet Surveys
Diet, Reducing - psychology
Female
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Policy
Patient Compliance - statistics & numerical data
Postpartum Period - psychology
Pregnancy
Weight Gain
Young Adult
Abstract
Pregnancy is a major life event for women and often connected with changes in diet and lifestyle and natural gestational weight gain. However, excessive weight gain during pregnancy may lead to postpartum weight retention and add to the burden of increasing obesity prevalence. Therefore, it is of interest to examine whether adherence to nutrient recommendations or food-based guidelines is associated with postpartum weight retention 6 months after birth.
This analysis is based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Diet during the first 4-5 months of pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and maternal weight before pregnancy as well as in the postpartum period was assessed by questionnaires. Two Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores were applied to measure compliance with either the official Norwegian food-based guidelines (HEI-NFG) or the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (HEI-NNR) during pregnancy. The considered outcome, i.e. weight retention 6 months after birth, was modelled in two ways: continuously (in kg) and categorically (risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, i.e. =?5% gain to pre-pregnancy weight). Associations between the HEI-NFG and HEI-NNR score with postpartum weight retention on the continuous scale were estimated by linear regression models. Relationships of both HEI scores with the categorical outcome variable were evaluated using logistic regression.
In the continuous model without adjustment for gestational weight gain (GWG), the HEI-NFG score but not the HEI-NNR score was inversely related to postpartum weight retention. However, after additional adjustment for GWG as potential intermediate the HEI-NFG score was marginally inversely and the HEI-NNR score was inversely associated with postpartum weight retention. In the categorical model, both HEI scores were inversely related with risk of substantial postpartum weight retention, independent of adjustment for GWG.
Higher adherence to either the official Norwegian food guidelines or possibly also to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations during pregnancy appears to be associated with lower postpartum weight retention.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24456804 View in PubMed
Less detail

Risk of suboptimal iodine intake in pregnant Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116519
Source
Nutrients. 2013 Feb;5(2):424-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2013
Author
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Marianne Hope Abel
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Department of Exposure and Risk Assessment, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Norway. Anne.Lise.Brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Nutrients. 2013 Feb;5(2):424-40
Date
Feb-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Dairy Products
Diet
Dietary Supplements
Eggs
Female
Gestational Age
Humans
Iodine - administration & dosage - deficiency
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway
Nutrition Policy
Nutritional Status
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Seafood
Abstract
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 µg/day and 150 µg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 µg/day from food and 166 µg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 µg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 µg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 µg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 µg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23389302 View in PubMed
Less detail

Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278568
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Mar;124(3):357-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2016
Author
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Hanne Torjusen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Eleni Papadopoulou
Jane A Hoppin
Jan Alexander
Geir Lieblein
Gun Roos
Jon Magne Holten
Jackie Swartz
Margaretha Haugen
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Mar;124(3):357-64
Date
Mar-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Cryptorchidism - epidemiology
Diet
Female
Food, Organic
Humans
Hypospadias - epidemiology
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. It has been suggested that maternal diet and environmental contaminants may affect the risk of these anomalies via placental or hormonal disturbances.
We examined associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth.
Our study includes 35,107 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who delivered a singleton male infant. Information about use of six groups of organically produced food (vegetables, fruit, bread/cereal, milk/dairy products, eggs, and meat) during pregnancy was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Women who indicated that they sometimes, often, or mostly consumed organic foods in at least one of the six food groups were classified as organic food consumers in analyses. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression.
Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias (0.2%), and 151 with cryptorchidism (0.4%). Women who consumed any organic food during pregnancy were less likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.70, based on 21 exposed cases) than women who reported they never or seldom consumed organic food. Associations with specific organic foods were strongest for vegetable (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.85; 10 exposed cases) and milk/dairy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.07; 7 exposed cases) consumption. No substantial association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism.
Consumption of organically produced foods during pregnancy was associated with a lower prevalence of hypospadias in our study population. These findings were based on small numbers of cases and require replication in other study populations.
Notes
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Comment In: Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Mar;124(3):A5526930698
PubMed ID
26307850 View in PubMed
Less detail

Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296615
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 04 23; 8(3):e018895
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
04-23-2018
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Jérémie Botton
Anne-Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jonas Bacelis
Anders Elfvin
Bo Jacobsson
Verena Sengpiel
Author Affiliation
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Exposure and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
BMJ Open. 2018 04 23; 8(3):e018895
Date
04-23-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Caffeine - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Child
Child Development - drug effects
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diet Records
Eating
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Norway
Overweight - chemically induced - etiology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - etiology
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Weight Gain
Abstract
To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child's weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years.
Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort.
The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
A total of 50?943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy.
Child's body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1?year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories.
Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (200?mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years.
Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy.
PubMed ID
29685923 View in PubMed
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Food patterns and dietary quality associated with organic food consumption during pregnancy; data from a large cohort of pregnant women in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121954
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:612
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Hanne Torjusen
Geir Lieblein
Tormod Næs
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. hanne.torjusen@sifo.no
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:612
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Cohort Studies
Diet
Female
Food Preferences
Food, Organic - utilization
Humans
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
Little is known about the consumption of organic food during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to describe dietary characteristics associated with frequent consumption of organic food among pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
The present study includes 63 808 women who during the years 2002-2007 answered two questionnaires, a general health questionnaire at gestational weeks 15 and a food frequency questionnaire at weeks 17-22. The exploration of food patterns by Principal component analyses (PCA) was followed by ANOVA analyses investigating how these food patterns as well as intake of selected food groups were associated with consumption of organic food.
The first principal component (PC1) identified by PCA, accounting for 12% of the variation, was interpreted as a 'health and sustainability component', with high positive loadings for vegetables, fruit and berries, cooking oil, whole grain bread and cereal products and negative loadings for meat, including processed meat, white bread, and cakes and sweets. Frequent consumption of organic food, which was reported among 9.1% of participants (n?=?5786), was associated with increased scores on the 'health and sustainability component' (p?
Notes
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PubMed ID
22862737 View in PubMed
Less detail

Dietary benzo(a)pyrene intake during pregnancy and birth weight: associations modified by vitamin C intakes in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107027
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:217-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Talita Duarte-Salles
Michelle A Mendez
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: duartesallest@fellows.iarc.fr.
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:217-23
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Ascorbic Acid - pharmacology
Benzo(a)pyrene - administration & dosage - analysis - toxicity
Birth Weight - drug effects
Child
Cohort Studies
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Food - classification
Food Contamination - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System - chemically induced
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Microphthalmos - chemically induced
Multivariate Analysis
Mutagenicity Tests
Norway - epidemiology
Parity
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - toxicity
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Abstract
Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. However, the role of diet, the main source of PAH exposure among non-smokers, remains uncertain.
To assess associations between maternal exposure to dietary intake of the genotoxic PAH benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] during pregnancy and birth weight, exploring potential effect modification by dietary intakes of vitamins C, E and A, hypothesized to influence PAH metabolism.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary B(a)P and nutrient intakes were estimated based on total consumption obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and estimated based on food composition data. Data on infant birth weight were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between dietary B(a)P and birth weight, evaluating potential interactions with candidate nutrients.
The multivariate-adjusted coefficient (95%CI) for birth weight associated with maternal energy-adjusted B(a)P intake was -20.5g (-31.1, -10.0) in women in the third compared with the first tertile of B(a)P intake. Results were similar after excluding smokers. Significant interactions were found between elevated intakes of vitamin C (>85mg/day) and dietary B(a)P during pregnancy for birth weight (P
PubMed ID
24071023 View in PubMed
Less detail

Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107028
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:209-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Eleni Papadopoulou
Ida H Caspersen
Helen E Kvalem
Helle K Knutsen
Talita Duarte-Salles
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Manolis Kogevinas
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: eleni.papadopoulou@fhi.no.
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Oct;60:209-16
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Birth weight
Cohort Studies
Dioxins - analysis
Eating
Female
Fetal Development
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Norway - epidemiology
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - epidemiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Regression Analysis
Seafood - analysis
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - analysis
Young Adult
Abstract
Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI.
PubMed ID
24071022 View in PubMed
Less detail

Role of dietary patterns for dioxin and PCB exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147852
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Nov;53(11):1438-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Helen E Kvalem
Helle K Knutsen
Cathrine Thomsen
Margaretha Haugen
Hein Stigum
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
May Frøshaug
Nina Lohmann
Olaf Päpke
Georg Becher
Jan Alexander
Helle M Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. helen.engelstad@fhi.no
Source
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009 Nov;53(11):1438-51
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Benzofurans - administration & dosage - blood
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - administration & dosage - blood
Polymers - administration & dosage
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
Dietary patterns were related to intake and blood concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and selected non-dioxin-like-PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Intake calculations were based on an extensive food frequency questionnaire and a congener-specific database on concentrations in Norwegian foods. The study (2003) applied a two-step inclusion strategy recruiting representative (n=73) and high consumers (n=111) of seafood and game. Estimated median intakes of sum PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs of the representative and high consumers were 0.78 and 1.25 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/kg bw/day, respectively. Estimated median intakes of ndl-PCBs (sum chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) were 4.26 and 6.40 ng/kg bw/day. The median blood concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs/dl-PCBs were 28.7 and 35.1 pg TEQ/g lipid, and ndl-PCBs (sum of CB-101, 138, 153 and 180) 252 and 299 ng/g lipid. The Spearman correlations between dietary intake and serum concentration were r=0.34 (p=0.017) for dl-compounds and r=0.37 (p
PubMed ID
19842105 View in PubMed
Less detail

Urine flavonoids and plasma carotenoids in the validation of fruit, vegetable and tea intake during pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163632
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):838-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Margaretha Haugen
Salka E Rasmussen
Jan Alexander
Sven Ove Samuelsen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. anne.lise.brantsaeter@fhi.no
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):838-47
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers - blood - urine
Carotenoids - blood
Cohort Studies
Diet
Female
Flavonoids - urine
Fruit - chemistry
Humans
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires - standards
Tea - chemistry
Vegetables - chemistry
Abstract
To validate a new food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for measuring the intake of fruit, vegetables and tea reported by women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Intake of fruits, vegetables and tea estimated by the FFQ was compared with urinary flavonoid excretion, plasma carotenoid concentration and intake measured by a 4-day weighed food diary (FD). The triangular method was applied to calculate FFQ validity coefficients using two independent biomarkers.
One hundred and nineteen women participating in MoBa.
The FFQ estimate of fruit intake was significantly correlated with urine phloretin (r = 0.33), citrus fruit/juice with urine hesperetin (r = 0.44), cooked vegetables with plasma alpha-carotene (r = 0.37), and tea with urine kaempferol (r = 0.41) (P
PubMed ID
17493318 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from the maternal diet may be associated with immunosuppressive effects that persist into early childhood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120128
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jan;51:165-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Solvor Berntsen Stølevik
Unni Cecilie Nygaard
Ellen Namork
Margaretha Haugen
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Ingeborg Aaberge
Kirsti Vainio
Henk van Loveren
Martinus Løvik
Berit Granum
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. solvor.berntsen@fhi.no
Source
Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Jan;51:165-72
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibody formation
Child, Preschool
Dioxins - toxicity
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant
Maternal Exposure
Measles Vaccine - immunology
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Respiratory Tract Infections - chemically induced - epidemiology
Abstract
We investigated whether prenatal exposure from the maternal diet to the toxicants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with the development of immune-related diseases in childhood. Children participating in BraMat, a sub-cohort of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), were followed in the three first years of life using annual questionnaires (0-3years; n=162, 2-3years; n=180), and blood parameters were examined at three years of age (n=114). The maternal intake of the toxicants was calculated using a validated food frequency questionnaire from MoBa. Maternal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with an increased risk of wheeze and more frequent upper respiratory tract infections. Furthermore, maternal exposure to PCBs and dioxins was found to be associated with reduced antibody response to a measles vaccine. No associations were found between prenatal exposure and immunophenotype data, allergic sensitization and vaccine-induced antibody responses other than measles. Our results suggest that prenatal dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins may increase the risk of wheeze and the susceptibility to infectious diseases in early childhood.
PubMed ID
23036451 View in PubMed
Less detail

Vitamin D supplementation and reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150897
Source
Epidemiology. 2009 Sep;20(5):720-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2009
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Lill Trogstad
Jan Alexander
Christine Roth
Per Magnus
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Epidemiology. 2009 Sep;20(5):720-6
Date
Sep-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dietary Supplements
Female
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Parity
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology - prevention & control
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - prevention & control
Questionnaires
Risk assessment
Vitamin D - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Vitamins - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Young Adult
Abstract
A recent study showed that nulliparous women who develop preeclampsia had low concentrations of vitamin D in serum sampled in midpregnancy. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between intake of vitamin D during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.
Participating women answered questionnaires at gestational week 15 (general health questionnaire), at week 22 (food frequency questionnaire), and at week 30 (general health questionnaire). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry. Nutrient intake was calculated from foods and dietary supplements. We estimated relative risks as odds ratios, and controlled for confounding with multiple logistic regression.
The odds ratio of preeclampsia for women with a total vitamin D intake of 15-20 microg/d compared with less than 5 microg/d was 0.76 (95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.95). Considering only the intake of vitamin D from supplements, we found a 27% reduction in risk of preeclampsia (OR = 0.73 [0.58-0.92]) for women taking 10-15 microg/d as compared with no supplements. No association was found between intake of vitamin D from the diet alone and the occurrence of preeclampsia.
These findings are consistent with other reports of a protective effect of vitamin D on preeclampsia development. However, because vitamin D intake is highly correlated with the intake of long chain n-3 fatty acids in the Norwegian diet, further research is needed to disentangle the separate effects of these nutrients.
PubMed ID
19451820 View in PubMed
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Dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy and fetal growth-results from the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118477
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):374-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Talita Duarte-Salles
Hans von Stedingk
Berit Granum
Kristine B Gützkow
Per Rydberg
Margareta Törnqvist
Michelle A Mendez
Gunnar Brunborg
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Margaretha Haugen
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Mar;121(3):374-9
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acrylamide - administration & dosage - pharmacology
Cohort Studies
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Hemoglobins - chemistry
Humans
Norway
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Abstract
Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans.
We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight.
This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes.
Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was -25.7 g (95% CI: -35.9, -15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide- and glycidamide-Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively).
Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23204292 View in PubMed
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Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108262
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:398-407
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Ida H Caspersen
Helle K Knutsen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Jan Alexander
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Helen E Kvalem
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. ida.henriette.caspersen@fhi.no
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:398-407
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Burden
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Dioxins - administration & dosage - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - administration & dosage - analysis - blood
Female
Fish Products - adverse effects - analysis
Food Contamination
Humans
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - administration & dosage - blood
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.
PubMed ID
23911340 View in PubMed
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