Evolution of views on legionellosis is analyzed in the review: from extremely dangerous rare infection to sufficiently widespread severe pneumonia emergence of which is determined by features of ecology and prevalence of natural water microorganism in potentially dangerous water systems created by man. Epidemiologic features of 3 main groups of legionellosis determined according to place of acquisition are discussed: sporadic (community-acquired) legionellosis; nosocomial legionellosis; legionellosis related with trip or travel. Modern principles of organization of epidemiologic surveillance for legionellosis based on the disease's incidence monitoring, observation on circulation of the agent in potentially dangerous water systems, conducting of prophylactic measures aimed at prevention of sporadic cases and epidemic outbreaks. Organization of epidemiological surveillance for Legionella infection in Russian Federation in present time is developed on the basis of international standards, recommendations of World Health Organization, home practical experience from elimination of epidemic outbreaks of legionellosis, and results of Legionella isolation from potentially dangerous water objects on territory of Russia.
For the purpose of justification of the hygienic standard for tetracycline-group antibiotics in the food production established in the Russian Federation at more rigid level, than maximum and admissible levels (MAL) of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the analysis of data of literature on negative nature of impact of low concentration of these antibiotics on an organism and the environmental conditions and risk for health has been performed. Inadequacy of the accepted admissible daily dose (ADD) accepted by The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) on action on selection of resistant E. coli in intestines, for the wide contingent of consumers in connection with ignoring of obvious factors of uncertainty (gastrointestinal dysbiosis, age and individual variations in the microbiota of people synergy with other antibiotics residues in food and indirect impact on an organism through microflora from the natural habitat (resistance genes, modified causative organisms with altered properties).. By the analysis of information received with the use of modern molecular and genetic methods, the role of Subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of tetracyclines as biologically active substances, signaling molecules which, without causing obvious negative consequences in a macroorganism, serve as a major factor of regulation of a transcription in microorganisms and activation of a horizontal gene transfer coding resistance, transferred on conjugative transposons of Tn916-Tn1545 family. Reasonable scientific data on a dominating contribution of minor levels of tetracyclines in globalization in the nature of the most adverse transmissive type of the antibiotic resistance interfaced to formation new bacterial pathotypes, as consequences of irrationally high scales of application in agriculture and strengthened impact on microbic ecosystems of live organisms and objects of habitat are presented. For minimization of this mediated risk for health the need of preservation of operating level of the tetracyclines residues (by
In the article there are designated the state and actual hygiene tasks on the issue of environmental pollution and its effects on health of the population. There was emphasized the growing importance of chemical contamination of various objects of environment--air water, soil, and living environment. There is presented the analysis of data on different types of treatment of municipal waste in selected countries. There were shown the significance of the developed Guidance on risk assessmentfor public health as a toolfor making sound management decisions, prospects of using of the methodology of epidemiological mapping based on geoinformational technology (GIS technology). There was marked an important role of the younger generation of hygienists and health officers in further work on both preservation and improvement the health of the population in their countries, harmonization of scientific and practical solutions of actual problems of hygiene.
In the children and adolescents of the Russian Federation, there is an increase in the incidence of a number of nosological entities, a significant prevalence of chronic diseases, and a reduction in health quality in children. According to the statistical data, in the past 5 years, the overall incidence has increased by 16% in children (aged 0-14 years) (171268 per 100,000 children in 2005) by 18% in adolescents. The incidence of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, anemias, as well diseases of the respiratory, urogenital, and nervous systems, and congenital anomalies continues to increase. Along with socioeconomic causes, this is all due to the negative influence of environmental factors, dietary defects, and, in some cases, poor upbringing and teaching conditions, which do not comply with the hygienic standards and sanitary rules. Under the established conditions, the maintenance and improvement of children's health is the most important state task, the provision of their sanitary and epidemiological welfare being one of the major constituents in its accomplishment. In the past 3 years, the principal state sanitary inspector has issued 17 regulations on different aspects of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of children and adolescents. The preparation of the draft "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" has been currently completed. The Group of Eight Summit has noted that resolute opposition to threats of infectious diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, is vital to the global development and welfare of mankind. It has adopted the resolution that it is essential to make specific achievements in the strengthening international cooperation in the surveillance and monitoring of infectious diseases; to intensify researches; to second the efforts of appropriate international organizations, which are aimed at effectively opposing the outbreaks of avian influenza, and to prepare for a possible pandemic; to intensify measures against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria; to make the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases more accessible to the population; to avert and eliminate the epidemic consequences of natural disasters and man-caused catastrophes. Moreover, Russia has taken a number of obligations to finance appropriate programs. Of particular importance is the implementation of the Priority National Health Project involving additional immunization of the population and primarily children against viral hepatitis B (VHB), rubella, influenza, and poliomyelitis. This year, 4.1 billion rubles has been allocated within the framework of the priority national project for the purchase of vaccines to immunize 10 million children and adolescents against VHB, 5 million children against rubella, 150 thousand children against poliomyelitis with inactivated vaccine, 22 million individuals, including children going to preschool facilities and lst-4th-form pupils, against influenza. The guidelines for action aimed at providing the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, may include as follows: to further improve the normative and methodical bases; to complete the development of the draft "The Principles in the Policy of State in the Healthy Nutrition of the Russian Federation' Population for 2007-2010", "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" and submit them to the Government of the Russian Federation for approval; to introduce preventive educational programs into the general educational establishments in order to mould in children and adolescents healthy lifestyle habits, a conscientious attitude towards to the health of theirs' and those around them.
[On the results of activities of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service for provision of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population of the Russian Federation in 2001 and tasks for 2002].
The requirements are: improved legal basis for work safety and health care of workers; establishment of state sanitary and epidemiologic supervision, system for disclosure and account of occupational diseases in the country and regions; higher role of Research Centers and colleges in specifying scientific and medical documents to help practical medicine. The authors present parameters of occupational morbidity over 10 years (1991-2000) and stress that work conditions and workers' health state did not improve during the period, demonstrate high occurrence of accidents. The authors necessitate more attention to small business enterprises, sketch achievements of Research Centers with RAMSc and Health Ministry in specifying methods and principles to evaluate health risk under exposure to environmental and occupational factors, to set hygienic regulations (including those for complex exposure). The authors formulated main directions of State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Supervision activities: improvement of sanitary laws, scientific basis for sanitary and epidemiologic supervision, skill formation, management measures).
In the article there are adduced the practical aspects of realization of a concept of risk evaluation of the adverse environment factors influencing the health of the Russian population by the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance. Epidemiological data on the influence of the most spread free air contaminants is summarized and a matter of monitoring food products safety is considered. There are outlined arrangements for the successful application of the evaluation of risk of the different environment factors influencing the populations health to practical activities of the State Service of Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of Russia.
Nanoindustry encompasses very different branches of industry today. It should be noted that these are precisely the investigators who deal with researches and developments of nanomaterials will be to the largest measure exposed and hence the likelihood of the potential harm to their health is greatest. To elaborate the special regulations and programs, normative documents and guidelines designed to afford safety and health protection of the employees at work, which should consider the specific characteristics of nanotechnologies. Since 2007, work has proceeded on the safety evaluation of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Nanotechnology as a key priority in the foreseeable future poses a number of problems facing hygiene science to develop hygienic safety criteria for the production, usage, utilization and storage of various nanomaterials and to elaborate procedures for determination of nanoparticles in different media. Russia will be able to rapidly progress in solving the safety problems in emerging nanoindustry and to minimize human health and environmental risks associated with the manufacture and use of nanoproducts.
Nanotechnologies find wide application in industry and medicine. The Russian market of nanotechnologies is at the very beginning of development. Rospotrebnadzor has amassed a wealth of experience in the creation of efficacious systems for estimation and sanitary-epidemiological control of the safety of goods and foodstuffs. The assessment of the safety of nanoparticles and nanomaterials has been carried out since 2007. In 2008-2009, a survey was initiated with a view to developing safety criteria for nanoproducts, nanomaterials, and nanotechnologies. In 2010, research institutions of Rospotrebnadzor were engaged in investigations aimed to develop relevant regulatory and procedural documentation. Studies are underway to work out new highly sensitive methods for the detection, identification and qualitative determination of nanomaterials in the environment, food-staffs, and biological media.
Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".
The State sociohygienic monitoring (SHM) system is one of the most important mechanisms of providing sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being in the population. The March 30, 1999 Federal Law on Sanitary-and-Epidemiological Well-being of the Population" refers SHM to as one of the mechanisms of state regulation in this field and defines as a state system for monitoring the population's health and the environment, for analyzing, evaluating, and predicting them, and for revealing cause-and-effect relations between the population's health status and the influence of environmental factors. Much work has been recently done to establish and manage a federal information fund (FIF) that is a database on the human health status and environment, based on long-term observations and an aggregate of normative legal acts and reference materials on the analysis of prediction and determination of cause-and-effect relations between the human health status and the influence of environmental factors. FIF obtains information from a great many sources, including databases of state executive authorities. This information is open and available to the institutions and organizations involved in the establishment of FIF. The elaboration and introduction of new, more informative indices for SHM management at the present stage are one of the urgent tasks. In accordance with the May 28, 2000 decision of the Board of the Ministry of Health of Russia, with the 2003-2004 regulatory documents of the Ministry of Health of Russia, much work to improve the list of SHM indices has been under way. The draft list of SHM indices is harmonized with the indices of the European SHN information system, with the list of social diseases, approved by the Russian Federation's Government Regulation No. 715 dated December 1, 2004, and the list of national security threat indices (A 21-2162 dated August 29, 2003). The draft list has been considered by the specialists of the Federal Service for Surveillance of Consumers' Rights Protection and Human Well-being; comments have been taken into account. The draft is under reconsideration and will require approval in the near future.