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High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229977
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Nov;43(5):641-646
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1989
Author
E. Dewailly
A. Nantel
J P Weber
F. Meyer
Author Affiliation
Community Health Department, CHUL, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada.
Source
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Nov;43(5):641-646
Date
Nov-1989
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Humans
Inuits
Male
Milk, Human - analysis
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Quebec
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 874.
PubMed ID
2508801 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the health risk associated with exposure to chloroform in indoor swimming pools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196697
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Oct 27;61(4):225-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-27-2000
Author
B. Lévesque
P. Ayotte
R. Tardif
G. Charest-Tardif
E. Dewailly
D. Prud'Homme
G. Gingras
S. Allaire
R. Lavoie
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada. blevesque@cspq.qc.ca
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000 Oct 27;61(4):225-43
Date
Oct-27-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects
Child
Chloroform - adverse effects - pharmacokinetics
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Lung - drug effects - metabolism
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - chemically induced
Quebec
Risk assessment
Skin Absorption
Swimming
Swimming Pools - standards
Abstract
The exposure of swimmers to chloroform (CHCl3) was investigated in indoor swimming pools of the Quebec City region along with the associated carcinogenic risk. Six training sessions involving 52 competition swimmers (11 to 20 yr old) were conducted in 3 different pools, while 12 adult leisure swimmers attended 5 sessions, each held in a different pool. For each session, water and ambient air CHCl3 concentrations were measured and CHCl3 levels in alveolar air samples (CHCl3 ALV) collected from swimmers prior to entering the swimming pool premises and after 15, 35, and 60 min of swimming. Mean water concentrations varied from 18 microg/L to 80 microg/L, while those in air ranged from 78 microg/m3 to 329 microg/m3. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that CHCl3 ALV values in competition swimmers were strongly correlated to ambient air and water levels, and to a lesser degree to the intensity of training. Only ambient air concentration was positively correlated to CHCl3 ALV in the leisure group. Concentrations of CHCl3 metabolites bound to hepatic and renal macromolecules, estimated using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, were 1.6 and 1.9 times higher for the competition swimmers than for the leisure swimmers, respectively. The highest hepatic concentration predicted in competition swimmers, 0.22 microg CHCl3 equivalents/kg of tissue, was at least 10,000 times lower than the smallest no observed effect level for liver tumors in animals. Data indicate that the safety margin is therefore very large, for competitive swimmers as well as for leisure swimmers.
PubMed ID
11071317 View in PubMed
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Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99174
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Aug 20;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-20-2010
Author
S G Donaldson
J. Van Oostdam
C. Tikhonov
M. Feeley
B. Armstrong
P. Ayotte
O. Boucher
W. Bowers
L. Chan
F. Dallaire
R. Dallaire
E. Dewailly
J. Edwards
G M Egeland
J. Fontaine
C. Furgal
T. Leech
E. Loring
G. Muckle
T. Nancarrow
D. Pereg
P. Plusquellec
M. Potyrala
O. Receveur
R G Shearer
Author Affiliation
Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, HECSB, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9; Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Aug 20;
Date
Aug-20-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk management decision that will be the most beneficial in Arctic communities.
PubMed ID
20728918 View in PubMed
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Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263579
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
n−3 Observable Adverse Effect Level; NCDS, Nunavik Chil Health Committee; Hg, mercury; MeHg, methylmercur ☆ This manuscript is dedicated to Dr Éric Dewailly, who expert in the field of environmental and human health in ⁎ Corresponding author at: Axe santé des populations Québec G1V 2M2, QC, Canada
  1 document  
Author
M. Lemire
M. Kwan
A E Laouan-Sidi
G. Muckle
C. Pirkle
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
1238368
Keywords
Animals
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Female
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Methylmercury compounds - analysis
Quebec
Selenium - analysis
Abstract
Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n-3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood. The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n-3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (µg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species. In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (= 8 µg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women.
PubMed ID
25135671 View in PubMed
Documents

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Seroprevalence of Seven Zoonotic Infections in Nunavik, Quebec (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101280
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Jul 20;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-20-2011
Author
V. Messier
B. Lévesque
J-F Proulx
L. Rochette
B. Serhir
M. Couillard
B J Ward
M D Libman
E. Dewailly
S. Déry
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Axe santé des populations et environnement, CHUQ-CHUL, Québec, QC, Canada Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval, QC, Canada Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, QC, Canada Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services, Kuujjuaq, QC, Canada Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada National Reference Center for Parasitology, McGill University Tropical Diseases Centre, Montréal, QC, Canada Montréal General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.
Source
Zoonoses Public Health. 2011 Jul 20;
Date
Jul-20-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
In Nunavik, common practices and food habits such as consumption of raw meat and untreated water place the Inuit at risk for contracting zoonotic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic infections among the permanent residents of Nunavik. The study was conducted in the fall 2004 as part of the Nunavik Health Survey. Blood samples from adults aged 18-74 years (n = 917) were collected and analysed for the presence of antibodies against Trichinella spp., Toxocara canis, Echinococcus granulosus, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp. and Francisella tularensis. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, traditional activities, drinking water supply and nutrition was gathered using english/inuktitut bilingual questionnaires. The chi-squared test was used to evaluate associations between seropositivity and other measured variables. Statistically significant variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression model to control for confounding factors. Estimated seroprevalences were 8.3% for E. granulosus, 3.9% for T. canis, 5.9% for Leptospira spp. and 18.9% for F. tularensis. Seroprevalence was =1% for Trichinella spiralis, Brucella spp. and C. burnetii. For most infections, seropositivity tended to increase with age. In multivariate analyses, seroprevalence was positively (i.e. directly) associated with age and residence in the Ungava coast area for F. tularensis; age and residence in the Hudson coast area for T. canis; female gender, lower level of schooling and frequent cleaning of water reservoirs for E. granulosus. No risk factor for Leptospira spp. infection was identified. No associations were detected with regards to food habits or environmental exposures. A small but significant portion of the Nunavik population has serologic evidence of exposure to at least one of the pathogenic microorganisms investigated. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms for transmission of zoonotic infections and their potential reservoirs in Nunavik.
PubMed ID
21824376 View in PubMed
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Prenatal exposure of Canadian children to polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature205209
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89 Suppl 1:S20-5, 22-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
G. Muckle
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval. gmuckle@cspq.qc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1998 May-Jun;89 Suppl 1:S20-5, 22-7
Language
English
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
American Native Continental Ancestry Group
Aroclors - adverse effects - blood
Canada - epidemiology
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Mercury - adverse effects - blood
Population Surveillance
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Umbilical Cord - blood supply
Abstract
This article documents the exposure to environmental contaminants within sub-groups of the Canadian population who are considered to be at risk as a result of the food they eat. We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mercury in the blood drawn from the umbilical cords of newborns in various Aboriginal communities, in a coastal community and in the general population. Average concentrations of Aroclor 1260 ranged between 0.3 and 2.0 micrograms/L and were clearly highest among the Inuit of Nunavik and Baffin Island and among the Montagnais of Quebec. In these groups, we found contaminant levels in the blood of newborns that exceed the threshold beyond which cognitive impairments are expected to result. Average concentrations of mercury ranged between 1.0 and 14.2 micrograms/L; the Inuit of Nunavik and the NWT exhibited the highest exposure levels. A portion of the Nunavik and NWT Inuit had concentrations beyond the critical threshold for the appearance of neurological consequences. The variations in exposure levels resulted from the different nutritional practices of these Canadian sub-groups.
PubMed ID
9654788 View in PubMed
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Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4827
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):69-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-26-2001
Author
P. Bjerregaard
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
T. Pars
L. Ferron
G. Mulvad
Author Affiliation
Section for Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark. p.bjerrgaard@dadlnet.dk
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2001 Jan 26;62(2):69-81
Date
Jan-26-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada
Case-Control Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Food Habits - ethnology
Greenland
Health Surveys
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Insecticides - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Inuits
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Pesticide Residues - adverse effects - analysis - blood
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Seafood - adverse effects - analysis
Sex Distribution
Abstract
High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 16 pesticides, including 5 toxaphene congeners, were recorded in a random population survey of 408 adult indigenous Greenlanders. In a two-stage design, the survey response rate was 66%, and 90% of those randomly selected for blood testing participated. This was equivalent to an overall response rate of 59%. The median plasma concentration of the sum of PCB congeners was 13.3 microg/L; the lipid-adjusted value was 2109 microg/kg. The PCB concentration was twice as high as among the Inuit of Nunavik, Canada, 25 times higher than in a control group from southern Canada, and several times higher than the values found in European studies. Concentrations were similarly elevated for all PCB congeners and pesticides. The PCB congener pattern was similar to previous observations from the eastern Canadian Arctic and Greenland. Concentrations showed statistically significant positive associations with age, marine diet, and male sex in multiple linear regression analyses. The exceptionally high plasma concentrations of several organochlorines among the Inuit of Greenland are attributed to a lifelong high intake of seafood, in particular marine mammals. Concentrations of PCB adjusted for the consumption of marine food increased until approximately 40 yr of age, which is equivalent to the birth cohorts of the early 1950s. The age pattern indicates that bioaccumulation of PCB started in the 1950s, which is a likely date for the introduction of the compounds into the Arctic environment.
PubMed ID
11209822 View in PubMed
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Susceptibility to infections and immune status in Inuit infants exposed to organochlorines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4839
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Mar;108(3):205-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2000
Author
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
S. Bruneau
S. Gingras
M. Belles-Isles
R. Roy
Author Affiliation
Unité de Recherche en Santé Publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Pavillon CHUL, Beauport, Québec, Canada. edewailly@cspq.qc.ca
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Mar;108(3):205-11
Date
Mar-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Bottle Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Breast Feeding - statistics & numerical data
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - adverse effects - analysis
Dieldrin - adverse effects - analysis
Disease Susceptibility - ethnology
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hexachlorobenzene - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infection - blood - ethnology - etiology - immunology
Insecticides - adverse effects - analysis
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Otitis Media - blood - ethnology - etiology - immunology
Population Surveillance
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
We investigated whether organochlorine exposure is associated with the incidence of infectious diseases in Inuit infants from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). We compiled the number of infectious disease episodes during the first year of life for 98 breast-fed and 73 bottle-fed infants. Concentrations of organochlorines were measured in early breast milk samples and used as surrogates to prenatal exposure levels. Immune system parameters were determined in venous blood samples collected from infants at 3, 7, and 12 months of age. Otitis media was the most frequent disease, with 80. 0% of breast-fed and 81.3% of bottle-fed infants experiencing at least one episode during the first year of life. During the second follow-up period, the risk of otitis media increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, and dieldrin. The relative risk (RR) for 4- to 7-month-old infants in the highest tertile of p, p'-DDE exposure as compared to infants in the lowest tertile was 1. 87 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-3.26]. The RR of otitis media over the entire first year of life also increased with prenatal exposure to p,p'-DDE (RR, 1.52; CI, 1.05-2.22) and hexachlorobenzene (RR, 1.49; CI, 1.10-2.03). Furthermore, the RR of recurrent otitis media ( [Greater/equal to] 3 episodes) increased with prenatal exposure to these compounds. No clinically relevant differences were noted between breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to immunologic parameters, and prenatal organochlorine exposure was not associated with immunologic parameters. We conclude that prenatal organochlorine exposure could be a risk factor for acute otitis media in Inuit infants.
PubMed ID
10706525 View in PubMed
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The Inuit diet. Fatty acids and antioxidants, their role in ischemic heart disease, and exposure to organochlorines and heavy metals. An international study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5180
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:20-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
G. Mulvad
H S Pedersen
J C Hansen
E. Dewailly
E. Jul
M. Pedersen
Y. Deguchi
W P Newman
G T Malcom
R E Tracy
J P Middaugh
P. Bjerregaard
Author Affiliation
Center of Primary Health Care, Nuuk, Greenland.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:20-4
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - metabolism
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alaska - ethnology
Antioxidants - administration & dosage
Blood Pressure - physiology
Dietary Fats - administration & dosage
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Fatty Acids - metabolism
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated - metabolism
Female
Greenland - ethnology
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - adverse effects
Inuits
Male
Metals, Heavy - adverse effects
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - ethnology - metabolism - prevention & control
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
Traditional food is culturally, economically and nutritionally important for the Greenlandic Inuit people. In the 1970s the preventive effect of marine fat on cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and atherosclerosis was described. The low incidence of ischemic heart disease among Greenlanders has been related to the high intake of marine food. Since 1990 routine autopsies have taken place in two towns in Greenland, Nuuk and Ilulissat. The autopsies represent 26% of the total number of deaths in these two towns. Samples have been collected from 104 autopsies. International cooperative studies have analysed specimens in relation to ischemic heart disease as a benefit related to diet, as well as the level of heavy metals and organochlorine in organs as a risk related to diet. High amounts of mono-unsaturated and Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid were found in adipose tissue. Liver analyses of selenium have confirmed the expected high intake among Greenlanders. Reduced atherosclerotic lesions were found in the coronary arteries. Blood pressure levels calculated from renovascholopathia of hypertension indicate prevailing levels similar to those in industrialized countries. Some factors in Greenland may be protecting the coronary arteries, thereby of setting the expected effect of hypertension. The level of methyl mercury in organs is generally high. PCB concentrations found in organs of Greenlanders are higher than among other populations. Health and risk effects of the traditional foods need further investigation.
PubMed ID
8871682 View in PubMed
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Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203095
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;54(1):40-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
M. Rhainds
P. Levallois
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé Publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;54(1):40-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Birth weight
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Gestational Age
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - blood
Lead - blood
Male
Mercury - blood
Neonatal Screening
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec
Abstract
We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.
PubMed ID
10025415 View in PubMed
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Monitoring of umbilical cord blood lead levels and sources assessment among the Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4471
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2003 Sep;60(9):693-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2003
Author
B. Lévesque
J-F Duchesne
C. Gariépy
M. Rhainds
P. Dumas
A M Scheuhammer
J-F Proulx
S. Déry
G. Muckle
F. Dallaire
E. Dewailly
Author Affiliation
Unité de recherche en santé publique, Centre de recherche du CHUL-CHUQ, 945, avenue Wolfe, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada. Benoit.Levesque@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2003 Sep;60(9):693-5
Date
Sep-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Firearms
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Lead - blood
Neonatal Screening
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
Analyses completed on samples collected between 1993 and 1996 showed that about 7% of 475 Inuit newborns from northern Quebec (Canada) had a cord blood lead concentration equal to or greater than 0.48 micromol/l, an intervention level adopted by many governmental agencies. A comparison between the cord blood lead isotope ratios of Inuit and southern Quebec newborns showed that lead sources for these populations were different. Our investigation suggests that lead shots used for game hunting were an important source of lead exposure in the Inuit population. A cohort study conducted in three Inuit communities shows a significant decrease of cord blood lead concentrations after a public health intervention to reduce the use of lead shot. Lead shot ammunition can be a major and preventable source of human exposure to lead.
PubMed ID
12937194 View in PubMed
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Quality of diet is associated with insulin resistance in the Cree (Eeyouch) indigenous population of northern Québec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266327
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jan;25(1):85-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
L. Johnson-Down
M E Labonte
I D Martin
L J S Tsuji
E. Nieboer
E. Dewailly
G. Egeland
M. Lucas
Source
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Jan;25(1):85-92
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Biological Markers - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology - metabolism
Diet - adverse effects - ethnology
Female
Health Transition
Humans
Indians, North American
Insulin Resistance - ethnology
Male
Middle Aged
Nutrition Surveys
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology - etiology - metabolism
Prevalence
Principal Component Analysis
Quebec - epidemiology
Residence Characteristics
Young Adult
Abstract
Indigenous people worldwide have a greater disease burden than their non-aboriginal counterparts with health challenges that include increased obesity and higher prevalence of diabetes. We investigate the relationships of dietary patterns with nutritional biomarkers, selected environmental contaminants and measures of insulin resistance in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec Canada.
The cross-sectional 'Nituuchischaayihitaau Aschii: A Multi-Community Environment-and-Health Study in Eeyou Istchee' recruited 835 adult participants (=18 y) from 7 communities in the James Bay region of northern Québec. The three dietary patterns identified by principal component analysis (PCA) were: inland and coastal patterns with loadings on traditional foods, and a junk food pattern with high-fat and high-sugar foods. We investigated dietary patterns scores (in quantiles) in relation with nutritional biomarkers, environmental contaminants, anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) was used as surrogate markers of insulin resistance. ANCOVA ascertained relationships between dietary patterns relationship and outcomes. Greater scores for the traditional patterns were associated with higher levels of n-3 fatty acids, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (P trend
PubMed ID
25240691 View in PubMed
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Exposure of remote maritime populations to coplanar PCBs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219152
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jan;102 Suppl 1:205-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1994
Author
E. Dewailly
J J Ryan
C. Laliberté
S. Bruneau
J P Weber
S. Gingras
G. Carrier
Author Affiliation
Community Health Department, CHUL, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jan;102 Suppl 1:205-9
Date
Jan-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Benzofurans - analysis - blood
Environmental Exposure
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Inuits
Male
Milk, human - chemistry
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Quebec
Seafood
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin - administration & dosage - analogs & derivatives - analysis - blood
Abstract
Two remote maritime populations were evaluated for their biological exposure to organochlorines in 1989-1990. Because of their high intake of seafood, these two populations have high biological levels. One hundred nine breast milk samples from Inuit women from Arctic Québec were analyzed to determine levels of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho, mono-ortho, and di-ortho congeners. Total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEqs) for PCBs were 3.5 times higher in Inuit milk samples than in 96 Caucasian milk samples. Among the 185 fishermen from the Lower North Shore of the Gulf of the St. Lawrence River, we evaluated 10 highly exposed fishermen for their coplanar PCB blood levels. Total TEqs were 900 ng/kg for highly exposed individuals with 36 ng/kg for controls. In these two nonoccupationally exposed populations, coplanar PCBs make a larger contribution to the TEq than PCDDs and PCDFs. However, the mono-ortho penta CB No. 118 is the major contributor for the total toxicity.
Notes
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Cites: Crit Rev Toxicol. 1990;21(1):51-882124811
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):75-1341514106
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1991 Oct;47(4):491-81786431
Cites: Food Addit Contam. 1991 May-Jun;8(3):351-611778271
PubMed ID
8187710 View in PubMed
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Weighing contaminant risks and nutrient benefits of country food in Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213318
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:13-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
C. Blanchet
J. Grondin
S. Bruneau
B. Holub
G. Carrier
Author Affiliation
Environmental Health Service, Centre for Public Health, Beauport, Québec, Canada.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1996;55 Suppl 1:13-9
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Diet
Energy intake
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination - prevention & control
Humans
Middle Aged
Nutritive Value
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Quebec
Risk assessment
Rural Population
Abstract
In view of the levels of human exposure to priority contaminants assessed in previous surveys in Nunavik, a series of risk reduction scenarios were produced to modelize the effects of different potential health advisories on limiting exposure of women of reproductive age to these contaminants, as well as on maximizing nutritional benefits derived from the consumption of country food. This paper presents part of the results, in particular as regards effects of reducing PCB intake by 46%, 65% and 86%.
PubMed ID
8871681 View in PubMed
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Analysis of hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds in whole blood from Canadian inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6761
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
C D Sandau
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
J. Duffe
R J Norstrom
Author Affiliation
Centre for Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jul;108(7):611-6
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Humans
Hydroxylation
Indians, North American
Male
Middle Aged
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
In this study, we identified the main hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and other chlorinated phenolic compounds and we determined their relative concentrations in whole blood from 13 male and 17 female Inuit from northern Quebec, Canada, and from a pooled whole blood sample from southern Quebec. We also determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Total OH-PCB concentrations were variable among the Inuit samples, ranging over 2 orders of magnitude (0.117-11.6 ng/g whole blood wet weight). These concentrations were equal to and up to 70 times those found for the southern Quebec pooled whole blood sample. Geometric mean concentrations of total OH-PCBs were 1.73 and 1.01 ng/g whole blood for Inuit men and women, respectively, and 0.161 ng/g whole blood for the southern population pool. There are limited data available for comparison, but the levels of OH-PCBs in Inuit are higher than those previously reported in the literature for other populations. There was a significant correlation (p
PubMed ID
10903613 View in PubMed
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Carbon monoxide in indoor ice skating rinks: evaluation of absorption by adult hockey players.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229175
Source
Am J Public Health. 1990 May;80(5):594-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1990
Author
B. Lévesque
E. Dewailly
R. Lavoie
D. Prud'Homme
S. Allaire
Author Affiliation
Département de santé communautaire, Centre hospitalier de l'Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
Source
Am J Public Health. 1990 May;80(5):594-8
Date
May-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorption
Adult
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - analysis
Carbon Monoxide - analysis - metabolism
Carboxyhemoglobin - analysis
Hockey
Humans
Least-Squares Analysis
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Reference Values
Regression Analysis
Smoking
Abstract
We evaluated alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels of 122 male, adult hockey players active in recreational leagues of the Quebec City region (Canada), before and after 10 weekly 90-minute games in 10 different rinks. We also determined exposure by quantifying the average CO level in the rink during the games. Other variables documented included age, pulmonary function, aerobic capacity, and smoking status. Environmental concentrations varied from 1.6 to 131.5 parts per million (ppm). We examined the absorption/exposure relationship using a simple linear regression model. In low CO exposure levels, physical exercise lowered the alveolar CO concentration. However, we noted that for each 10 ppm of CO in the ambient air, the players had adsorbed enough CO to raise their carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels by 1 percent. This relationship was true both for smokers and non-smokers. We suggest that an average environmental concentration of 20 ppm of CO for the duration of a hockey game (90 minutes) should be reference limit not to be exceeded in indoor skating rinks.
Notes
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Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1973 Jul;79(1):46-504578639
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Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1973 Dec;27(6):349-544752694
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1975 Oct;65(10):1087-901163706
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Cites: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976 May;113(5):587-6001267262
Cites: J Air Pollut Control Assoc. 1978 Aug;28(8):776-9690339
Cites: Am Heart J. 1981 Feb;101(2):154-77468415
Cites: Can J Public Health. 1983 Jul-Aug;74(4):261-56627181
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Cites: Va Med. 1989 Feb;116(2):74-62929167
Cites: Ann Intern Med. 1972 Nov;77(5):669-764117097
PubMed ID
2327538 View in PubMed
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Exposure of the Inuit population of Nunavik (Arctic Quebec) to lead and mercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3471
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(4):350-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
E. Dewailly
P. Ayotte
S. Bruneau
G. Lebel
P. Levallois
J P Weber
Author Affiliation
Unité de Recherche en Santé Publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Beauport, Canada.
Source
Arch Environ Health. 2001 Jul-Aug;56(4):350-7
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Analysis of Variance
Animals
Diet - adverse effects
Diet Surveys
Ducks
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Female
Geese
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Lead - blood
Lead Poisoning - blood - ethnology
Life Style
Male
Mercury - blood
Mercury Poisoning - blood - ethnology
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Seafood - analysis
Seals, Earless
Sex Distribution
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Socioeconomic Factors
Whales
Abstract
The authors conducted a survey during 1992 to evaluate blood levels of lead and mercury in Inuit adults of Nunavik (Arctic Quebec, Canada). Blood samples obtained from 492 participants (209 males and 283 females; mean age = 35 yr) were analyzed for lead and total mercury; mean (geometric) concentrations were 0.42 micromol/l (range = 0.04-2.28 micromol/l) and 79.6 nmol/l (range = 4-560 nmol/l), respectively. Concentrations of omega-3 fatty acid in plasma phospholipids--a biomarker of marine food consumption--were correlated with mercury (r = .56, p
PubMed ID
11572279 View in PubMed
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Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 enzyme activity and DNA adducts in placenta of women environmentally exposed to organochlorines.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3494
Source
Environ Res. 1999 May;80(4):369-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1999
Author
J. Lagueux
D. Pereg
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
G G Poirier
Author Affiliation
Health and Environment Unit, CHUQ, CHUL Research Center and Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Québec, G1V 4G2, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 1999 May;80(4):369-82
Date
May-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analysis of Variance
Biological Markers - analysis
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - metabolism
DNA - genetics - metabolism
DNA Adducts - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Enzyme Induction - drug effects
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - adverse effects - blood
Inuits
Placenta - drug effects - metabolism
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Pregnancy - blood
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Abstract
Organochlorine compounds bioaccumulate in fishing and hunting products included in the daily diet of many coastal populations. Prenatal and perinatal exposure to large doses of PCBs and PCDFs was shown to be deleterious on fetal and neonatal development, but information is scarce regarding possible effects of chronic low-dose exposure. This study investigates biomarkers of early effects in newborns from women exposed to organochlorines through the consumption of species from marine food chains, in two remote coastal regions of the province of Quebec (Canada). A CYP1A1-dependent enzyme activity (EROD) and DNA adducts were measured in placenta samples obtained from 30 women living on the Lower-North-Shore of the St. Lawrence River and 22 Inuit women from Nunavik (Arctic Quebec). These biomarkers were also assessed in 30 women from a Quebec urban center (Sept-Iles) as a reference group. Prenatal organochlorine exposure was determined by measuring these compounds in umbilical cord plasma. The amount of bulky polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-related DNA adducts was significantly greater in the Lower-North-Shore group than in the reference group. Placental EROD activity and the amount of less bulky (OC-related) DNA adducts were significantly higher in the Nunavik group than in the reference group. For both biomarkers, smoking was found to be an important confounding factor. Organochlorine exposure was significantly associated with EROD activity and DNA adduct levels when stratifying for smoking. This study confirms that CYP1A1 enzyme induction and DNA adducts in placental tissue constitute useful biomarkers of early effects induced by environmental exposure to organochlorines.
PubMed ID
10330311 View in PubMed
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