Measures of prenatal environmental exposures are important, and amniotic fluid levels may directly reflect fetal exposures during hypothesized windows of vulnerability.
We aimed to detect various phthalate metabolites and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in human amniotic fluid, to study temporal exposure trends, and to estimate potential associations with gestational week of amniocentesis and maternal age and parity at amniocentesis.
We studied 300 randomly selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models.
We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational week of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity.
Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22.
Animal studies indicate that some phthalate metabolites may harm female reproductive function.
We assessed the associations between exposure to phthalate metabolites and pregnancy loss.
Using a previously established cohort of couples planning their first pregnancy, we analyzed four primary and two oxidized secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples collected on day 10 after the first day of the last menstrual period before conception occurred (n = 128) and during the previous cycle (if any, n = 111). Subclinical embryonal loss was identified by repeated measurement of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin, and information on clinical spontaneous abortions was obtained by telephone interview with the mother.
Pregnancy loss (n = 48) was increased among women with urinary concentration of monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in the upper tertile in the conception sample compared with women in the lowest tertile [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 7.6]. The corresponding OR for subclinical embryonal loss (n = 32) was 40.7 (95% CI: 4.5, 369.5).
The phthalate metabolite MEHP was associated with higher occurrence of pregnancy loss. Because this is the first human study to show this association and the sample size is small, the findings need to be corroborated in independent studies.
Cites: Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):118-3018194284
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The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomarkers of exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), a widely used industrial chemical. For this purpose, differences in toxicokinetics between men and women and between pure and water-mixed NMP were evaluated after dermal absorption.
Six female and six male volunteers (groups 1 and 2) were topically exposed for 6 hours to 300 mg of NMP. An additional group of six male volunteers (group 3) was exposed to 300 mg of NMP in a 50% water solution. Blood and urine were sampled before, during, and up to 9 days after the exposure. Plasma and urine were analyzed using mass spectrometry.
For groups 1 and 2, 16% and 18% of the applied dose were recovered in the urine as the sum of NMP and its metabolites. For group 3, 4% was recovered. The maximal concentration of 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) was 10, 8.1, and 2.1 micromol/l for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively, in plasma and 420, 360 and 62 micromol/l in urine adjusted for density. For 2-hydroxy-N-methylsuccinimide (2-HMSI), the maximal concentration was 5.4, 4.5, and 1.3 micromol/l for groups 1, 2 and 3, in plasma, respectively, and 110, 82 and 19 micromol/l in urine adjusted for density. For 5-HNMP there was a difference in time to reach the maximal concentration depending on whether pure NMP or 50% NMP in water was used. No such difference was seen for 2-HMSI. The differences in kinetics between male and female volunteers were small.
Preferably 2-HMSI should be used as the biomarker of exposure to NMP.
Association of maternal serum concentrations of 2,2', 4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels with birth weight, gestational age and preterm births in Inuit and European populations.
Epidemiological studies on the association between maternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fetal growth alteration report inconsistent findings which weights in favor of additional studies.
Blood samples were collected from interviewed pregnant women in Greenland (572), Kharkiv (611) and Warsaw (258) and were analyzed for CB-153 and p,p'-DDE by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data on birth weight, gestational age and preterm birth were obtained for 1322 singleton live births. We examined the association between natural log-transformed serum POPs concentration and birth weight and gestational age using multiple linear regression and the association with prematurity using logistic regression controlling for potential confounding factors.
The median serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE were for Inuit mothers 105.6 and 298.9, for Kharkiv mothers 27.0 and 645.4 and for Warsaw mothers 10.7 and 365.2 ng/g lipids, respectively. Increase in CB-153 concentration by one unit on the log scale in Inuit mothers serum was associated with significant decrease in infant birth weight of -59 g and gestational age by -0.2 week. Decreases observed in the cohorts in Kharkiv (-10 g and -0.1 week) and in Warsaw (-49 g and -0.2 week) were not statistically significant. Increase in p,p'-DDE concentration by one unit on the log scale was associated with a statistically significant decrease in infant birth weight of -39.4 g and -104.3 g and shortening of gestational age of -0.2 week and -0.6 week in the Inuit and Warsaw cohorts, respectively. In the Kharkiv cohort decrease in birth weight (-30.5 g) was not significant, however a shortening of gestational age of -0.2 week per increase in p,p'-DDE concentration by one unit on the log scale was of the borderline significance. There was no significant association between CB-153 and p,p'-DDE concentrations and risk of preterm birth however, in all cohorts the odds ratio was above 1.
In utero exposure to POPs may reduce birth weight and gestational age of newborns however, new insights as to why results vary across studies were not apparent.
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Exposure to diisocyanates is a known occupational hazard. One method for monitoring occupational exposure is by analyzing biomarkers in hydrolyzed urine and plasma. The half-life of the biomarkers in plasma is about 3 weeks, and the urinary elimination is divided into one fast (hours) and one slow phases (weeks). Polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase enzymes (GST) is earlier shown to modify the metabolism. The aim of the study was to assess whether biomarkers of exposure in urine collected after two non-exposed days correlate with levels in plasma and whether they can be used as a measure for long-term exposure to aromatic diisocyanates and further whether polymorphisms in GST influenced the correlations.
Biomarkers of exposure was analyzed in urine and blood samples collected from 24 workers, exposed to at least one of toluene-, methylenediphenyl- or naphthalene diisocyanate, on a Monday morning after at least two unexposed days. Moreover, genotype was determined for 19 of the workers.
The corresponding specific gravity-adjusted biomarkers in urine and plasma levels for the different diisocyanates correlated well (r between 0.689 and 0.988). When taking all samples together, the correlation coefficient was 0.926. Polymorphism in the GSTM1 genotype seemed to modify the association.
Urine collected after two unexposed days can possibly be used as long-term biomarker of exposure for aromatic diisocyanates.
Telomeres are critical to maintain the integrity of the chromosomes, and telomere abnormalities are important features of carcinogenesis. Telomere length differs among individuals due to genetic and environmental factors. Aiming to examine the relationship between DNA-damaging agents and average telomere length in peripheral blood, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 157 workers working in the rubber industry in Sweden.
N-nitrosamines were measured in air by personal sampling on Thermosorb/N tubes and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for 60 individuals. Based on a similar working situation, the exposure was estimated for all workers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured as the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine by LC. Carbon disulphide (CS2) was measured as the metabolite 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine by LC/MS/MS. Toluidines (orto-, meta-, and para-) were measured in urine by gas chromatography (GC)/MS. The average telomere length in peripheral blood was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
There was a reduction in telomere length with increasing exposure to N-nitrosamines in air [measured (N=60) N-nitrosamines ?-coefficient= -10, (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -17- -1.9) P=0.016; estimated (N=157) N-nitrosamines ?-coefficient = -5.3, (95% CI -9.5- -0.97) P=0.016]. Also, there were negative associations between para-toluidine [?-coefficient= -0.031 (95% CI -0.055- -0.0063) P=0.014], as well as age ?-coefficient= -0.005 (95% CI -0.007- -0.002) P=0.001] and telomere length. There were no strong associations between other exposures and telomere length nor did smoking modify the effect.
N-nitrosamines exposure may lead to telomere shortening.
Workers in the rubber industry are exposed to a complex mixture of hazardous substances and have increased risk of developing several diseases. However, there is no up to date survey examining the exposure in the Swedish rubber industry. One of the toxic compounds in the industry is carbon disulfide (CS(2)), which is biotransformed to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). TTCA is used as a biomarker of CS(2) exposure, but there seem to exist inter- and intraindividual variability; which could partly be due to genetic variation. The aim of the study was to determine TTCA levels and the modifying effects of glutathione-related genes in a group of Swedish rubber workers.
Urine was collected from both exposed workers and controls during the last 4 h of the work shift. The level of TTCA in urine was analyzed by liquid chromatograpy tandem mass spectrometry. Genotyping of the single nucleotide polymorphisms GCLC-129, GCLM-588, GSTA1-52, GSTP1-105 and GSTP1-114 and deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were performed with real-time PCR or ordinary PCR and subsequent agarose electrophoresis.
The highest levels of TTCA were found among workers curing with salt bath, hot air, microwaves or fluid-bed, and lower levels were found among workers curing with injection and compression molding. Furthermore, with respect to GSTM1 and GSTT1 there were statistically significant differences in TTCA-levels between genotypes among exposed workers but not among controls. The other five polymorphisms had no impact on the TTCA levels.
The present study demonstrates relatively high levels of TTCA in urine from Swedish rubber workers. Polymorphisms in GSTM1 and GSTT1 modify the levels.
The aim of the present study was to examine the body burden of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) in blood among Swedish adults and the association between blood levels, diet and other lifestyle factors. The study was based on a subgroup (n=273) of the national survey Riksmaten 2010-2011 (4-day food records and questionnaire). Lead, Hg, and Cd were measured in whole blood, and Cd additionally in urine, by mass or fluorescence spectrometry methods. The median values (5-95th percentiles) of the metals in blood were as follows; Pb: 13.4 (5.8-28.6) µg/L, Hg: 1.13 (0.31-3.45) µg/L, and Cd: 0.19 (0.09-1.08) µg/L. All three metals increased with increasing age. Lead levels in blood were positively associated with intakes of game and alcohol, Hg was related to fish intake, and blood Cd related to smoking and low iron stores and to a low meat intake. Body burdens of the studied metals were generally below health based reference values, but several individuals had blood Pb levels above the reference point for possible nephrotoxic and developmental neurotoxic effects. As health effects cannot be excluded, individuals with high Pb exposure should aim at decreasing their body burden, both from food and from other exposure routes.
Phthalates are used as plasticizers in soft polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in a large number of consumer products. Because of reported health risks, diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) has been introduced as a replacement for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soft PVC. This raises concerns because animal data suggest that DiNP may have antiandrogenic properties similar to those of DEHP. The anogenital distance (AGD)--the distance from the anus to the genitals--has been used to assess reproductive toxicity.
The objective of this study was to examine the associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and AGD in Swedish infants.
AGD was measured in 196 boys at 21 months of age, and first-trimester urine was analyzed for 10 phthalate metabolites of DEP (diethyl phthalate), DBP (dibutyl phthalate), DEHP, BBzP (benzylbutyl phthalate), as well as DiNP and creatinine. Data on covariates were collected by questionnaires.
The most significant associations were found between the shorter of two AGD measures (anoscrotal distance; AGDas) and DiNP metabolites and strongest for oh-MMeOP [mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyloctyl) phthalate] and oxo-MMeOP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate]. However, the AGDas reduction was small (4%) in relation to more than an interquartile range increase in DiNP exposure.
These findings call into question the safety of substituting DiNP for DEHP in soft PVC, particularly because a shorter male AGD has been shown to relate to male genital birth defects in children and impaired reproductive function in adult males and the fact that human levels of DiNP are increasing globally.
Cites: Int J Androl. 2010 Apr;33(2):317-2320132349
Inter-population variations in concentrations, determinants of and correlations between 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE): a cross-sectional study of 3161 men and women from Inuit and European populations.
BACKGROUND: The study is part of a collaborative project (Inuendo), aiming to assess the impact of dietary persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) on human fertility. The aims with the present study are to analyze inter-population variations in serum concentrations of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE), to assess inter-population variations in biomarker correlations, and to evaluate the relative impact of different determinants for the inter-individual variations in POP-biomarkers. METHOD: In study populations of 3161 adults, comprising Greenlandic Inuits, Swedish fishermen and their wives, and inhabitants from Warsaw, Poland and Kharkiv, Ukraine, serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The median serum concentrations of CB-153 were for male and female Inuits 200 and 110, for Swedish fishermen 190 and their wives 84, for Kharkiv men and women 44 and 27, and for Warsaw men and women 17 and 11 ng/g lipids, respectively. The median serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE were for Kharkiv men and women 930 and 650, for male and female Inuits 560 and 300, for Warsaw men and women 530 and 380, and for Swedish fishermen 240 and their wives 140 ng/g lipids, respectively. The correlation coefficients between CB-153 and p,p'-DDE varied between 0.19 and 0.92, with the highest correlation among Inuits and the lowest among men from Warsaw. Men had averagely higher serum concentrations of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE, and there were positive associations between age and the POP-biomarkers, whereas the associations with BMI and smoking were inconsistent. Dietary seafood was of importance only in the Inuit and Swedish populations. CONCLUSION: CB-153 concentrations were much higher in Inuits and Swedish fishermen's populations than in the populations from Eastern Europe, whereas the pattern was different for p,p'-DDE showing highest concentrations in the Kharkiv population. The correlations between the POP-biomarkers varied considerably between the populations, underlining that exposure sources differ and that the choice of representative biomarkers of overall POP exposure has to be based on an analysis of the specific exposure situation for each population. Age and gender were consistent determinants of serum POPs; seafood was of importance only in the Inuit and Swedish populations.
This paper describes the background, aim and study design for the Swedish SELMA study that aimed to investigate the importance of early life exposure during pregnancy and infancy to environmental factors with a major focus on endocrine disrupting chemicals for multiple chronic diseases/disorders in offspring.
The cohort was established by recruiting women in the 10th week of pregnancy. Blood and urine from the pregnant women and the child and air and dust from home environment from pregnancy and infancy period have been collected. Questionnaires were used to collect information on life styles, socio-economic status, living conditions, diet and medical history.
Of the 8394 reported pregnant women, 6658 were invited to participate in the study. Among the invited women, 2582 (39%) agreed to participate. Of the 4076 (61%) non-participants, 2091 women were invited to a non-respondent questionnaire in order to examine possible selection bias. We found a self-selection bias in the established cohort when compared with the non-participant group, e.g. participating families did smoke less (14% vs. 19%), had more frequent asthma and allergy symptoms in the family (58% vs. 38%), as well as higher education among the mothers (51% vs. 36%) and more often lived in single-family houses (67% vs. 60%).
These findings indicate that the participating families do not fully represent the study population and thus, the exposure in this population. However, there is no obvious reason that this selection bias will have an impact on identification of environmental risk factors.
Arctic is contaminated with persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), and exposure to these compounds may differ between south and north in Norway. POPs may have negative impact on male reproductive characteristics. We compared serum levels of the CB-153 and p,p'-DDE in men who were born and had lived most of their lifetime south and north (close to or above the Arctic Circle) in Norway. We found no geographical differences in levels of CB-153 (south: 50 ng/g lipid (mean), north: 59 ng/g lipid; p=0.27) or sperm parameters. However, the levels of p,p'-DDE were higher in south than in north (81 ng/g lipid (mean) vs. 66 ng/g lipid; p=0.02), as were the levels of total and free testosterone. The FSH levels were lowest in south. A strong relationship between the CB-153 and the SHBG levels was observed. The regional differences observed for p,p'-DDE, testosterone and FSH were not reflected in the semen quality.
In this study, food is suggested as a major source of human exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA). We investigated relations between serum levels of PFAA in adults and diet/lifestyle factors nationwide in Sweden.
In 2010-2011, adults (18-80 years, N = 270) recorded their diet for 4 days and answered a food frequency questionnaire. PFAA were measured in blood serum as well as v-3 fatty acids in plasma phospholipids as a biomarker for fish consumption. Higher levels of PFAA were associated with male sex, increased age, and higher education. Women reporting full breastfeeding for =12 months had 32-44% lower levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonate than women who never nursed their infants full-time. Serum perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid were positively related to n-3 fatty acids in plasma (partial r = 0.19-0.34, p = 0.05).
The relatively strong correlations between biomarkers of fish consumption and certain PFAA suggest that PFAA exposure should be taken into account in health risk and benefit assessment of fish consumption. Breastfeeding appears to be a major source of elimination of certain PFAA among women, and consequently PFAA exposure of nursed infants could be significant.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the exposure-response relationships of hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and evaluated the applicability of the total plasma protein adducts (TPPA) of these anhydrides as biomarkers of exposure and risk. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 139 workers in a plant manufacturing electrical capacitors, the long-term exposure to HHPA and MHHPA was assessed through the quantification of TPPA using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Smoking and medical histories were obtained through questionnaires. Work-related symptoms of the eyes and airways were recorded. Specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E (radioallergosorbent test) and IgG (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were determined in serum. RESULTS: The mean level of the TPPA of HHPA was 840 fmol/ml and that of the TPPA of MHHPA was 1700 fmol/ml. There was no correlation between the TPPA of HHPA and the TPPA of MHHPA. Of all the workers, 19% were found to be positive for specific IgE and 17-19% for IgG. Positive associations were observed between HHPA exposure and specific IgE and IgG and between MHHPA exposure and specific IgG. Regarding work-related symptoms, 27% of the workers had symptoms of the nose, 21% had symptoms of the eyes, 11% had symptoms of the lower airways, and 8% had nose bleeding. There were significant exposure-response relationships for symptoms of the eyes and nose for HHPA exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that there is an exposure-response relationship for HHPA both with specific antibodies and with work-related symptoms and down to adduct levels of 40 fmol/ml plasma. In addition, the results elucidate the potential power of TPPA as a relevant index of exposure and risk.
Several animal studies indicate that mercury is a male reproductive toxicant, but human studies are few and contradictory. We examined semen characteristics and serum levels of reproductive hormones in relation to environmental exposure to mercury. Blood and semen samples were collected from 529 male partners of pregnant women living in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine between May 2002 and February 2004. The median concentration of the total content of mercury in whole blood was 9.2 ng ml(-1) in Greenland (0.2-385.8 ng ml(-1)), 1.0 ng ml(-1) in Poland (0.2-6.4 ng ml(-1)) and 1.0 ng ml(-1) in Ukraine (0.2-4.9 ng ml(-1)). We found a significantly positive association between the blood levels of mercury and serum concentration of inhibin B in men from Greenland (?=0.074, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.021 to 0.126) and in an analysis including men from all three regions (?=0.067, 95% CI=0.024 to 0.110). The association may be due to beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are contained in seafood and fish. No significant association (P>0.05) was found between blood concentrations of mercury and any of the other measured semen characteristics (semen volume, total sperm count, sperm concentration, morphology and motility) and reproductive hormones (free androgen index (FAI), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone and LH ? testosterone) in any region. In conclusion, the findings do not provide evidence that environmental mercury exposure in Greenlandic and European men with median whole blood concentration up to 10 ng ml(-1) has adverse effects on biomarkers of male reproductive health.
Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that human male reproductive disorders can arise as a result of disrupted androgen receptor (AR) signalling by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Our aim in the present study was to compare serum xenoandrogenic activity between study groups with different POP exposures and to evaluate correlations to the POP proxy markers 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE).
We determined xenoandrogenic activity in the serum fraction containing the lipophilic POPs but free of endogenous hormones. Adult male serum (n = 261) from Greenland, Sweden, Warsaw (Poland), and Kharkiv (Ukraine) was analyzed. Xenoandrogenic activity was determined as the effect of serum extract alone (XAR) and in the presence of the synthetic AR agonist R1881 (XARcomp) on AR transactivated luciferase activity.
The study groups differed significantly with respect to XARcomp activity, which was increased in the Inuits and decreased in the European study groups; we observed no difference for XAR activity. We found the highest level of the AR antagonist p,p'-DDE in Kharkiv, and accordingly, this study group showed the highest percent of serum samples with decreased XARcomp activities. Furthermore, the percentage of serum samples with decreased XARcomp activities followed the p,p'-DDE serum level for the European study groups. No correlations between serum XAR or XARcomp activities and the two POP markers were revealed.
The differences in XARcomp serum activity between the study groups suggest differences in chemical exposure profiles, genetics, and/or lifestyle factors.
The aim was to elucidate the role of genetic variants on symptoms of the eyes and airways, headache and nausea, as well as on immunologic markers, among vulcanization workers in the contemporary Swedish rubber industry. Polymorphisms in genes, which are involved in the defense against reactive oxygen species and metabolism of toxic substances present in the vulcanization fumes, were analyzed.
One hundred and forty-five exposed and 117 unexposed workers were included in the study. Medical and occupational histories were obtained in structured interviews. Symptoms were recorded and immunologic markers analyzed in blood. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes (glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC)-129, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM)-588, glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52, GSTM1*O, GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, and GSTT1*O) were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and ordinary PCR.
A protective effect of GSTA1-52 (G/A + A/A) genotype on symptoms and immunologic cells, in particular among exposed workers, was suggested. Exposed workers with GSTT1*O had increased risk of nosebleed compared to exposed workers with GSTT1*1. Exposed workers with GSTP1-105 (ile/val + val/val) had decreased levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) compared to exposed workers with GSTP1-105 ile/ile. GCLC-129 variant genotype demonstrated increased levels of immunologic cells among exposed workers, although statistical significance was not reached.
Our data indicate that hereditary factors influence the susceptibility to symptoms and the immunologic response of workers in the rubber industry.
Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is used in the manufacture of polyurethane and is a potent inducer of diseases of the airways. In this study, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolyzed urine and plasma were evaluated as biomarkers of exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-TDI, respectively.
For 81 exposed workers from nine different plants, the personal 8-hour time-weighted-average exposure to TDI was monitored by a filter method with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine. In parallel, urinary samples (U1) were collected during the last 4 hours of the workshift. On a different occasion, blood samples and additional urinary samples (U2) were collected from the exposed workers, and also from a reference group consisting of 121 unexposed workers. The biomarker levels were determined in urine and plasma by the use of alkaline hydrolysis.
There were strong associations between the personal air and biomarker levels, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.75-0.88 for the U1 samples and in the range of 0.50-0.78 for the plasma samples. By weighted linear regression, the relations were calculated between the air and biomarker levels. The slopes of the obtained regression curves ranged from 1.8 to 2.7 m3/1 for air-urine and from 2.2 to 2.9 m3/1 for air-plasma, and the intercepts were all close to the origin of the coordinates. Through the extrapolation of these regression curves, biological exposure limits were calculated.
The biological monitoring methods and strategies presented in this report are useful for assessing exposure to TDI in practice.
Erratum In: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2005 Feb;31(1):84