Factors significant for clinical-and-labor prognosis in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease after surgical myocardial revascularization are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that for each level of the problem there are their own significant factors. Besides, the most essential correlations between investigated factors are marked out. The results obtained will enable to determine more correctly clinical-and-labor prognosis for patients with ischemic heart disease and develop their efficient rehabilitation programs. It is demonstrated that elderly patients have some features of vital activity restriction which are necessary to take into account while medical social expertise and rehabilitation program development.
Caries incidence, oral hygiene and local immunity were studied in children living in the areas with soil deficient for zinc and with that with the normal levels of this metal. Higher DCL index, elevated values of the Fedorov-Volodkina oral hygiene index, and lowered levels of salivary secretory IgA and lysozyme were revealed in those living in the areas with soils deficient for zinc.
Circadian blood pressure profile (CBPP) is considered to be a functional characteristic of the cardiovascular system, which reflects the severity and pathogenetic peculiarities of arterial hypertension. At the same time, blood pressure dynamics also depends on the state of environmental factors, the heliogeophysical medium in particular, which plays an important part in the formation of northern ecology. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the peculiarities of the correlations between morphofunctional characteristics of the cardiovascular system, circadian blood pressure rhythms in particular, and heliogeophysical environmental factors under North conditions. The data of 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (BPM) and echoCG, and the heliogeophysical factors during different ontogenesis periods in 257 residents of North and medium latitudes with arterial hypertension (AH), were analyzed. A considerable disorder of CBPP, manifesting by an insufficient (less than 10%) night-time decrease in blood pressure, was revealed in 46% of the hypertensive subjects, who lived in North. The circadian rhythm amplitude was low in cases of a high degree of coupling of hemodynamic indices with geomagnetic activity during the study. The study did not reveal such CBPP disturbances in AH patients living in medium latitudes. Left ventricular hypertrophy was more frequent in patients with an insufficient night-time BP decrease vs. patients with a normal one (39.7% and 22.2%, respectively). A test allowing evaluation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of magnetotropic responses to changes in heliogeophysical environment, was developed. This diagnostic test uses EchoCG and testing exposure to constant magnetic field, and is based on evaluation of changes in central hemodynamics allowing for the balance of geomagnetic activity during early ontogenesis and during the study.
Exposed to environmental pollution with emissions from industrial enterprises, the population of their contiguous rural areas faces a high risk of their health. The studies of the health status of the population from the contiguous rural areas versus that from the non-contiguous ones have established that measurements of a risk to the children's health revealed the highest risk among the contiguous areas in the Sterlitamaksky district and the least risk among the non-contiguous ones in the Askinsky district. The markers of carcinogenic ill-being in the contiguous rural areas were the incidence of cancer of the lip, esophagus, stomach, larynx, cervix uteri, uterine appendages, and prostate and leukemia. The high risk of cancer of the lip and esophagus in the control area and in other non-contiguous rural areas may be accounted for by the bad life-style in villagers, alcohol abuse, and smoking.
The paper deals with the problems of medical and ecological escorts of space rocket-making activities. The properties of one of the highly toxic components of propellant - asymmetric dimethylhydrazine as a substance assigned to a class of ecological toxicants, are considered. The data obtained on implementing the program for a study of the health status in the population living not far from the asymmetric dimethylhydrazine-polluted areas are presented. The authors propose to consider a package of measures that can apply the systems approach to securing the safety of the population to live and work in areas under space-rocket making activities, which is based on the prevention principle provided by the Rio de Janeiro Environment and Development Declaration.
Non-invasive methods of sampling and a range of immunological assays for mass ecologo-hygienic studies of population were developed and introduced into practice in Sysin Scientific Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The studied materials were saliva, urine, breast milk, the condition of lymph nodes, and anamnesis. The complex of non-invasive methods was shown to be less complicated and, at the same time, informative and cheap, which allows recommending it for sociohygienic monitoring when performing mass hygienic studies.
The authors adduce the ecologo-hygienic characterization of the most significant dwelling environmental factors, such as chemical air pollution, microclimatic parameters, biological pollution, noise, electromagnetic fields, light, etc. They have developed a conception of providing ecologo-hygienic dwelling safety.
The study determined the overall contribution of atmospheric air pollution and socioeconomic and other factors on population health, as well as the role of medical providence in the lowering of population morbidity. The study shows that different individual factors of medical providence have different effects on medicodemographic situation. Also different is the significance of various characteristics of socioeconomic conditions. The results demonstrate that the contribution of air pollutants and their mixtures into male and female mortality in various age groups is different and depends on the cause of death and pathogenetic peculiarities of the action of the components.
Regularly published national reports on population health in Russian Federation, based on the results of statistic analyses and the data from hygienic and epidemiological studies, demonstrate associations between exposure to hazardous environmental factors and population morbidity. Research into correlations between exposure to such factors and population health status using extensive databases, makes it possible to obtain statistically significant results and put forward hypotheses for epidemiological studies. The aim of this research was to study the levels and dynamics of population mortality, and atmospheric air condition, as well as correlations between them in regional centers of Russian Federation. The study covers the period from 1985 through 1998.
The authors discuss the basic concepts of a system developed to evaluate health hazards associated with short-term exposure of different population groups to inhaled chemicals, including exposure that takes place in emergency situations. The article contains examples of acute exposition profiles for the most wide-spread air pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide, developed using quantitative values of short-term exposure risk criteria.
The elaboration of a computer-aided system for registration and analysis of occupational diseases (OD) is extremely important to obtain valid data on the size and composition of a contingent of registered patients; on the distribution of patients by nosological entities and the severity of a pathological process; on the frequency of complications and comorbidity; on the presence of harmful industrial factors that favor disability and present a risk for OD.