The paper analyzes the clinical and laboratory features of Lamblia infection in children living under long-term low-dose chemical load. The scientific search methodology comprised the meticulous examination of the patients randomized by the presence or absence of protozoonosis and the statistical processing and expert analysis of the results. The comprehensive approach could define the main signs of the pathomorphism of lambliosis in the areas with high anthropogenic loads and identify immunological disorders, intoxication, and hepatobiliary dysfunctions. The impact of environmentally induced chemical contamination of the biosphere on the natural history of protozoonosis should be borne in mind when evaluating the biological hazard and risk of environmental biological factors on the population health and when scheduling and implementing hygienic and sanitary-and-epidemiological measures to prevent lambliosis in the high anthropogenic load areas.
The immune system and lymphocyte activity of HADP-dependent dehydrogenases were studied in the patients living in the high incidence areas of Krasnoyarsk. The enhanced activity of cellular immunity was found to show up in the presence of considerable impaired lymphocyte metabolic processes, the change of the rate of which depended on the type of environmental pollution.
Nanoindustry encompasses very different branches of industry today. It should be noted that these are precisely the investigators who deal with researches and developments of nanomaterials will be to the largest measure exposed and hence the likelihood of the potential harm to their health is greatest. To elaborate the special regulations and programs, normative documents and guidelines designed to afford safety and health protection of the employees at work, which should consider the specific characteristics of nanotechnologies. Since 2007, work has proceeded on the safety evaluation of nanoparticles and nanomaterials. Nanotechnology as a key priority in the foreseeable future poses a number of problems facing hygiene science to develop hygienic safety criteria for the production, usage, utilization and storage of various nanomaterials and to elaborate procedures for determination of nanoparticles in different media. Russia will be able to rapidly progress in solving the safety problems in emerging nanoindustry and to minimize human health and environmental risks associated with the manufacture and use of nanoproducts.
The maintenance and development of the centralized household underground water supply system in the closed administrative-territorial entity Seversk, Tomsk Region, when the aquifers are inadequately protected and there is a hydrological association of individual aquifers with polluted surface waters require a hygienic estimation based on the use of a risk methodology, including that considering the regional feature of sanitary situation establishment. No risk realization has been ascertained for damage to critical organs and systems in pediatric and adult populations under the population influence of the chemical substances available in drinking water.
Nanotechnologies find wide application in industry and medicine. The Russian market of nanotechnologies is at the very beginning of development. Rospotrebnadzor has amassed a wealth of experience in the creation of efficacious systems for estimation and sanitary-epidemiological control of the safety of goods and foodstuffs. The assessment of the safety of nanoparticles and nanomaterials has been carried out since 2007. In 2008-2009, a survey was initiated with a view to developing safety criteria for nanoproducts, nanomaterials, and nanotechnologies. In 2010, research institutions of Rospotrebnadzor were engaged in investigations aimed to develop relevant regulatory and procedural documentation. Studies are underway to work out new highly sensitive methods for the detection, identification and qualitative determination of nanomaterials in the environment, food-staffs, and biological media.
The paper considers the current nontraditional approaches to revealing the causal effects and criteria for significance of an exposure-response relationship. The study has used the elements of methodology for assessing the risk and the techniques of environmental epidemiology to examine causal effects. A blood toxicant-response marker relationship was assessed and the quantitative characteristics of the association between the concentrations of the test compounds and the risk of noxious effects were ascertained. On the basis of exposure marker-response marker models, the authors revealed the priority types of functional changes and established the blood concentrations of phenol and m- and n-cresols at an acceptable risk level.
The quality of underground waters from 22 areas of the Orenburg Region was studied from the values of mineralization and pH and the amounts of the ions of Se, Cl, Pb, Cd, F, and phenols. High fluorine ion concentrations (5-12 mg/l), high mineralization (> 1 g/l), and alkalinity (pH > 8.0) were shown to be human risk factors in a considerable number of areas. Districts with cadmium, lead, and phenol ion-polluted underground waters were identified. The amount of selenium in the drinking water (18-319 ng/l) and in the sera of donors in Orenburg, Buzuluk, and Orsk (86-97 microg/l) fails to support the data available in the literature on environmental selenium pollution and is comparable with the relevant data for the Moscow Region.
Due to exposure to emissions from a protein-vitamin concentrate-manufacturing enterprise, the total and allergic morbidity rates remained high in the Blagoveshchensk population during a follow-up, the incidence of asthma and atopic dermatitis being on the rise and that of pollen disease on the decrease. The findings show the need for a further follow-up of the health status of the population of this area, the living conditions in which are risk factors for allergic and toxic allergic diseases even after microbiological industry closure.
The unique climatic and geographical location of the Altai Krai determines the specific radiation dose load for the population, which is composed of the complex of radiological indices, the structure of which is largely dependent on the type of locality and, to a greater extent due to the action of radon, which is currently the main source of internal radiation of the population of upland districts and adjacent territories. There was performed a hygienic assessment of the radiation risk and the expected decline in life expectancy and population health due to radon exposure in the model areas of the Altai Krai. To calculate the additional risk there were used some models for radiation risk extrapolation: a risk constant model, model GSF (Jacobi's model), Lubin model (TSE/AGE/WL) and BEIR VI model for smoking and nonsmoking population, as well as the combined model. The lowest values of the radiation risk and the expected decline in life expectancy are typical for Charyshsko-Ust-Kalmanskaya zone, the maximum--for Kuryinsko--Pospelikhinskaya zone.
With the purpose of the analysis of general trends in the development of risk assessment methodology in Russia the results obtained with the her help, as well as existing methodological problems, there was performed a review of 68 published works concerning the assessment of the health risk for population under the exposure to chemicals in drinking water carried out in 42 cities and regions of the country. There was made the grouping of Russian cities on individual carcinogenic risk level and ranking on the values for the population carcinogenic risk. A list of prioritized carcinogens in tap water has been made. By the values of the risk indices to adverse effects of chemicals tap water there are exposed central nervous system, kidneys, liver, skin and mucous membranes, blood, bone, immune system, hormone homeostasis, blood circulation and digestion organs. There are identified methodological problems leading to an underestimation of the actual risk to public health under exposure of chemicals in drinking water: there are no used regional and age differences in exposure factors, virtually there is no assessed health risk for children population; there is ignored age sensitivity to carcinogens, there is rarely estimated exposure for all the real exposing routes of income and there are no carried out risk calculations at the upper limit (90- 95th percentile) of the exposure.
There is presented the analysis of medical-demographic situation in Russia, and the increase in population mortality is shown both to be associated with the degradation of the geosphere and alongside with other factors determined by the change in the electronic state of the environment. On the base of the interrelationship between the electronic saturation of the environment and an increase in population mortality and morbidity there is established a such risk factor for human health and life, which may currently become one out of significant, videlicet, the electronic deficit. In conditions of its appearance there are proposed options solving this problem by means of elaboration of the scientific rationale for the impact of the electronic deficit on the human organism and the creation of technologies providing environmental--medical safety of the population by virtue of the correction of the electronic state of the human habitat, food and drinking water and the implementation of the system for monitoring electronic abundance of the environment.
The diabetes mellitus is a real threat to population health in all countries. In international practice studying and successful solutions of problems conditioned by this disease are related to development of registries. The Novosibirsk municipal registry of diabetes mellitus is an integral part of the Public registry. The data of municipal registry and analysis of conditions of environment were used to detect characteristics of morbidity of diabetes mellitus in population residing in the territories with different level of anthropogenic pollution by aero-pollutants. The technique of mapping was applied to develop thematic clinical hygienic map. The technique of the thematic clinical hygienic mapping broaden functional possibilities and sphere of application of territorial registry of diabetes mellitus. This technique opens new possibilities and perspectives in development of complex programs of prevention in the territories with anthropogenic pollution.
[The resolution of the Plenum of the Research Council on Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of the Russian Federation "Updated issues of human health and the environment and ways of solving them"].
In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.
There was investigated the impact of socioeconomic factors on medical and demographic processes in working age population. For the assessment of the impact of living conditions and environmental factors on mortality rate in a population of the Sverdlovsk region factor-typological, correlation and regression analyzes were applied There was shown an availability of statistically significant correlation relationships between mortality of the population of working age and socio-economic characteristics (degree of home improvement, quality of medical care, the level of social tension, the level of the demographic load), as well as between their increments with taking into account the time shifts. The effect of the value of the purchasing power on the mortality rate of the working population has been established The purchasing power was shown to be connected with a mortality rate of working population from external causes more stronger than death from all causes.
Climatic factor is most important condition for the formation of public health. Attention to it has increased recently against the background of global and regional climate change. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of air temperature on population die off in the Voronezh city in the period of fire-related emergencies. Assessment of cause-and-effect relationships between the air temperature and daily death cases s was performed with the help of the method of time series. Correlation analysis showed a statistically significant positive relationship between air temperature and population die off from all causes and from diseases of the circulatory system with a lag of 0, 1, 2, 3 days; respiratory diseases - with a lag of 3 days. With the gain in air temperature by one degree the number of deaths increases by 3%. The results were used in adopt management decisions on minimization risks and potential negative effects on human health.
Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.
The authors evaluate possible use of Monchegorsk retrospective birth database for demographic and epidemiologic studies of various female reproductive health parameters, newborn health parameters, as well as their connections with occupational and other environmental factors.