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[The diagnosis and mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-flammatory drug allergy and intolerance.]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81592
Source
Laeknabladid. 2004 Jul;90(7/8):545-551
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2004
Author
DerekssonKristján
LúðvíkssonBjÅ?rn
Author Affiliation
Department of Immunology, Iceland University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavík, Iceland. bjornlud@landspitali.is.
Source
Laeknabladid. 2004 Jul;90(7/8):545-551
Date
Jul-2004
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The knowledge of drug side-effects is an important part of modern medicine and it is thought that about 25% of all side effects are based on activation of the immune system. Unlike most other side effects, immune responses to drugs are usually unforeseen and minimally or not at all related to their dosage. Such activation is not only based on the pharmacological character of the drug but also various environmental factors and the individual?s genetic makeup. Allergy is traditionally categorized into the four groups of Gell and Coombs. Such allergy is usually based upon specific activation of certain cells through antibody receptors on the cell-surface but the immune system can also be activated unspecifically, irrespective of antibody receptors, through pharmacological actions or by unknown mechanisms. Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can cause allergic reactions either directly or indirectly. Because of the extensive usage and usefulness of NSAIDs in medicine, these allergic side effects cause a large and difficult problem within the health system. This article discusses in depth the causes and pathology of the different disease forms caused by immune reactions to NSAIDs, with emphasis on describing why some people with asthma may feel a serious, temporary worsening of the disease after ingestion of NSAIDs. Finally, diagnostic approaches to NSAID allergies are discussed.
PubMed ID
16819043 View in PubMed
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[Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature86931
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Mar;94(3):193-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Thorlacius Sigurdur
Olafsson Stefán
Author Affiliation
Laeknadeild Háskóla Islands, Laeknagördum, Vatnsmýrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavík. sigurdth@hi.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Mar;94(3):193-8
Date
Mar-2008
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disability Evaluation
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Male
Mental Disorders - economics - epidemiology
Pensions - statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Sex Factors
Social Security - statistics & numerical data
Time Factors
Unemployment - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. RESULTS: Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. CONCLUSION: Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on the growing disability rate during the last few years.
PubMed ID
18310781 View in PubMed
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[House dust mites at Icelandic farms]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91437
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Nov;94(11):723-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Gudmundsson Gunnar
Sigurdarson Sigurdur Thór
Tómasson Kristinn
Gíslason Davíd
Hallas Thorkill
Author Affiliation
Lungna-, ofnaemis- og svefndeild Landspítala, Reykjavík. ggudmund@landspitali.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2008 Nov;94(11):723-7
Date
Nov-2008
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Antigens, Dermatophagoides - immunology
Beds
Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Floors and Floorcoverings
Housing
Humans
Hypersensitivity - immunology
Iceland
Mites - immunology
Rural Health
Urban health
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) occurs in 9% of the Reykjavik population, despite the fact that no Der p 1 antigen has been found in the area. A recent study revealed that sensitized persons more often had a childhood history of work or holiday stay in rural areas than controls. As a follow up we studied the risk of exposure to mites in farmland dwellings. METHODS: In a survey of work-related lung disorders among farmers in the south and west of Iceland, 80 samples of house dust, representing 42 farms, were collected from bedroom mattresses and the floors in living rooms and examined for mites. Treatment of samples was identical with the method used earlier in the Reykjavik investigation (ECRHS II). RESULTS: In contrast to the Reykjavik results, dust from farm dwellings showed a large diversity of mites. Seventeen taxons were found, with Acarus siro and D. pteronyssinus in 13 and 8 farms respectively, but the samples did not show signs that any of the taxons actually had lived or reproduced where they were collected. CONCLUSION: The finding of D. pteronyssinus in farmland dwellings provides a possible explanation of why some Reykjavik citizens might have developed sensitization to this mite, even though cross sensitization to other species of mites could give a false positive reaction to D. pteronyssinus in at least some of those cases. Our observations did not support the idea that the mites were living in the dwellings and an explanation for their occurrence must be sought in the outdoor environment.
PubMed ID
18974433 View in PubMed
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Source
Laeknabladid. 2006 Oct;92(10):685-96
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Helgadóttir Gudleif
Jónasson Fridbert
Sigurdsson Haraldur
Magnússon Kristinn P
Stefánsson Einar
Source
Laeknabladid. 2006 Oct;92(10):685-96
Date
Oct-2006
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Angiogenesis Inhibitors - therapeutic use
Blindness - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10
Counseling
Disease Progression
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Health services needs and demand
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Incidence
Lasers - therapeutic use
Macular Degeneration - complications - epidemiology - genetics - therapy
Middle Aged
Registries
Risk factors
Vitamins - therapeutic use
Zinc Compounds - therapeutic use
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the main reason for blindness today in the western hemisphere. According to Björn Olafsson, who was the first ophthalmologist in Iceland a century ago, this disease was not found in Iceland. In the blindness-registry of 1950 6% blindness was due to this disease. Today, AMD is responsible for 54% of legal blindness in Iceland. The incidence of the disease increases with age. Heredity and environmental factors are thought to influence its etiology. Indirect methods, including twin studies and increased frequency of this disease in some families, have demonstrated that hereditary factors may be important. This has been confirmed recently by demonstrating that genes on chromosome 1 and chromosome10 play a role. This disease is classified as early stage, with drusen and pigmentary changes and insignificant visual loss. Treatment options for this stage are limited. The use of vitamin E and C and Zinc has, however, been shown to delay its progress. The second and end stage involves visual loss, either as a dry form with pigment epithelial atrophy or wet form, with new vessel formation. Treatment options for the dry form are limited. The second form is more common in Iceland than in other countries. Treatment options for the wet form have increased. Localised laser and drug treatment to neovascular membranes, either alone or as a combination treatment with drugs that have anti-proliferate effect on new vessels (anti-VEGF) are increasingly used. New treatment methods are also used in assisting those that are already visually handicapped. The use of computers is increasing as are the patients' computer skills. As the number of the elderly increases, AMD will be an increasing health problem in Iceland as in other Western countries. It is therefore important to improve the treatment options and the service and counselling of patients.
PubMed ID
17062902 View in PubMed
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Health and Wellbeing in the Arctic: The Critical Issues of Food Insecurity and Suicide Among Indigenous people.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296454
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Publication Type
Dissertation
Date
August 2018
discuss the mental health of Arctic indigenous people, with particular emphasis on high prevalence of suicide and how it is derived from past and present trauma and maintained by social, economic and environmental factors and conditions. Keywords: The Arctic, indigenous people, health and well
  1 document  
Author
Smáradóttir, Sveinbjörg
Author Affiliation
Bachelor of Arts degree in Social Sciences
Source
Social Humanities and Social Sciences University of Akureyri, Iceland
Date
August 2018
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Dissertation
File Size
451032
Keywords
Arctic
Indigenous peoples
Health and welfare
Food insecurity
Spiritual health
Suicide
Abstract
Frumbyggjar Norðurslóða eru almennt við verri heilsu en aðrir íbúar svæðisins. Síðan afkomendur Evrópubúa hófu að leggja undir sig heimalönd frumbyggjanna, og fram á síðari hluta 20. aldar, gengu þeir í gegnum átakamiklar félagslegar- og efnahagslegar umbyltingar, voru neyddir til að yfirgefa heimalönd sín, samlagast og „nútímavæðast“ vestrænni menningu með alvarlegum afleiðingum fyrir heilsu þeirra og velferð. Í þessari ritgerð er fjallað um tvo mikilvæga þætti er varða heilsu og velferð frumbyggja á Norðurslóðum. Annarsvegar er það fæðu-óöryggi, orsakir og afleiðingar, og sambandið milli hefðbundinnar fæðu og leiða til fæðuöflunar og „vestræns“ mataræðis. Hinsvegar er fjallað andlega heilsu frumbyggjanna, með sérstaka áherslu á sjálfsvíg, orsakir og afleiðingar, hvernig þau tengjast atburðum og áföllum fortíðar og er viðhaldið af áskorunum sem frumbyggjarnir standa frammi fyrir í dag.
Documents
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[Meta-analysis of association between pentachlorophenol exposure and cancer risk].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156427
Source
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2008 Mar;37(2):151-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Weiwei Zheng
Ying Zhou
Weidong Qu
Hao Zhang
et al
Author Affiliation
Key Laboratory of the Public Health and Safety, Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
Source
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2008 Mar;37(2):151-4
Date
Mar-2008
Language
Chinese
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Colorectal Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Humans
Kidney Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Pentachlorophenol - toxicity
Risk factors
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
The epidemiological data based on the exposure of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and cancer incidence and mortality were analyzed to study the relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk.
According to the online search of relevant literatures, Poisson regression was used to analyze mortality rates for major cancer sites and fixed-effect model was employed to assess cancer SMR. The dose-response relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk was also analyzed.
Major cancer mortality rates of exposure populations researched in American and Canadian studies were approximate to or lower than national male cancer mortality rates respectively. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer in occupational exposure population was over 16.4 times in comparison with the population exposed from to drinking water and food. The pooled SMR value of kidney cancer was 1.34 (95% CI 1.02-1.77). The pooled RR for major cancer mortality increased with the rise of PCP exposure level.
A potential dose-response relationship between PCP exposure and cancer risk could exist. In comparison with to the population to exposed from the drinking water and food, the risk of colorectal cancer in occupational exposure population was higher. PCP may be one of the risk factors of the kidney cancer in occupational exposure population.
PubMed ID
18589595 View in PubMed
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[Unilateral spatial neglect: a review over symptoms, frequency diagnosis and prognosis]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature84346
Source
Laeknabladid. 2007 Oct;93(10):681-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2007
Author
Hjaltason Haukur
Saevarsson Styrmir
Author Affiliation
Taugadeild Landspítala og laeknadeild Háskóla Islands. haukurhj@landspitali.is
Source
Laeknabladid. 2007 Oct;93(10):681-7
Date
Oct-2007
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention
Clinical Competence
Functional Laterality
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Motor Skills
Neuropsychological Tests
Patient Education as Topic
Perceptual Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology - psychology
Prognosis
Space Perception
Stroke - complications - physiopathology - psychology
Telencephalon - physiopathology
Abstract
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disorder commonly encountered after hemisphere stroke, most often in the right hemisphere. Neglect patients fail to attend and respond to stimuli presented on the side of space opposite to the brain lesion. Neglect implies a complex dysfunction in the co-action between perception, motor behavior and the environment where the patients attentive capacities and the environmental space are of special importance. Patients difficulties can be seen in that they do not eat from the left side of the plate or omit words to the left when asked to read. Commonly patients do not have a complete insight into their neglect problems. Neglect in stroke patients has been associated with poor outcome on functional activities. Signs of neglect are not always obvious but can be explored and assessed quickly by bedside neuropsychological testing. Neglect is often more unclear to an observer than, e.g. if a patient suffers from paresis or aphasia. Education for patients, their relatives and others are therefore important.
PubMed ID
17909279 View in PubMed
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[Early life residency associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes - the population-based Reykjavík study].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118190
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Dec;98(12):639-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Elín Olafsdottir
Thor Aspelund
Johanna E Torfadottir
Laufey Steingrimsdottir
Gunnar Sigurdsson
Bolli Thorsson
Rafn Benediktsson
Gudny Eiriksdottir
Unnur A Valdimarsdottir
Vilmundur Gudnason
Author Affiliation
Icelandic Heart Association.
Source
Laeknabladid. 2012 Dec;98(12):639-44
Date
Dec-2012
Language
Icelandic
Geographic Location
Iceland
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Iceland - epidemiology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Rural Health
Urban health
Young Adult
Abstract
Sedentary lifestyle and energy rich food have been associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes; limited data are available on environmental conditions in childhood on this risk later in life. The objective was to study if residency in the first 20 years of life affected the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
In a cohort of 17811 men (48%) and women, mean age 53 years (range 33-81) participating in the population-based Reykjavík Study from 1967-91, 29% grew up in rural and 35% in coastal areas for an average of 20 years before moving to urban Reykjavík, but 36% lived in Reykjavík from birth. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes according to residency in early life was examined.
The relative risk of developing type 2 diabetes was 43% lower in men (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.43-0.77) and 26% lower (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.56-0.99) in women living in rural areas for the first 20 years of their life compared with those living in urban Reykjavík from birth. The low prevalence among those that grew up in rural areas was maintained through the age categories of 55-64 years and 65 years and older.
Our findings indicate that persons growing up in rural areas in early 20th century Iceland had lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life when compared with peers living in Reykjavík from birth. We postulate a prolonged effect of early development on glucose metabolism and risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
PubMed ID
23232723 View in PubMed
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[Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284938
Source
Laeknabladid. 2016 Oktober;102(10):433-441
Publication Type
Article
Author
Gunnar Gudmundsson
Guðrun Larsen
Source
Laeknabladid. 2016 Oktober;102(10):433-441
Language
Icelandic
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cause of Death
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Eye Diseases - etiology - mortality
Health status
History, 15th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Medieval
Humans
Iceland
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - mortality
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Skin Diseases - etiology - mortality
Time Factors
Volcanic Eruptions - adverse effects - history
Abstract
Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.
PubMed ID
27813483 View in PubMed
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9 records – page 1 of 1.