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Sensitivity analyses of exposure estimates from a quantitative job-exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) for use in community-based studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122525
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2013 Jan;57(1):98-106
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Susan Peters
Hans Kromhout
Lützen Portengen
Ann Olsson
Benjamin Kendzia
Raymond Vincent
Barbara Savary
Jérôme Lavoué
Domenico Cavallo
Andrea Cattaneo
Dario Mirabelli
Nils Plato
Joelle Fevotte
Beate Pesch
Thomas Brüning
Kurt Straif
Roel Vermeulen
Author Affiliation
Environmental Epidemiology Division, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, 3584 CK Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 2013 Jan;57(1):98-106
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Canada - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Europe - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Industry
Inhalation Exposure - analysis
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Occupations - classification
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Silicon Dioxide - analysis
Statistics, nonparametric
Abstract
We describe the elaboration and sensitivity analyses of a quantitative job-exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) for respirable crystalline silica (RCS). The aim was to gain insight into the robustness of the SYN-JEM RCS estimates based on critical decisions taken in the elaboration process.
SYN-JEM for RCS exposure consists of three axes (job, region, and year) based on estimates derived from a previously developed statistical model. To elaborate SYN-JEM, several decisions were taken: i.e. the application of (i) a single time trend; (ii) region-specific adjustments in RCS exposure; and (iii) a prior job-specific exposure level (by the semi-quantitative DOM-JEM), with an override of 0 mg/m(3) for jobs a priori defined as non-exposed. Furthermore, we assumed that exposure levels reached a ceiling in 1960 and remained constant prior to this date. We applied SYN-JEM to the occupational histories of subjects from a large international pooled community-based case-control study. Cumulative exposure levels derived with SYN-JEM were compared with those from alternative models, described by Pearson correlation ((Rp)) and differences in unit of exposure (mg/m(3)-year). Alternative models concerned changes in application of job- and region-specific estimates and exposure ceiling, and omitting the a priori exposure ranking.
Cumulative exposure levels for the study subjects ranged from 0.01 to 60 mg/m(3)-years, with a median of 1.76 mg/m(3)-years. Exposure levels derived from SYN-JEM and alternative models were overall highly correlated (R(p) > 0.90), although somewhat lower when omitting the region estimate ((Rp) = 0.80) or not taking into account the assigned semi-quantitative exposure level (R(p) = 0.65). Modification of the time trend (i.e. exposure ceiling at 1950 or 1970, or assuming a decline before 1960) caused the largest changes in absolute exposure levels (26-33% difference), but without changing the relative ranking ((Rp) = 0.99).
Exposure estimates derived from SYN-JEM appeared to be plausible compared with (historical) levels described in the literature. Decisions taken in the development of SYN-JEM did not critically change the cumulative exposure levels. The influence of region-specific estimates needs to be explored in future risk analyses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22805750 View in PubMed
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Exposure to microbial agents in house dust and wheezing, atopic dermatitis and atopic sensitization in early childhood: a birth cohort study in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122533
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
U. Gehring
M. Korppi
G. Doekes
J. Riedler
C. Braun-Fahrländer
S. Bitter
S. Schmid
L. Keski-Nisula
M. Roponen
V. Kaulek
J-C Dalphin
P I Pfefferle
H. Renz
G. Büchele
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland. anne.karvonen@thl.fi
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Aug;42(8):1246-56
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Austria - epidemiology
Biological Markers - analysis
Cohort Studies
Dermatitis, Atopic - epidemiology - immunology
Dust - analysis - immunology
Endotoxins - analysis - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Finland - epidemiology
France - epidemiology
Germany - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - blood - immunology
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Polysaccharides - analysis - immunology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - immunology
Rural Population
Switzerland - epidemiology
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with development of wheezing and allergic diseases.
To assess the association of microbial exposure in rural homes with the risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic dermatitis and sensitization.
Birth cohorts of rural children (n = 1133), half from farmer families, were followed up from birth to 2 years of age by questionnaires in five European centres. Endotoxin and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) of Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. were determined from living room floor and mother's mattress dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Specific IgE against 19 allergens was measured at 1 year of age. Discrete-time hazard models, generalized estimations equations (GEE) and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses.
The incidence of asthma was inversely associated with the amount of dust (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.93) and the loads (units/m(2)) of EPS (aOR 0.75, 95% CI 0.55-1.04) and endotoxin (aOR 0.79, 95% CI 0.60-1.05) in the mother's mattress. Similar associations were seen with wheezing and with living room floor dust. The microbial markers were highly correlated and their effects could not be clearly separated. The inverse associations were seen especially among non-farmers. The risk of sensitization to inhalant allergens increased with increasing endotoxin exposure from mattress dust. No associations were observed with concentrations (units/g) or with atopic dermatitis.
The amount and microbial content of house dust were inversely associated with asthma and wheezing, but due to high correlations between microbial agents and amount of dust, it was not possible to disentangle their individual effects. New ways to better measure and represent exposure to environmental microbes, including indexes of biodiversity, are needed especially among farmers.
PubMed ID
22805472 View in PubMed
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Indicators of trace-element status of children living in rural areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122565
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Nov;152(1):12-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2011
Author
F G Sitdikov
N V Svyatova
E S Egerev
Author Affiliation
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Human Health of the Tatar State Humanitarian Pedagogical University, Kazan, Russia.
Source
Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011 Nov;152(1):12-4
Date
Nov-2011
Language
English
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child
Environmental Exposure
Female
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Rural Population
Russia
Soil Pollutants - chemistry - metabolism
Trace Elements - chemistry - metabolism
Water Pollutants - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
The content of essential and toxic elements, except beryllium and mercury, in the hair of examined children (girls aged 7-9 years) is within the biologically acceptable levels set by WHO. The data on the content of essential trace elements suggest that urgent measures aimed at normalization of the elemental status of children are required.
PubMed ID
22803027 View in PubMed
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Factors promoting sustainable work in women with fibromyalgia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117089
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Sep;35(19):1622-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Annie Palstam
Gunvor Gard
Kaisa Mannerkorpi
Author Affiliation
Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. annie.palstam@gu.se
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Sep;35(19):1622-9
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Disability Evaluation
Disabled Persons - psychology
Employment
Female
Fibromyalgia - diagnosis - psychology
Focus Groups
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Middle Aged
Pain - etiology - psychology
Qualitative Research
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Social Support
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Urban Population
Women, Working - psychology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
To examine and describe the factors promoting sustainable work in women with fibromyalgia (FM).
A qualitative interview study. Twenty-seven gainfully employed women with FM participated in five focus group interviews. Their median age was 52 years, ranging from 33 to 62. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by qualitative latent content analysis.
Four categories were identified describing factors promoting sustainable work: the meaning of work and individual strategies were individual promoters while a favourable work environment and social support outside work were environmental promoters. The meaning of work included individual meaning and social meaning. The individual strategies included handling symptoms, the work day and long-term work life. A favourable work environment included the physical and psychosocial work environment. Social support outside work included societal and private social supports.
Promoting factors for work were identified, involving individual and environmental factors. These working women with FM had developed advanced well-functioning strategies to enhance their work ability. The development of such strategies should be supported by health-care professionals as well as employers to promote sustainable work in women with FM.
Work disability is a common consequence of fibromyalgia (FM). Working women with FM appear to have developed advanced well-functioning individual strategies to enhance their work ability. The development of individual strategies should be supported by health-care professionals as well as employers to promote sustainable work and health in women with FM.
PubMed ID
23336119 View in PubMed
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Altered microRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exosomes in asthmatic patients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117113
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):894-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2013
Author
Bettina Levänen
Nirav R Bhakta
Patricia Torregrosa Paredes
Rebecca Barbeau
Stefanie Hiltbrunner
Joshua L Pollack
C Magnus Sköld
Magnus Svartengren
Johan Grunewald
Susanne Gabrielsson
Anders Eklund
Britt-Marie Larsson
Prescott G Woodruff
David J Erle
Åsa M Wheelock
Author Affiliation
Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. bettina.levanen@ki.se
Source
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):894-903
Date
Mar-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - toxicity
Asthma - genetics - physiopathology
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - chemistry
Case-Control Studies
Cytokines - genetics
Environmental Exposure
Exosomes - genetics
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Janus Kinases - genetics
Male
MicroRNAs - analysis
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases - genetics
STAT Transcription Factors - genetics
Sweden
Vital Capacity
Young Adult
Abstract
Asthma is characterized by increased airway narrowing in response to nonspecific stimuli. The disorder is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles of endosomal origin released from inflammatory and epithelial cells that have been implicated in asthma. In this study we characterized the microRNA (miRNA) content of exosomes in healthy control subjects and patients with mild intermittent asthma both at unprovoked baseline and in response to environmental challenge.
To investigate alterations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomal miRNA profiles due to asthma, and following subway air exposure.
Exosomes were isolated from BALF from healthy control subjects (n = 10) and patients with mild intermittent asthma (n = 10) after subway and control exposures. Exosomal RNA was analyzed by using microarrays containing probes for 894 human miRNAs, and selected findings were validated with quantitative RT-PCR. Results were analyzed by using multivariate modeling.
The presence of miRNAs was confirmed in exosomes from BALF of both asthmatic patients and healthy control subjects. Significant differences in BALF exosomal miRNA was detected for 24 miRNAs with a subset of 16 miRNAs, including members of the let-7 and miRNA-200 families, providing robust classification of patients with mild nonsymptomatic asthma from healthy subjects with 72% cross-validated predictive power (Q(2) = 0.72). In contrast, subway exposure did not cause any significant alterations in miRNA profiles.
These studies demonstrate substantial differences in exosomal miRNA profiles between healthy subjects and patients with unprovoked, mild, stable asthma. These changes might be important in the inflammatory response leading to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma.
Notes
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Comment In: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Mar;131(3):904-523360758
PubMed ID
23333113 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps, 1958-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117177
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Sep;103(9):1708-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Christer Hogstedt
Catarina Jansson
Marcus Hugosson
Håkan Tinnerberg
Per Gustavsson
Author Affiliation
Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. christer.hogstedt@gmail.com
Source
Am J Public Health. 2013 Sep;103(9):1708-14
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos - adverse effects
Colonic Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Esophageal Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Liver Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Pleural Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Poisson Distribution
Skin Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Soot - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Abstract
We examined cancer incidence in an expanded cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps.
We added male chimney sweep trade union members (1981-2006) to an earlier cohort (employed 1918-1980) and linked them to nationwide registers of cancer, causes of deaths, and total population. The total cohort (n = 6320) was followed from 1958 through 2006. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the male Swedish population as reference. We estimated exposure as years of employment and analyzed for exposure-response associations by Poisson regression.
A total of 813 primary cancers were observed versus 626 expected (SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.21, 1.39). As in a previous follow-up, SIRs were significantly increased for cancer of the esophagus, liver, lung, bladder, and all hematopoietic cancer. New findings included significantly elevated SIRs for cancer of the colon, pleura, adenocarcinoma of the lung, and at unspecified sites. Total cancer and bladder cancer demonstrated positive exposure-response associations.
Exposure to soot and asbestos are likely causes of the observed cancer excesses, with contributions from adverse lifestyle factors. Preventive actions to control work exposures and promote healthier lifestyles are an important priority.
PubMed ID
23327283 View in PubMed
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Geographic distribution and workforce characteristics of selected health professionals in Northern Canada

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99519
Source
Pages 568-574 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
2010
) and the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Hea lth of Nurses (NSWHN). The Health Personnel Database at CIH I collects data on 24 health occupations in three categories: (1) registered-audiologists, chiropracto rs, dental hygienists, dietitians, environmental public health professionals
  1 document  
Author
Andrea Porter-Chapman
Yvonne Rosehart
Annie Walker
Robert Kyte
Sarah Wibberley
Author Affiliation
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Ottawa, Canada
Source
Pages 568-574 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Geographic distribution
Healthcare professionals
Licensed practical nurses
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Pharmacists
Physicians
Registered nurses
Abstract
Objectives: This paper examines the supply and distribution of physicians, registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and pharmacists employed in Canada's northern territories. Methods: To examine the distribution of professionals employed in northern Canada in 2007, geographical indicators for the health care workforce were linked to current Canadian census subdivisions. Administrative data was analysed from four Canadian Institute for Health Information databases: the Nursing Database, Scott's Medical Database, the Pharmacist Database and the National Physician Database. Information was also pulled from the 2005 national Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses and the 2007 National Physician Survey. Results: The distribution of physicians, regulated nurses and pharmacists varied in Canada's northern territories, with clustering in cities evident for each profession in a varying degree. The place of work of nurses and pharmacists varied when comparing the northern cities to the rest of the territories. A short analysis of fee-for-service physician data illustrated that consultations and visits are a higher proportion of services in the territories than in the rest of Canada. Survey data indicated a strong degree of satisfaction by the workforce. Conclusions: While the supply and distribution of selected health professionals is informative, there is a need for more information to better understand the working of the health care system in northern Canada. Data on Aboriginal health human resources, cultural/Indigenous healing practices and primary health care would provide greater context to understand the practice of health professionals in Canada's northern territories.
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Prenatal Exposure to Lead and Cognitive Deficit in 7- and 14-Year-Old Children in the Presence of Concomitant Exposure to Similar Molar Concentration of Methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99529
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010 Sep 21;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-21-2010
Author
Yorifuji Takashi
Debes Frodi
Weihe Pal
Grandjean Philippe
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2010 Sep 21;
Date
Sep-21-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Few studies have examined the effects of mixed metal exposures in humans. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal lead exposure in a Faroese birth cohort in the presence of similar molar-level exposure to methylmercury. A cohort of 1022 singleton births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during 1986-1987 from whom lead was measured in cord blood. A total of 896 cohort subjects participated in a clinical examination at age 7 and 808 subjects in a second examination at age 14. We evaluated the association between cord-blood lead concentrations and cognitive deficits (attention/working memory, language, visuospatial, and memory) using multiple regression models. Overall, the lead concentration showed no clear pattern of association. However, in subjects with a low methylmercury exposure, after inclusion of statistical interaction terms, lead-associated adverse effects on cognitive functions were observed. In particular, higher cord-blood lead was associated with a lower digit span forward score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) [beta=-1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.12 to -0.28] at age 7 and a lower digit span backward score on the WISC-R (beta=-2.73, 95%CI: -4.32 to -1.14) at age 14. Some interaction terms between lead and methylmercury suggested that the combined effect of the exposures was less than additive. The present study indicates that adverse effects of exposure may be overlooked if the effects of a co-pollutant are ignored. The present study supports the existence of adverse effects on cognitive functions at prenatal lead exposures corresponding to an average cord-blood concentration of 16µg/L.
PubMed ID
20868742 View in PubMed
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First Nations traditional models of wellness--Environmental scan in British Columbia

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99671
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2010
  1 website  
Author
First Nations Health Society
Date
Mar-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cultural healing
Data Collection
Elders
Health programs
Knowledge-keepers
Shared wisdom
Traditional healers
Traditional knowledge
Traditional medicines
Traditional practices
Traditional wellness
Abstract
In September 2009, the FN Health Society on behalf of the First Nations Health Council conducted an environmental scan to gather information from the 123 First Nations Health Centers in British Columbia (BC) on their views and perspectives of traditional models of wellness or traditional practices and medicines. This project is aimed at providing background information for the FN Health Society to undertake further work if needed, on promoting traditional models of wellness within BC for First Nations.
Online Resources
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Parental sun protective regimens and prevalence of common melanocytic nevi among 7-year-old children in Sweden: changes over a 5-year period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99691
Source
Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jan 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-11-2011
Author
M A Karlsson
Cf Wahlgren
K. Wiklund
Y. Rodvall
Author Affiliation
Dermatology and Venereology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Br J Dermatol. 2011 Jan 11;
Date
Jan-11-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Background: Common melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma share a common risk profile, influenced by ultraviolet exposure. A high density of common melanocytic nevi correlates with an increased life-time risk of evolving cutaneous malignant melanoma. Effective strategies for sun protection, starting in early childhood, are considered of great importance to reduce the steadily rising melanoma trend. Objective: To investigate the 5-year changes in sun tanning habits, sun protective regimens and density of common melanocytic nevi between two age-standardized populations of children. Method: Population-based cross-sectional study performed among 7-year-old children in southern Sweden 2002 and 2007. The parents answered a questionnaire and all children were examined by the same, trained research nurse. Results: A total of 1190 children were enrolled; 681 in 2002 and 509 in 2007. The results showed that sun protective regimens, such as use of sun screen (+ 29%), clothing (+ 30%), staying in the shade (+ 123%) or indoors (+ 136%) during peak sun hours, all had increased significantly (p
PubMed ID
21219291 View in PubMed
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An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99723
Source
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2010;49(6):792-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
Pamela M Phillips
Kimberly A Jarema
David M Kurtz
Robert C Macphail
Author Affiliation
Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency.
Source
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2010;49(6):792-9
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age.
PubMed ID
21205442 View in PubMed
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Addressing the public health burden caused by the nutrition transition through the Healthy Foods North nutrition and lifestyle intervention programme.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature99759
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Oct;23 Suppl 1:120-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
S. Sharma
J. Gittelsohn
R. Rosol
L. Beck
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. sangitag@ualberta.ca
Source
J Hum Nutr Diet. 2010 Oct;23 Suppl 1:120-7
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Dietary inadequacies, low levels of physical activity, excessive energy intake and high obesity prevalence have placed Inuit and Inuvialuit populations of the Canadian Arctic at increased risk of chronic disease. An evidence-based, community participatory process was used to develop Healthy Foods North (HFN), a culturally appropriate nutrition and physical activity intervention programme that aimed to reduce risk of chronic disease and improve dietary adequacy amongst Inuit/Inuvialuit in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. HFN was implemented over the course of 12 months in a series of seven phases between October 2008 and 2009 (Nunavut) and June 2008 and 2009 (Northwest Territories). Combining behaviour change and environmental strategies to increase both the availability of healthful food choices in local shops and opportunities for increasing physical activity, HFN promoted the consumption of traditional foods and nutrient-dense and/or low energy shop-bought foods, utilisation of preparation methods that do not add fat content, decreased consumption of high-energy shop-bought foods, and increased physical activity. Messages identified in the community workshops, such as the importance of family eating and sharing, were emphasised throughout the intervention. Intervention components were conducted by community staff and included working with shops to increase the stocking of healthy foods, point of purchase signage and promotion in shops and community settings, pedometer challenges in the workplace and use of community media (e.g. radio and cable television advertisements) to reinforce key messages. HFN represents an innovative multilevel approach to the reduction of chronic disease risk factors amongst Inuit and Inuvialuit, based on strong collaboration with local agencies, government and institutions.
PubMed ID
21158971 View in PubMed
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Unemployment and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134627
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela
Linda Kaerlev
Jin Liang Zhu
Jens P Bonde
Ellen A Nohr
Agustín Llopis-González
Natalia Gimeno-Clemente
Jørn Olsen
Author Affiliation
Unit of Public Health and Environmental Care, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. maria.m.morales@uv.es
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2011 Jul;39(5):449-56
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Denmark
Female
Humans
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - etiology
Pregnancy outcome
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Unemployment
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the relation between employment status, type of unemployment and pregnancy outcomes.
A cohort study of 7,282 pregnancies of unemployed women and 56,014 pregnancies among women in paid jobs was performed within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Pregnancy outcomes were ascertained and information about lifestyle, occupational, medical, and obstetric factors was obtained. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for fetal loss, congenital anomalies, multiple births, sex ratio, preterm and very preterm birth and small for gestational age status, adjusting for lifestyle, medical and obstetric factors.
There were no differences in pregnancy outcomes between employed and unemployed women but women receiving unemployment benefit had an increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.31) and having a small for gestational age child (aOR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.19) compared with employed women. Women receiving sickness or maternity benefit had an increased risk of multiple birth (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.43-2.04), preterm (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.77) and very preterm birth (aOR 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.89), while those receiving an unreported type of support had an increased risk of preterm birth (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.02-1.93).
We found no indication that being unemployed during pregnancy benefits or endangers the health of the child. Within the subgroups of unemployed women, we observed that women receiving unemployment and sickness or maternity benefits were at higher risk for some adverse pregnancy outcomes.
PubMed ID
21558297 View in PubMed
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Diet before pregnancy and the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134673
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Margaretha Haugen
Ase Vikanes
Anne Lise Brantsaeter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Andrej M Grjibovski
Per Magnus
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Department of Food Safety, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. margaretha.haugen@fhi.no
Source
Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(4):596-602
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Allium
Cohort Studies
Diet - adverse effects
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Hyperemesis Gravidarum - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Seafood
Severity of Illness Index
Water - administration & dosage
Young Adult
Abstract
Hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis), characterised by severe nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, has an unknown aetiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate food and nutrient intake before pregnancy and the risk of developing hyperemesis in women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 7710 pregnant women answered a FFQ about their diet during the 12 months before becoming pregnant and a questionnaire about illnesses during pregnancy, including hyperemesis. Only women who were hospitalised for hyperemesis were included as cases. Nutrient intakes during the year before pregnancy did not differ between the ninety-nine women who developed hyperemesis and the 7611 who did not. However, the intake of seafood, allium vegetables and water was significantly lower among women who developed hyperemesis than among women in the non-hyperemesis group. Relative risks of hyperemesis were approximated as OR, and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women in the upper tertile of seafood consumption had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the lower tertile (OR 0·56, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·98), and women in the second tertile of water intake had a lower risk of developing hyperemesis than those in the first tertile (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·25, 0·73). The findings suggest that a moderate intake of water and adherence to a healthy diet that includes vegetables and fish are associated with a lower risk of developing hyperemesis.
PubMed ID
21554820 View in PubMed
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Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011 Jul;65(7):562-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011

Perceived discrimination is associated with severity of positive and depression/anxiety symptoms in immigrants with psychosis: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134715
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:77
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Akiah O Berg
Ingrid Melle
Jan Ivar Rossberg
Kristin Lie Romm
Sara Larsson
Trine V Lagerberg
Ole A Andreassen
Edvard Hauff
Author Affiliation
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. a.o.berg@medisin.uio.no
Source
BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11:77
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - complications - diagnosis - ethnology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Depression - complications - diagnosis - ethnology - psychology
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway - ethnology
Prejudice
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - statistics & numerical data
Psychotic Disorders - complications - diagnosis - ethnology - psychology
Self Report
Social Perception
Abstract
Immigration status is a significant risk factor for psychotic disorders, and a number of studies have reported more severe positive and affective symptoms among immigrant and ethnic minority groups. We investigated if perceived discrimination was associated with the severity of these symptoms among immigrants in Norway with psychotic disorders.
Cross-sectional analyses of 90 immigrant patients (66% first-generation, 68% from Asia/Africa) in treatment for psychotic disorders were assessed for DSM-IV diagnoses with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID-I, sections A-E) and for present symptom severity by The Structured Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (SCI-PANSS). Perceived discrimination was assessed by a self-report questionnaire developed for the Immigrant Youth in Cultural Transition Study.
Perceived discrimination correlated with positive psychotic (r=0.264, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
21548949 View in PubMed
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Predicting language development at age 18 months: data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134733
Source
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011 Jun;32(5):375-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Synnve Schjølberg
Patricia Eadie
Henrik Daae Zachrisson
Anne-Siri Oyen
Margot Prior
Author Affiliation
Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. synnve.schjolberg@fhi.no
Source
J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011 Jun;32(5):375-83
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child Language
Educational Status
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Low Birth Weight - psychology
Infant, Newborn
Language Development
Language Development Disorders - diagnosis - etiology
Language Tests
Male
Mothers - psychology
Multiple Birth Offspring - psychology
Norway
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study investigated predictors of delayed language development at 18 months of age in a large population cohort of Norwegian toddlers.
Data were analyzed on 42,107 toddlers. Language outcome at age 18 months was measured using a standard parent report instrument, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, communication scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the Ages and Stages Questionnaire items. A theoretically derived set of child, family, and environmental risk factors were used to predict delayed language development at age 18 months using Generalized Estimating Equation.
A number of child factors, including being a boy, low birth weight or gestational age, or a multiple birth child were all significantly associated with low scores on the language outcome at age 18 months. Maternal distress/depression and low maternal education, having older siblings, or a non-Norwegian language background also predicted low scores on the language outcome at age 18 months. Overall, estimated variance in language outcome explained by the model was 4% to 7%.
A combination of early neurobiological and genetic factors (e.g., male gender, birth weight, and prematurity) and concurrent family variables (e.g., maternal distress/depression) were associated with slower language development at age 18 months. This finding replicated previous research conducted on slightly older language-delayed 2 year olds but also detected the importance of factors related to family resources for the first time in this younger age group. Despite this finding, most of the variability in language performance in this cohort of 18 month olds remained unexplained by the comprehensive set of purported risk factors.
PubMed ID
21546853 View in PubMed
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Functional MRI approach to developmental methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyl neurotoxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134747
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Roberta F White
Carole L Palumbo
Deborah A Yurgelun-Todd
Kristin J Heaton
Pal Weihe
Frodi Debes
Philippe Grandjean
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. rwhite@bu.edu
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2011 Dec;32(6):975-80
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - drug effects
Adolescent Development - drug effects
Age Factors
Brain - drug effects - pathology
Brain Mapping - methods
Denmark
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects
Female
Food Contamination
Humans
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Maternal Exposure
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects
Motor Activity - drug effects
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurotoxicity Syndromes - diagnosis - etiology - pathology - psychology
Photic Stimulation
Pilot Projects
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - adverse effects
Predictive value of tests
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Seafood - adverse effects
Abstract
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with deficits in cognitive, sensory, motor and other functions measured by neurobehavioral tests. The main objective of this pilot study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is effective for visualization of brain function alterations related to neurobehavior in subjects with high prenatal exposure to the two neurotoxicants, MeHg and PCBs. Twelve adolescents (all boys) from a Faroese birth cohort assembled in 1986-1987 were recruited based on their prenatal exposures to MeHg and PCB. All underwent fMRI scanning during behavioral tasks at age 15 years. Subjects with high mixed exposure to MeHg and PCBs were compared to those with low mixed exposure on fMRI photic stimulation and a motor task. Boys with low mixed exposures showed patterns of fMRI activation during visual and motor tasks that are typical of normal control subjects. However, those with high exposures showed activation in more areas of the brain and different and wider patterns of activation than the low mixed exposure group. The brain activation patterns observed in association with increased exposures to MeHg and PCBs are meaningful in regard to the known neurotoxicity of these substances. This methodology therefore has potential utility in visualizing structural neural system determinants of exposure-induced neurobehavioral dysfunction.
PubMed ID
21545807 View in PubMed
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Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134772
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Roy M Nilsen
Per Magnus
Jan Alexander
Margareta Haugen
Author Affiliation
Divisions of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. helle.margrete.meltzer@fhi.no
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec;94(6 Suppl):1970S-1974S
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Birth weight
Diet, Mediterranean
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Folic Acid - administration & dosage
Food Habits
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Nutrition Assessment
Nutritional Status
Pre-Eclampsia - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology - etiology
Premature Birth - metabolism
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Vitamin D - administration & dosage
Abstract
There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21543541 View in PubMed
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The ups and downs of social participation: experiences of wheelchair users in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134786
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(25-26):2479-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Kari Margrete Hjelle
Kjersti Vik
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Therapy, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway. kari.hjelle@hib.no
Source
Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(25-26):2479-89
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Disabled Persons - psychology
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Social Participation - psychology
Wheelchairs
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary aim of the study was to explore how people with a disability experience participation in society. A secondary aim was to contribute to the understanding of the concept of participation in terms of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).
Six people with disabilities participated in focus group discussions. The data were analysed following the guidelines for the constant comparative method.
Three main categories emerged with regard to the participants' experiences of participation in society. These included: (1) being engaged, (2) being a member of society and (3) interacting as a citizen. Furthermore, a sense of 'climbing up and sliding down the participation ladder' emerged as a core category of participation. This image reflected the dynamic interaction between individual and society; between, on one hand, an individual' attitude, engagement, motivation, interest and capacity, as well as their sense of responsibility vis-a-vis an activity or a social group; and, on the other hand, the opportunities that society and their immediate social worlds offer them.
The fact that participants experience social participation as 'climbing up and sliding down the participation ladder' is important as it enables service providers, managers and policy makers to identify which intrapersonal and environmental factors operate together to limit or enhance the social participation of people with disabilities. This also implies that there is a need for a committed relationship in issues concerning participation for all in society, between people with disabilities and urban planners, and service providers. Findings also imply that participation means being autonomous and making decisions about one's own life and that the subjective dimension of participation must be considered in the revision of the ICF model. Another consideration is to separate activity and participation into two dimensions; i.e. to render more visible the fact that participation is related to environmental, as well as to personal, factors.
PubMed ID
21542778 View in PubMed
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