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Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 polymorphisms are associated with components of energy balance in the Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105822
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):384-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2014
Author
Bénédicte Fontaine-Bisson
James Thorburn
Anne Gregory
Hongwei Zhang
Guang Sun
Author Affiliation
Nutrition Sciences Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada (BF-B), and the Discipline of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St John's, Canada (JT, AG, HZ, and GS).
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb;99(2):384-91
Date
Feb-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absorptiometry, Photon
Adult
Aged
Body Composition - genetics
Body mass index
Body Weight
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Energy Metabolism - genetics
Female
Food Habits
Gene Frequency
Gene-Environment Interaction
Haplotypes
Humans
Life Style
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Newfoundland and Labrador
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - genetics
Overweight - genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Receptors, Somatostatin - genetics - metabolism
Waist Circumference
Young Adult
Abstract
The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates energy balance and body composition in animal models. Inconsistent effects of MCHR1 polymorphisms on energy homeostasis in humans may partly be attributable to environmental factors.
We examined the effect of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs133073, rs133074, rs9611386, and rs882111) in the MCHR1 gene on body composition as well as energy-related lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity). We also examined the effect of gene-lifestyle interactions on body composition.
A total of 1153 participants (248 men and 905 women) from the cross-sectional Complex Diseases in the Newfoundland Population: Environment and Genetics (CODING) study were genotyped by using probe-based chemistry validated assays. Diet and physical activity were estimated by using validated frequency questionnaires, and body composition was assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Three polymorphisms (rs9611386, rs882111, and rs133073) were associated with differences in body-composition measurements (all P
PubMed ID
24305679 View in PubMed
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Food allergens in mattress dust in Norwegian homes - a potentially important source of allergen exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105827
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):142-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2014
Author
R J Bertelsen
C K Faeste
B. Granum
E. Egaas
S J London
K-H Carlsen
K C Lødrup Carlsen
M. Løvik
Author Affiliation
Department of Food, Water and Cosmetics, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2014 Jan;44(1):142-9
Date
Jan-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Beds - adverse effects
Child
Dust - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food - adverse effects
Food Hypersensitivity - immunology
Humans
Male
Norway
Time Factors
Abstract
Sensitization to food allergens and food allergic reactions are mostly caused by ingesting the allergen, but can also occur from exposure via the respiratory tract or the skin. Little is known about exposure to food allergens in the home environment.
The objective of this study was firstly to describe the frequency of detection of allergens from fish, egg, milk, and peanut in mattress dust collected from homes of 13-year-old adolescents and secondly to identify home characteristics associated with the presence of food allergen contamination in dust.
Food allergens were measured by dot blot analysis in mattress dust from 143 homes in Oslo, Norway. We analysed associations between home characteristics (collected by parental questionnaires and study technicians) and food allergens by multivariate regression models.
Fish allergen was detected in 46%, peanut in 41%, milk in 39%, and egg allergen in 22% of the mattress dust samples; only three samples contained none of these allergens. All four food allergens were more frequently detected in mattresses in small dwellings (
PubMed ID
24304208 View in PubMed
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Multilevel analysis of childhood nonviral gastroenteritis associated with environmental risk factors in Quebec, 1999-2006.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105912
Source
J Environ Health. 2013 Oct;76(3):34-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2013
Author
Henri Kaboré
Alexandre Lebel
Patrick Levallois
Pascal Michel
Pierre Payment
Pierre Déry
Germain Lebel
Author Affiliation
Institut national de santé publique du Quebec Centre de recherche du CHU de Québec Département de médecine sociale et préventive, Université Laval.
Source
J Environ Health. 2013 Oct;76(3):34-45
Date
Oct-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Bacterial Infections - complications - transmission
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - parasitology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Livestock - microbiology - parasitology
Multilevel Analysis
Parasitic Diseases - complications - transmission
Poisson Distribution
Population Density
Population Surveillance
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Water Microbiology
Water Resources - analysis
Zoonoses - microbiology - parasitology - transmission
Abstract
Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis is a priority for various public health authorities. Given that waterborne transmission is sometimes incriminated during investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks, the authors hypothesized that watershed characteristics may influence the occurrence of this disease and could contribute additional insights for better prevention and control. The study described here aimed to investigate watershed characteristics in relation to nonviral gastroenteritis and specifically three bacterial and parasitic forms of childhood gastroenteritis to assess their relative importance in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on children aged 0-4 years with bacterial or parasitic enteric infections reported through ongoing surveillance between 1999 and 2006 in the province of Quebec was collected. Factors measured at the municipal and watershed levels were analyzed using multilevel models with a Poisson distribution and log link function. Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis, giardiasis, and campylobacteriosis were positively associated with small ruminants and cattle density. Childhood salmonellosis was positively associated with cattle density. Also, childhood campylobacteriosis incidence was positively associated with larger watershed agricultural surface. In addition to local agroenvironmental factors, this analysis revealed an important watershed effect.
PubMed ID
24288849 View in PubMed
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The effect of socio-economic status and food availability on first birth interval in a pre-industrial human population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105931
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 22;281(1775):20132319
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-22-2014
Author
Ilona Nenko
Adam D Hayward
Virpi Lummaa
Author Affiliation
Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, , Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK, Department of Environmental Health, Jagiellonian University Medical College, , Grzegorzecka 20, Krakow 31-531, Poland.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jan 22;281(1775):20132319
Date
Jan-22-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Female
Fertility
Finland
Food Supply
Humans
Male
Nutritional Status
Reproductive Behavior
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Individual variation in nutritional status has direct implications for fitness and thus is crucial in shaping patterns of life-history variation. Nevertheless, it is difficult to measure in natural populations, especially in humans. Here, we used longitudinal data on individual life-histories and annual crop yield variation collected from pre-industrial Finnish populations experiencing natural mortality and fertility to test the validity of first birth interval (FBI; time between marriage and first birth) as a surrogate measure of nutritional status. We evaluated whether women with different socio-economic groups differ in length of FBI, whether women of poorer socio-economic status and experiencing lower crop yields conceive slower following marriage, and whether shorter FBI is associated with higher lifetime breeding success. We found that poorer women had longer FBI and reduced probability of giving birth in months with low food availability, while the FBI of richer women was not affected by variation in food availability. Women with shorter FBI achieved higher lifetime breeding success and a faster reproductive rate. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show a direct relationship between environmental conditions and speed of childbirth following marriage, highlighting the value of FBI as an indicator of nutritional status when direct data are lacking.
PubMed ID
24285194 View in PubMed
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Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105949
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:23049
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Shawn G Donaldson
Meredith S Curren
Bryan Adlard
Jonathan Provost
Tara Leech
Constantine Tikhonov
Mark Feeley
Scott Tomlinson
Russel Shearer
Author Affiliation
Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013;72:23049
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biomedical Research - methods - organization & administration - standards
Canada
Diet - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Ecosystem
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Food chain
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
Metals, Heavy - adverse effects - analysis - metabolism
Organic Chemicals - adverse effects - analysis - metabolism
Risk assessment
Abstract
Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.
Notes
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2010 Oct 15;408(22):5165-23420728918
Cites: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Feb;47(1):96-10917030369
PubMed ID
24282784 View in PubMed
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Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106006
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Dec;111(6):548-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2013
Author
Robert G Peel
Ole Hertel
Matt Smith
Roy Kennedy
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom. Electronic address: rp@dmu.dk.
Source
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013 Dec;111(6):548-54
Date
Dec-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Cities
Denmark
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Environmental Monitoring - instrumentation - methods
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - analysis
Poaceae
Pollen
Abstract
Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A 2003 World Health Organization report highlighted the need for an improved understanding of the relation between monitoring station data and actual exposure.
To investigate the relation between grass pollen dose and background concentrations measured at a monitoring station, to assess the fidelity of monitoring station data as a qualitative proxy for dose, and to evaluate the ratio of dose rate to background concentration.
Grass pollen dose data were collected in Aarhus, Denmark, in an area where grass pollen sources were prevalent, using Nasal Air Samplers. Sample collection lasted for approximately 25 to 30 minutes and was performed at 2-hour intervals from noon to midevening under moderate exercise by 2 individuals.
A median ratio of dose rate to background concentration of 0.018 was recorded, with higher ratio values frequently occurring at 12 to 2 PM, the time of day when grass species likely to be present in the area are expected to flower. From 4 to 8 PM, dose rate and background concentration data were found to be strongly and significantly correlated (rs = 0.81). Averaged dose rate and background concentration data showed opposing temporal trends.
Where local emissions are not a factor, background concentration data constitute a good quantitative proxy for inhaled dose. The present ratio of dose rate to background concentration may aid the study of dose-response relations.
PubMed ID
24267367 View in PubMed
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A comparison of hip fracture incidence rates among elderly in Sweden by latitude and sunlight exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature106015
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
Author
Finn Nilson
Syed Moniruzzaman
Ragnar Andersson
Author Affiliation
Division of Risk Management, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Mar;42(2):201-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Altitude
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Female
Hip Fractures - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sunlight
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Research has shown that hip fracture risk increases with latitude; hypothetically due to reduced sunlight exposure and its effect on bone quality. Sweden, with large differences in latitude and UV radiation, is ideal to study in order to analyse the association between latitude and UV radiation on age- and sex-specific hip fracture rates among elderly.
Aggregated (2006-2008) age- and sex-specific hip fracture data was obtained for each Swedish municipality as well as the municipality's latitudinal coordinates and aggregated (2006-2008) UV radiation levels. Pearson correlations were calculated between hip fracture incidence rates, latitude and UV radiation. Independent t tests were calculated on tertile-categorized latitudinal data in order to investigate the difference in hip fracture risk between these categories.
Statistically significant correlations were seen in all groups between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation. The independent t tests showed that this correlation was mainly due to high incidence rates in high latitude municipalities.
Statistically significant correlations are seen between hip fracture incidence rates and latitude as well as UV radiation in Sweden and the northern parts of Sweden have an increased risk of hip fractures compared to the middle and southern parts. To our knowledge this is the first study using a national discharge register that shows this relationship and provides a starting point for further research to investigate why populations in northern Sweden have a higher risk of hip fractures compared to other Swedish regions.
PubMed ID
24265166 View in PubMed
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Metabolism as a tool for understanding human brain evolution: Lipid energy metabolism as an example.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258484
Source
J Hum Evol. 2014 Dec 5;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-5-2014
Author
Shu Pei Wang
Hao Yang
Jiang Wei Wu
Nicolas Gauthier
Toshiyuki Fukao
Grant A Mitchell
Author Affiliation
Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Université de Montréal and CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175 Côte Sainte-Catherine, Montreal H3T 1C5, QC, Canada.
Source
J Hum Evol. 2014 Dec 5;
Date
Dec-5-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Genes and the environment both influence the metabolic processes that determine fitness. To illustrate the importance of metabolism for human brain evolution and health, we use the example of lipid energy metabolism, i.e. the use of fat (lipid) to produce energy and the advantages that this metabolic pathway provides for the brain during environmental energy shortage. We briefly describe some features of metabolism in ancestral organisms, which provided a molecular toolkit for later development. In modern humans, lipid energy metabolism is a regulated multi-organ pathway that links triglycerides in fat tissue to the mitochondria of many tissues including the brain. Three important control points are each suppressed by insulin. (1) Lipid reserves in adipose tissue are released by lipolysis during fasting and stress, producing fatty acids (FAs) which circulate in the blood and are taken up by cells. (2) FA oxidation. Mitochondrial entry is controlled by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1). Inside the mitochondria, FAs undergo beta oxidation and energy production in the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. (3) In liver mitochondria, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway produces ketone bodies for the brain and other organs. Unlike most tissues, the brain does not capture and metabolize circulating FAs for energy production. However, the brain can use ketone bodies for energy. We discuss two examples of genetic metabolic traits that may be advantageous under most conditions but deleterious in others. (1) A CPT1A variant prevalent in Inuit people may allow increased FA oxidation under nonfasting conditions but also predispose to hypoglycemic episodes. (2) The thrifty genotype theory, which holds that energy expenditure is efficient so as to maximize energy stores, predicts that these adaptations may enhance survival in periods of famine but predispose to obesity in modern dietary environments.
PubMed ID
25488255 View in PubMed
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Community-driven Research on Environmental Sources of H. pylori Infection in Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258492
Source
Gut Microbes. 2014 Sep 1;:0
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1-2014
Author
Emily V Hastings
Yutaka Yasui
Patrick Hanington
Karen J Goodman
The CANHelp Working Group
Author Affiliation
a School of Public Health , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.
Source
Gut Microbes. 2014 Sep 1;:0
Date
Sep-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Abstract The role of environmental reservoirs in H. pylori transmission remains uncertain due to technical difficulties in detecting living organisms in sources outside the stomach. Residents of some Canadian Arctic communities worry that contamination of the natural environment is responsible for the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in the region. This analysis aims to estimate associations between exposure to potential environmental sources of biological contamination and prevalence of H. pylori infection in Arctic Canada. Using data from 3 community-driven H. pylori projects in the Northwest and Yukon Territories, we estimated effects of environmental exposures on H. pylori prevalence, using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for household and community effects. Investigated exposures include: untreated drinking water; livestock; dogs; cats; mice or mouse droppings in the home; cleaning fish or game. Our analysis did not identify environmental exposures associated clearly with increased H. pylori prevalence, except any exposure to mice or mouse droppings (OR = 4.6, CI = 1.2-18), reported by 11% of participants. Our multilevel models showed H. pylori clustering within households, but environmental exposures accounted for little of this clustering; instead, much of it was accounted for by household composition (especially: having infected household members; number of children). Like the scientific literature on this topic, our results do not clearly implicate or rule out environmental reservoirs of H. pylori; thus, the topic remains a priority for future research. Meanwhile, H. pylori prevention research should seek strategies for reducing direct transmission from person to person.
PubMed ID
25483330 View in PubMed
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Lived experience of acute gastrointestinal illness in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut: "Just suffer through it"

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258513
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Dec 8;126C:86-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-8-2014
Author
Sherilee L Harper
Victoria L Edge
James Ford
M Kate Thomas
Scott A McEwen
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2014 Dec 8;126C:86-98
Date
Dec-8-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Enteric illness associated with foodborne and waterborne disease is thought to be common in some Canadian Indigenous communities. This study aimed to understand the lived experience of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including symptoms and severity, perceived causes, and healthcare seeking behaviors of AGI in the small Inuit community of Rigolet, Canada. A concurrent mixed quantitative and qualitative methods design was used. Two cross-sectional retrospective surveys provided quantitative data to examine self-reported AGI symptoms and the distribution of potential risk factors in the community. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with one-third of AGI cases were analyzed using a constant-comparative method to describe symptoms and severity, identify perceived risk factors, and explore health seeking behavior of AGI in Rigolet. Of the survey respondents reporting AGI, most reported symptoms of diarrhea without vomiting, followed by diarrhea with vomiting, and vomiting without diarrhea. The most common secondary symptoms included stomach cramps and abdominal pain, nausea, and extreme tiredness. Community members identified potential risk factors for AGI that reflect the epidemiology triad (host, agent, and environmental factors), including hygiene, retail food, tap water, boil water advisories, and personal stress. Risk aversion and healthcare seeking behaviors reflected the core constructs of the Health Belief Model (perceived susceptibility, severity, and benefits and barriers to action). Understanding community experience, perspectives, and beliefs related to AGI is useful for public health practitioners and health care providers. This information is important especially considering the relatively high estimated burden of AGI and the relatively low healthcare seeking behaviors in some Indigenous communities compared to national estimates. Moreover, the mixed-methods approach used to understand the burden of AGI could be extended to other health research in Indigenous contexts.
PubMed ID
25528558 View in PubMed
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Factors behind leisure-time physical activity behavior based on Finnish twin studies: the role of genetic and environmental influences and the role of motives.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258545
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:931820
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Sari Aaltonen
Urho M Kujala
Jaakko Kaprio
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:931820
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Behavior
Finland
Gene-Environment Interaction
Humans
Leisure Activities
Motivation - physiology
Motor Activity - physiology
Abstract
Different approaches are being taken to clarify the role of various factors in the development of physical activity behaviors. Genetic studies are a new area of physical activity research and also the motives for physical activity have been widely studied. The purpose of this paper is to review the findings emerging from the longitudinal genetic studies on leisure-time physical activity and to evaluate the associations between motivational factors and leisure-time physical activity. The focus is to review recent findings of longitudinal Finnish twin studies. The results of the latest longitudinal Finnish twin studies point to the existence of age-specific genetic and environmental influences on leisure-time physical activity. Variations in environmental factors seem to explain the observed deterioration in leisure-time physical activity levels. A decline in genetic influences is seen first from adolescence to young adulthood and again from the age of thirty to the mid-thirties. In the Finnish twin participants, mastery, physical fitness, and psychological state were the major motivation factors associated with consistent leisure-time physical activity behavior. The results also indicate that intrinsic motivation factors may be important for engagement in leisure-time physical activity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24809061 View in PubMed
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[Evaluation of the clinical, psychological and socio-environmental factors, affecting disability of elderly people undergoing surgical myocardial revascularization].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258668
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2014;27(2):382-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
R K Kantemirova
Z D Fidarova
S G Krivenkov
V Kh Khavinson
K L Kozlov
Source
Adv Gerontol. 2014;27(2):382-8
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological - physiology
Age Factors
Aged
Disability Evaluation
Female
Health Status Disparities
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology - psychology - surgery
Myocardial Revascularization - methods - psychology - rehabilitation
Postoperative Period
Prognosis
Return to Work - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Social Adjustment
Social Support
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Factors significant for clinical-and-labor prognosis in elderly patients with ischemic heart disease after surgical myocardial revascularization are considered in the article. The authors demonstrate that for each level of the problem there are their own significant factors. Besides, the most essential correlations between investigated factors are marked out. The results obtained will enable to determine more correctly clinical-and-labor prognosis for patients with ischemic heart disease and develop their efficient rehabilitation programs. It is demonstrated that elderly patients have some features of vital activity restriction which are necessary to take into account while medical social expertise and rehabilitation program development.
PubMed ID
25306675 View in PubMed
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Environmental exposures and the risk of multiple sclerosis investigated in a Norwegian case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258707
Source
BMC Neurol. 2014;14:196
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Marte Wendel Gustavsen
Christian Magnus Page
Stine Marit Moen
Anja Bjølgerud
Pål Berg-Hansen
Gro Owren Nygaard
Leiv Sandvik
Benedicte Alexandra Lie
Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius
Hanne F Harbo
Source
BMC Neurol. 2014;14:196
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Case-Control Studies
Cats
Dogs
Environmental Exposure
Female
Humans
Infectious Mononucleosis - complications
Male
Middle Aged
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology - etiology
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pets
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Several environmental exposures, including infection with Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D and smoking are established risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, high hygienic standard and infection with parasites have been proposed to influence MS risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various environmental exposures on MS risk in a Norwegian cohort, focusing on factors during childhood related to the hygiene hypothesis.
A questionnaire concerning environmental exposures, lifestyle, demographics and comorbidity was administrated to 756 Norwegian MS patients and 1090 healthy controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of MS associated with the variables infectious mononucleosis, severe infection during childhood, vaccination and animals in the household during childhood. Age, gender, HLA-DRB1*15:01, smoking and infectious mononucleosis were included as covariates. General environmental exposures, including tobacco use, were also evaluated.
Infectious mononucleosis was confirmed to be significantly associated with increased MS risk, also after adjusting for the covariates (OR?=?1.79, 95% CI: 1.12-2.87, p?=?0.016). The controls more often reported growing up with a cat and/or a dog in the household, and this was significant for ownership of cat also after adjusting for the covariates (OR?=?0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.78, p?=?0.001). More patients than controls reported smoking and fewer patients reported snuff use.
In this Norwegian MS case-control study of environmental exposures, we replicate that infectious mononucleosis and smoking are associated with increased MS risk. Our data also indicate a protective effect on MS of exposure to cats during childhood, in accordance with the hypothesis that risk of autoimmune diseases like MS may increase with high hygienic standard.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25274070 View in PubMed
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Contaminant levels in the world's northernmost harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258753
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):140-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2014
Author
Heli Routti
Christian Lydersen
Linda Hanssen
Kit M Kovacs
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Oct 15;87(1-2):140-6
Date
Oct-15-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adipose Tissue - chemistry
Animals
Environmental monitoring
Female
Male
Norway
Pesticides - chemistry - metabolism
Phenols - blood - chemistry
Phoca
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - chemistry - metabolism
Water Pollutants, Chemical - chemistry - metabolism
Abstract
The world's northernmost harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population, which inhabits Svalbard, Norway, constitutes a genetically distinct population. The present study reports concentrations of 14 PCBs, 5 chlordanes, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, and, a-, ß-and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in blubber, and pentachlorophenol, 4-OH-heptachlorostyrene, 10 OH-PCBs and 14 perfluoroalkyl substances in plasma of live-captured harbor seals from this population (4 males, 4 females, 4 juveniles), sampled in 2009-2010. Concentrations of PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane, a-HCH and mirex and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates in Svalbard harbor seals were considerably lower than harbor seal from more southerly populations, while concentrations of HCB, OH-PCBs and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates were similar for harbor seals from Svalbard and southern areas. Concentrations of PCBs and pesticides in the Svalbard harbor seals were 60-90% lower than levels determined a decade ago in this same population. Current concentrations of legacy POPs are not considered a health risk to the harbor seals from Svalbard.
PubMed ID
25152181 View in PubMed
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Common etiological factors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior: a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258813
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
Therese Ljung
Qi Chen
Paul Lichtenstein
Henrik Larsson
Source
JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Aug;71(8):958-64
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - etiology - genetics
Cohort Studies
Comorbidity
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Risk
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The prevention of suicidal behavior is one of the most important tasks for mental health clinicians. Although a few studies have indicated an increased risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the development of more effective ways of identifying and modifying the risk is hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms for this association.
To explore whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidal behavior share genetic and environmental risk factors.
Matched cohort design across different levels of family relatedness recorded from January 1, 1987, to December 31, 2009. We identified 51?707 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (through patient and prescribed drug registers) in Sweden and their relatives by linking longitudinal population-based registers. Control participants were matched 1:5 on sex and birth year.
Any record of suicide attempt or completed suicide defined by discharge diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases.
Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands) had increased risks of attempted and completed suicide, even after adjusting for comorbid psychiatric disorders (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.62 [95% CI, 3.29-3.98] and 5.91 [95% CI, 2.45-14.27], respectively). The highest familial risk was observed among first-degree relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?2.42 [95% CI, 2.36-2.49] among parents of probands with ADHD and OR?=?2.28 [95% CI, 2.17-2.40] among full siblings of probands with ADHD; completed suicide: OR?=?2.24 [95% CI, 2.06-2.43] and OR?=?2.23 [1.83-2.73], respectively), whereas the risk was considerably lower among more genetically distant relatives (attempted suicide: OR?=?1.59 [95% CI, 1.47-1.73] among maternal half siblings, OR?=?1.57 [95% CI, 1.45-1.70] among paternal half siblings, and OR?=?1.39 [95% CI, 1.35-1.43] among cousins; completed suicide: OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.08-2.10], OR?=?2.02 [95% CI, 1.47-2.79], and OR?=?1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). These familial aggregation patterns remained similar across sex, after excluding relatives with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and probands with suicidal behavior, and after excluding probands and relatives with severe comorbid disorders.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is associated with an increased risk of both attempted and completed suicide. The pattern of familial risks across different levels of relatedness suggests that shared genetic factors are important for this association. This is an important first step toward identifying the underlying mechanisms for the risk of suicidal behavior in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suggests that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their family members are important targets for suicide prevention and treatment.
PubMed ID
24964928 View in PubMed
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Associations of traffic noise with self-rated health and psychotropic medication use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258854
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):235-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2014
Author
Jaana I Halonen
Timo Lanki
Tarja Yli-Tuomi
Anu W Turunen
Jaana Pentti
Mika Kivimäki
Jussi Vahtera
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):235-43
Date
May-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Antipsychotic Agents - therapeutic use
Automobile Driving
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Noise
Prospective Studies
Self-Assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
Road traffic noise is a common environmental nuisance, which has been thought to increase the risk of many types of health problems. However, population-level evidence often remains scarce. This study examined whether road traffic noise is associated with self-rated health and use of psychotropic medication in a cohort of public sector employees.
Data are from the Finnish Public Sector Study cohort. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to link modeled outdoor road traffic noise levels (L den) to residential addresses of 15 611 men and women with cross-sectional survey responses on self-rated health and register-based information on the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotics. High trait anxiety scores were used to identify potentially vulnerable individuals. The analyses were run with logistic regression models adjusting for individual and area-level variables. All participants were blind to the aim of the study.
Mean level of road traffic noise at participants' home addresses was 52 decibels (dB) (standard deviation 8.1). Noise level >60 dB versus =45 dB was associated with poor self-rated health in men [odds ratio (OR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.14-2.21]. Further stratification revealed that the association was evident only among men with high trait anxiety scores (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). No association was found with psychotropic medication use or among women.
Exposure to road traffic noise was not associated with increased use of psychotropic medication, although it was associated with weakened self-rated health among men.
Notes
Comment In: Scand J Work Environ Health. 2014 May 1;40(3):211-324668139
PubMed ID
24788851 View in PubMed
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E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258871
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:52
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Annika Nilsson
Marianne Andrén
Maria Engström
Source
BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:52
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Clinical Competence - standards
Educational Measurement - methods - standards
Female
Health Personnel - education - standards
Health Services for the Aged - standards
Humans
Learning
Male
Middle Aged
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires - standards
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.
Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education.
Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives.
The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.
Notes
Cites: J Postgrad Med. 2002 Jul-Sep;48(3):206-812432198
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PubMed ID
24742168 View in PubMed
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Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: a Danish case-control study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258885
Source
BMC Cancer. 2014;14:255
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg
Jaymie R Meliker
Annette Kjær Ersbøll
Geoffrey M Jacquez
Aslak Harbo Poulsen
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Source
BMC Cancer. 2014;14:255
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Environment
Female
Humans
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups, and for 66% of the study population we also conducted analyses adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators.
In the crude analyses a cluster in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen was consistently found throughout the study period (1971-2003) with both control groups. When analyses were adjusted for individual reproductive factors and area-level socioeconomic indicators, the cluster area became smaller and less evident.
The breast cancer cluster area that persisted after adjustment might be explained by factors that were not accounted for such as alcohol consumption and use of hormone replacement therapy. However, we cannot exclude environmental pollutants as a contributing cause, but no pollutants specific to this area seem obvious.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24725434 View in PubMed
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Celiac disease risk varies between birth cohorts, generating hypotheses about causality: evidence from 36 years of population-based follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258907
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Fredinah Namatovu
Olof Sandström
Cecilia Olsson
Marie Lindkvist
Anneli Ivarsson
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:59
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Causality
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Registries
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a major public health problem with estimated 1-3% prevalence in the general population. In recent years an increase in CD prevalence has been reported both in Sweden and worldwide. This study aimed at examining the annual incidence rate of biopsy-proven celiac disease among children in Sweden over a 36-year period, to assess variations by age, sex and birth cohort, and to assess the clinical impact of these changes.
The National Swedish Childhood CD Register was used to identify 9107 children aged 0-14.9 years who were diagnosed with CD during the period 1973 to 2009. From 1973 to 1990 the register covered 15% of the nation, this increased to 40% during 1991-1997; a full national coverage was obtained from 1998 onwards. Estimations for the annual incidence rate, cumulative incidence and clinical impact by age groups, calendar month and birth cohorts were made.
CD incidence is continuing to increase in the child population aged 2-14.9 years. A continued variation in CD incidence was observed in children aged 0-1.9 years, characterized by a marked decrease in most recent years. The median age at diagnosis has increased from 1.0 year in the 1970s to 6.8 years in 2009. The average number of new cases has risen from ~200 during 1973-1983 to ~600 during 2004-2009. In the birth cohorts of 2000-2002 the cumulative incidence even exceeded that of the epidemic cohorts at comparable ages. The highest cumulative incidence was observed in the birth cohorts of 1985-1995 and 2000-2002.
CD risk varies between birth cohorts, suggesting cyclic environmental and/or lifestyle risk factors in CD etiology. More research on underlying risk factors is required in order to move forward with preventive strategies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24693975 View in PubMed
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Large outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection transmitted through the public water supply, Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258924
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
Micael Widerström
Caroline Schönning
Mikael Lilja
Marianne Lebbad
Thomas Ljung
Görel Allestam
Martin Ferm
Britta Björkholm
Anette Hansen
Jari Hiltula
Jonas Långmark
Margareta Löfdahl
Maria Omberg
Christina Reuterwall
Eva Samuelsson
Katarina Widgren
Anders Wallensten
Johan Lindh
Source
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;20(4):581-9
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Cryptosporidiosis - epidemiology - microbiology
Cryptosporidium - isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Sweden - epidemiology
Water
Water Microbiology
Water Purification - methods
Water supply
Young Adult
Abstract
In November 2010, ˜27,000 (˜45%) inhabitants of Östersund, Sweden, were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. The outbreak was characterized by a rapid onset and high attack rate, especially among young and middle-aged persons. Young age, number of infected family members, amount of water consumed daily, and gluten intolerance were identified as risk factors for acquiring cryptosporidiosis. Also, chronic intestinal disease and young age were significantly associated with prolonged diarrhea. Identification of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 in human and environmental samples and consistently low numbers of oocysts in drinking water confirmed insufficient reduction of parasites by the municipal water treatment plant. The current outbreak shows that use of inadequate microbial barriers at water treatment plants can have serious consequences for public health. This risk can be minimized by optimizing control of raw water quality and employing multiple barriers that remove or inactivate all groups of pathogens.
Notes
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