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Distance to high-voltage power lines and risk of childhood leukemia--an analysis of confounding by and interaction with other potential risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263553
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107096
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Camilla Pedersen
Elvira V Bräuner
Naja H Rod
Vanna Albieri
Claus E Andersen
Kaare Ulbak
Ole Hertel
Christoffer Johansen
Joachim Schüz
Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(9):e107096
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Factors
Air Pollutants - adverse effects
Air Pollution - adverse effects
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child, Preschool
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Denmark - epidemiology
Electric Wiring - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Humans
Infant
Leukemia - epidemiology - etiology
Odds Ratio
Radon - adverse effects
Registries
Residence Characteristics
Risk
Risk factors
Abstract
We investigated whether there is an interaction between distance from residence at birth to nearest power line and domestic radon and traffic-related air pollution, respectively, in relation to childhood leukemia risk. Further, we investigated whether adjusting for potential confounders alters the association between distance to nearest power line and childhood leukemia. We included 1024 cases aged
Notes
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PubMed ID
25259740 View in PubMed
Less detail

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) from the Beaufort Sea and associative fish health effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263569
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Oct 7;48(19):11629-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-7-2014
Author
Gregg T Tomy
Thor Halldorson
Greg Chernomas
Lianna Bestvater
Kirstin Danegerfield
Tom Ward
Kerri Pleskach
Gary Stern
Sheila Atchison
Andrew Majewski
James D Reist
Vince P Palace
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Oct 7;48(19):11629-36
Date
Oct-7-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Canada
Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Gadiformes
Geography
Iodide Peroxidase - metabolism
Liver - chemistry - drug effects
Oceans and Seas
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis
Reference Values
Vitamin A - analogs & derivatives - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
In 2012, Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) were collected from offshore regions of the Beaufort Sea to determine the concentrations of CYP1A1 phase I metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) in liver and to correlate measured concentrations with (i) morphometric measurements that are known to be indicative of fish health and, (ii) biochemical end points of health including vitamin A/E and metabolites and hepatic deiodinase activity (DI). Four ring OH-PAHs were detected in 90% of our samples with a mean liver concentration of 1829.2 ± 159.2 ng/g (ww). Total (?) concentrations of 5/6-membered ring OH-PAHs in liver were smaller [mean of 931.6 ± 104.3 ng/g, (ww)] and detected less frequently (75%) than the 4-ring OH-PAHs. Fish length and liver weight were both negatively correlated to ? concentrations of 4-ringed OH-PAHs (p 0.1). There was a significant positive relationship between DI and 4-ring OH-PAHs (p
PubMed ID
25187975 View in PubMed
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Local country food sources of methylmercury, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids in Nunavik, Northern Quebec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263579
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Author
M. Lemire
M. Kwan
A E Laouan-Sidi
G. Muckle
C. Pirkle
P. Ayotte
E. Dewailly
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - analysis
Female
Food Contamination - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Methylmercury compounds - analysis
Quebec
Selenium - analysis
Abstract
Country foods are central to Inuit culture and replete in selenium (Se) and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, some marine country foods bioaccumulate high concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg). Se and n-3 are associated with several health benefits in Nunavik, Northern Quebec, but, recent studies show that prenatal MeHg exposure is associated with visual, cognitive and behavioral deficit later in childhood. The study objectives are to identify contemporary country food sources of MeHg, Se and long-chain n-3 PUFA in Nunavik, particularly among childbearing-age women, taking into account regional differences in consumption profiles. The contribution of different country foods to daily MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (µg/kg body weight/day) was estimated using: (i) country food consumption and blood biomarkers data from the 2004 Nunavik Health Survey (387 women, 315 men), and (ii) data on MeHg, Se, long-chain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in Nunavik wildlife species. In the region where most traditional beluga hunting takes place in Nunavik, the prevalence of at-risk blood Hg (= 8 µg/L) in childbearing-age women was 78.4%. While most country foods presently consumed contain low MeHg, beluga meat, not a staple of the Inuit diet, is the most important contributor to MeHg: up to two-thirds of MeHg intake in the beluga-hunting region (0.66 of MeHg intake) and to about one-third in other regions. In contrast, seal liver and beluga mattaaq - beluga skin and blubber - only mildly contributed to MeHg (between 0.06 and 0.15 of MeHg intake), depending on the region. Beluga mattaaq also highly contributed to Se intake (0.30 of Se intake). Arctic char, beluga blubber and mattaaq, and seal blubber contributed to most long-chain n-3 PUFA intake. This study highlights the importance of considering interconnections between local ecosystems and dietary habits to develop recommendations and interventions promoting country foods' benefits, while minimizing the risk of MeHg from beluga meat, especially for childbearing-age women.
PubMed ID
25135671 View in PubMed
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Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263584
Source
J Hazard Mater. 2014 Aug 30;279:518-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-2014
Author
Hans Sanderson
Patrik Fauser
Malene Rahbek
Jørn Bo Larsen
Source
J Hazard Mater. 2014 Aug 30;279:518-26
Date
Aug-30-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Chemical Warfare Agents - toxicity
Denmark
Drug Residues - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Environmental pollution
Fishes - physiology
Geologic Sediments - analysis
Germany
Health Status Indicators
Natural Gas
Russia
Seawater - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012).
PubMed ID
25113514 View in PubMed
Less detail

Maternal hormonal contraceptive use and offspring overweight or obesity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263595
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Oct;38(10):1275-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
E T Jensen
J L Daniels
T. Stürmer
W R Robinson
C J Williams
D. Moster
P B Juliusson
K. Vejrup
P. Magnus
M P Longnecker
Source
Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Oct;38(10):1275-81
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Contraceptive Agents, Female - adverse effects - pharmacology
Contraceptives, Oral, Combined - adverse effects
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pediatric Obesity - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, Unplanned
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Abstract
Experiments in animal models have shown a positive association between in utero exposure to pharmacologic sex hormones and offspring obesity. The developmental effects of such hormones on human obesity are unknown.
Using data from a large, prospective pregnancy cohort study (n=19?652), with linkage to a national prescription registry, we evaluated the association between use of hormonal contraceptives before and after conception (defined from dispensed prescription data and characterized by last date of use relative to conception, 12 to >4 months before (n=3392), 4 to >1 months before (n=2541), 1 to >0 months before (n=2997) and 0-12 weeks after (n=567)) in relation to offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 years.
We observed a weak, inverse association between early pregnancy use of a combination oral contraceptive and offspring overweight or obesity at age 3 (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 1.08) and a positive, but imprecise, association with use of a progestin-only oral contraceptive in early pregnancy (adjusted OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.79, 2.02). In general, no association was observed between the use of a hormonal contraceptive before conception and offspring overweight or obesity. A sensitivity analysis comparing combination oral contraceptive users in early pregnancy to other unplanned pregnancies without hormonal contraceptive use further strengthened the inverse association (adjusted OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.02). Other sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the associations observed given varying assumptions.
Pharmacologic sex hormones in early pregnancy may be inversely or positively associated with offspring overweight or obesity at age 3, depending on the specific formulation used. The present study provides support for the potential for environmental sources of hormonally active agents to exert developmental effects.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24984751 View in PubMed
Less detail

Recent progress on our understanding of the biological effects of mercury in fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263600
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:91-103
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Author
Anton Scheuhammer
Birgit Braune
Hing Man Chan
Héloïse Frouin
Anke Krey
Robert Letcher
Lisa Loseto
Marie Noël
Sonja Ostertag
Peter Ross
Mark Wayland
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:91-103
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - toxicity
Fishes
Mercury - toxicity
Abstract
This review summarizes our current state of knowledge regarding the potential biological effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on fish and wildlife in the Canadian Arctic. Although Hg in most freshwater fish from northern Canada was not sufficiently elevated to be of concern, a few lakes in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut contained fish of certain species (e.g. northern pike, Arctic char) whose muscle Hg concentrations exceeded an estimated threshold range (0.5-1.0 µg g(-1) wet weight) within which adverse biological effects begin to occur. Marine fish species generally had substantially lower Hg concentrations than freshwater fish; but the Greenland shark, a long-lived predatory species, had mean muscle Hg concentrations exceeding the threshold range for possible effects on health or reproduction. An examination of recent egg Hg concentrations for marine birds from the Canadian Arctic indicated that mean Hg concentration in ivory gulls from Seymour Island fell within the threshold range associated with adverse effects on reproduction in birds. Mercury concentrations in brain tissue of beluga whales and polar bears were generally lower than levels associated with neurotoxicity in mammals, but were sometimes high enough to cause subtle neurochemical changes that can precede overt neurotoxicity. Harbour seals from western Hudson Bay had elevated mean liver Hg concentrations along with comparatively high muscle Hg concentrations indicating potential health effects from methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on this subpopulation. Because current information is generally insufficient to determine with confidence whether Hg exposure is impacting the health of specific fish or wildlife populations in the Canadian Arctic, biological effects studies should comprise a major focus of future Hg research in the Canadian Arctic. Additionally, studies on cellular interactions between Hg and selenium (Se) are required to better account for potential protective effects of Se on Hg toxicity, especially in large predatory Arctic fish, birds, and mammals.
PubMed ID
24935263 View in PubMed
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Iodine concentrations in Danish groundwater: historical data assessment 1933-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263609
Source
Environ Geochem Health. 2014 Dec;36(6):1151-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Denitza Dimitrova Voutchkova
Søren Munch Kristiansen
Birgitte Hansen
Vibeke Ernstsen
Brian Lyngby Sørensen
Kim H Esbensen
Source
Environ Geochem Health. 2014 Dec;36(6):1151-64
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Environmental monitoring
Groundwater - chemistry
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Iodine - analysis
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - history
Abstract
In areas where water is a major source of dietary iodine (I), the I concentration in drinking water is an important factor for public health and epidemiological understandings. In Denmark, almost all of the drinking water is originating from groundwater. Therefore, understanding the I variation in groundwater and governing factors and processes are crucial. In this study, we perform uni- and multivariate analyses of all available historical Danish I groundwater data from 1933 to 2011 (n?=?2,562) to give an overview on the I variability for first time and to discover possible geochemical associations between I and twenty other elements and parameters. Special attention is paid on the description and the quality assurance of this complex compilation of historical data. The high variability of I in Danish groundwater (
PubMed ID
24861191 View in PubMed
Less detail

Pre-industrial and recent (1970-2010) atmospheric deposition of sulfate and mercury in snow on southern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263611
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:104-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-15-2015
Author
Christian Zdanowicz
Eva Kruemmel
David Lean
Alexandre Poulain
Christophe Kinnard
Emmanuel Yumvihoze
JiuBin Chen
Holger Hintelmann
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:104-14
Date
Mar-15-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Arctic Regions
Atmosphere
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Ice Cover - chemistry
Mercury - analysis
Snow - chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Sulfate (SO4(2-)) and mercury (Hg) are airborne pollutants transported to the Arctic where they can affect properties of the atmosphere and the health of marine or terrestrial ecosystems. Detecting trends in Arctic Hg pollution is challenging because of the short period of direct observations, particularly of actual deposition. Here, we present an updated proxy record of atmospheric SO4(2-) and a new 40-year record of total Hg (THg) and monomethyl Hg (MeHg) deposition developed from a firn core (P2010) drilled from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada. The updated P2010 record shows stable mean SO4(2-) levels over the past 40 years, which is inconsistent with observations of declining atmospheric SO4(2-) or snow acidity in the Arctic during the same period. A sharp THg enhancement in the P2010 core ca 1991 is tentatively attributed to the fallout from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Hekla. Although MeHg accumulation on Penny Ice Cap had remained constant since 1970, THg accumulation increased after the 1980s. This increase is not easily explained by changes in snow accumulation, marine aerosol inputs or air mass trajectories; however, a causal link may exist with the declining sea-ice cover conditions in the Baffin Bay sector. The ratio of THg accumulation between pre-industrial times (reconstructed from archived ice cores) and the modern industrial era is estimated at between 4- and 16-fold, which is consistent with estimates from Arctic lake sediment cores. The new P2010 THg record is the first of its kind developed from the Baffin Island region of the eastern Canadian Arctic and one of very few such records presently available in the Arctic. As such, it may help to bridge the knowledge gap linking direct observation of gaseous Hg in the Arctic atmosphere and actual net deposition and accumulation in various terrestrial media.
PubMed ID
24835341 View in PubMed
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Climate Change in the North American Arctic: A One Health Perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263661
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-13-2015
Author
Joseph P Dudley
Eric P Hoberg
Emily J Jenkins
Alan J Parkinson
Source
Ecohealth. 2015 Jun 13;
Date
Jun-13-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change is expected to increase the prevalence of acute and chronic diseases among human and animal populations within the Arctic and subarctic latitudes of North America. Warmer temperatures are expected to increase disease risks from food-borne pathogens, water-borne diseases, and vector-borne zoonoses in human and animal populations of Arctic landscapes. Existing high levels of mercury and persistent organic pollutant chemicals circulating within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Arctic latitudes are a major concern for the reproductive health of humans and other mammals, and climate warming will accelerate the mobilization and biological amplification of toxic environmental contaminants. The adverse health impacts of Arctic warming will be especially important for wildlife populations and indigenous peoples dependent upon subsistence food resources from wild plants and animals. Additional research is needed to identify and monitor changes in the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans, domestic dogs, and wildlife species of critical subsistence, cultural, and economic importance to Arctic peoples. The long-term effects of climate warming in the Arctic cannot be adequately predicted or mitigated without a comprehensive understanding of the interactive and synergistic effects between environmental contaminants and pathogens in the health of wildlife and human communities in Arctic ecosystems. The complexity and magnitude of the documented impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems, and the intimacy of connections between their human and wildlife communities, makes this region an appropriate area for development of One Health approaches to identify and mitigate the effects of climate warming at the community, ecosystem, and landscape scales.
PubMed ID
26070525 View in PubMed
Less detail

Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263756
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
M S Petersen
J. Halling
P. Weihe
T K Jensen
P. Grandjean
F. Nielsen
N. Jørgensen
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:345-51
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Endocrine Disruptors - blood
Environmental Exposure
Environmental pollutants - blood
Fluoroimmunoassay
Gonadal Hormones - blood
Humans
Immunoenzyme Techniques
Male
Middle Aged
Peptide Hormones - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Semen - chemistry - drug effects
Semen Analysis
Spermatogenesis - drug effects
Young Adult
Abstract
Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions.
The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men.
Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters.
A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0.01) and FSH (p=0.05). We found no association between the serum PCB concentration and the semen quality variables.
In this population of highly exposed fertile men, the current serum-PCB concentration was associated with higher androgen/estrogen ratio. Further studies are needed to establish the findings and further document PCB-associated hormonal effects, any time windows of increased susceptibility, and the role of PCB in sub-fecundity.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25766940 View in PubMed
Less detail

Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables - the relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263763
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:181-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Anna L M Augustsson
Terese E Uddh-Söderberg
K Johan Hogmalm
Monika E M Filipsson
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:181-90
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cadmium - analysis - metabolism
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Food contamination - analysis
Humans
Lead - analysis - metabolism
Lettuce - metabolism
Risk Assessment - standards
Soil Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Solanum tuberosum - metabolism
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Sweden
Abstract
Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable.
PubMed ID
25723126 View in PubMed
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Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263766
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:93-100
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Erin O Semmens
Curtis W Noonan
Ryan W Allen
Emily C Weiler
Tony J Ward
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Apr;138:93-100
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - prevention & control
Alaska
Child
Environmental monitoring
Female
Heating
Humans
Idaho
Inhalation Exposure
Male
Montana
Particle Size
Particulate Matter - analysis
Rural Population
Seasons
Socioeconomic Factors
Wood - toxicity
Abstract
Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (
Notes
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PubMed ID
25701812 View in PubMed
Less detail

The characteristics of ubiquitous and unique Leptospira strains from the collection of Russian centre for leptospirosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263810
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:649034
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Olga L Voronina
Marina S Kunda
Ekaterina I Aksenova
Natalia N Ryzhova
Andrey N Semenov
Evgeny M Petrov
Lubov V Didenko
Vladimir G Lunin
Yuliya V Ananyina
Alexandr L Gintsburg
Source
Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:649034
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Genetic Loci
Genome, Bacterial - genetics
Genotype
Leptospira - genetics - ultrastructure
Leptospirosis - microbiology
Molecular Sequence Data
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Phenotype
Phylogeny
Russia
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Abstract
Leptospira, the causal agent of leptospirosis, has been isolated from the environment, patients, and wide spectrum of animals in Russia. However, the genetic diversity of Leptospira in natural and anthropurgic foci was not clearly defined.
The recent MLST scheme was used for the analysis of seven pathogenic species. 454 pyrosequencing technology was the base of the whole genome sequencing (WGS).
The most wide spread and prevalent Leptospira species in Russia were L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, and L. borgpetersenii. Five STs, common for Russian strains: 37, 17, 199, 110, and 146, were identified as having a longtime and ubiquitous distribution in various geographic areas. Unexpected properties were revealed for the environmental Leptospira strain Bairam-Ali. WGS of this strain genome suggested that it combined the features of the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains and may be a reservoir of the natural resistance genes. Results of the comparative analysis of rrs and rpoB genes and MLST loci for different Leptospira species strains and phenotypic and serological properties of the strain Bairam-Ali suggested that it represented separate Leptospira species.
Thus, the natural and anthropurgic foci supported ubiquitous Leptospira species and the pool of genes important for bacterial adaptivity to various conditions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25276806 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Topical issues of biological safety under current conditions. Part 3. Scientific provision for the national regulation of the biological safety framework in its broad interpretation].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263903
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2014;(11-12):118-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
G G Onishchenko
V Yu Smolensky
E B Ezhlova
Yu V Demina
V P Toporkov
A V Toporkov
M N Lyapin
V V Kutyrev
Source
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2014;(11-12):118-27
Date
2014
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Warfare
Civil Defense - methods - organization & administration
Disaster Planning - methods - organization & administration
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Government Programs
Humans
Public Policy
Russia
Safety
Toxins, Biological
Abstract
Consequent of investigation concerned with biological safety (BS) framework development in its broad interpretation, reflected in the Russian Federation State Acts, identified have been conceptual entity parameters of the up-to-date broad interpretation of BS, which have formed a part of the developed by the authors system for surveillance (prophylaxis, localization, indication, identification, and diagnostics) and control (prophylaxis, localization, and response/elimination) over the emergency situations of biological (sanitary-epidemiological) character. The System functionality is activated through supplying the content with information data which are concerned with monitoring and control of specific internal and external threats in the sphere of BS provision fixed in the Supplement 2 of the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005), and with the previously characterized nomenclature of hazardous biological factors. The system is designed as a network-based research-and-practice tool for evaluation of the situation in the sphere of BS provision, as well as assessment of efficacy of management decision making as regards BS control and proper State policy implementation. Most of the system elements either directly or indirectly relate to the scope of activities conducted by Federal Service for Surveillance in the Sphere of Consumers Rights Protection and Human Welfare, being substantial argument for allocating coordination functions in the sphere of BS provision to this government agency and consistent with its function as the State Coordinator on IHR (2005). The data collected serve as materials to Draft Federal Law "Concerning biological safety provision of the population".
PubMed ID
25971137 View in PubMed
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Determinants of dietary behavior and physical activity among Canadian Inuit: a systematic review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263931
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12(1):84
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Victor O Akande
Anna M Hendriks
Robert A C Ruiter
Stef P J Kremers
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12(1):84
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Increased dependence on Western diets and low physical activity have largely contributed to weight gain and associated chronic diseases in the Canadian Inuit population. The purpose of this study was to systematically review factors influencing dietary and physical activity behaviors to guide health promotion interventions and provide recommendations for future studies.
We conducted a systematic literature review to identify relevant articles. Searches were conducted between May 2014 and July 2014, and inclusive of articles published up until July 2014. Articles were searched using four databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Eligible studies focused on diet and/or physical activity or determinants of diet and/or physical activity in Canadian Inuit population, and were published in English.
A total of 45 articles were included in the analysis. A detailed appraisal of the articles suggested that many Inuit have disconnected from the traditional ways of life, including harvesting and processing of traditional food species and the associated physical activity. In the last two decades there has been a significant shift from consumption of healthy traditional foods to energy-dense store-bought foods particularly among younger Inuit (
Notes
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PubMed ID
26104152 View in PubMed
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Sleep Disorders in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and Residents of Regional and Remote Australia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263944
Source
J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Jun 11;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-11-2015
Author
Cindy E Woods
Karen McPherson
Erik Tikoft
Kim Usher
Fariborz Hosseini
Janine Ferns
Hubertus Jersmann
Ral Antic
Graeme Paul Maguire
Source
J Clin Sleep Med. 2015 Jun 11;
Date
Jun-11-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To compare the use of sleep diagnostic tests, the risks, and cofactors, and outcomes of the care of Indigenous and non-indigenous Australian adults in regional and remote Australia in whom sleep related breathing disorders have been diagnosed.
A retrospective cohort study of 200 adults; 100 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and 100 non-indigenous adults with a confirmed sleep related breathing disorder diagnosed prior to September 2011 at Alice Springs Hospital and Cairns Hospital, Australia.
Results showed overall Indigenous Australians were 1.8 times more likely to have a positive diagnostic sleep study performed compared with non-indigenous patients, 1.6 times less likely in central Australia and 3.4 times more likely in far north Queensland. All regional and remote residents accessed diagnostic sleep studies at a rate less than Australia overall (31/100,000/y (95% confidence interval, 21-44) compared with 575/100,000/y).
The barriers to diagnosis and ongoing care are likely to relate to remote residence, lower health self-efficacy, the complex nature of the treatment tool, and environmental factors such as electricity and sleeping area. Indigeneity, remote residence, environmental factors, and low awareness of sleep health are likely to affect service accessibility and rate of use and capacity to enhance patient and family education and support following a diagnosis. A greater understanding of enablers and barriers to care and evaluation of interventions to address these are required.
PubMed ID
26094934 View in PubMed
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Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264053
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Nov 1;497-498:430-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2014
Author
M. Rygaard
B. Godskesen
C. Jørgensen
B. Hoffmann
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Nov 1;497-498:430-9
Date
Nov-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Denmark
Housing
Humans
Water Resources - standards - statistics & numerical data
Water Supply - standards - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields. A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondary water supply in the area as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated brackish water for all uses, including drinking water, and 4) local reclamation of rain and gray water for use in toilets and laundry. The concepts have been evaluated for their technical feasibility, economy, health risks, and public acceptance, while the concepts' environmental sustainability has been assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive based on the evaluation criteria included here, but the systematic evaluation will leave decision-makers informed on the consequences of their choices.
PubMed ID
25150737 View in PubMed
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Quantity and diversity of environmental microbial exposure and development of asthma: a birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264087
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2014
Author
A M Karvonen
A. Hyvärinen
H. Rintala
M. Korppi
M. Täubel
G. Doekes
U. Gehring
H. Renz
P I Pfefferle
J. Genuneit
L. Keski-Nisula
S. Remes
J. Lampi
E. von Mutius
J. Pekkanen
Source
Allergy. 2014 Aug;69(8):1092-101
Date
Aug-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Microbiology
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Odds Ratio
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Abstract
Early-life exposure to environmental microbial agents may be associated with the development of allergies. The aim of the study was to identify better ways to characterize microbial exposure as a predictor of respiratory symptoms and allergies.
A birth cohort of 410 children was followed up until 6 years of age. Bacterial endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids, N-acetyl-muramic acid, fungal extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from Penicillium and Aspergillus spp., ß-D-glucan, ergosterol, and bacterial or fungal quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) were analyzed from dust samples collected at 2 months of age. Asthma, wheezing, cough, and atopic dermatitis were assessed using repeated questionnaires. Specific IgEs were determined at the age of 1 and 6 years.
Only few associations were found between single microbial markers and the studied outcomes. In contrast, a score for the total quantity of microbial exposure, that is, sum of indicators for fungi (ergosterol), Gram-positive (muramic acid) bacteria, and Gram-negative (endotoxin) bacteria, was significantly (inverted-U shape) associated with asthma incidence (P 
Notes
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PubMed ID
24931137 View in PubMed
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Bronchiolitis and pneumonia requiring hospitalization in young first nations children in Northern Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264115
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Oct;33(10):1023-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2014
Author
Sarah McCuskee
Michael Kirlew
Len Kelly
Sonya Fewer
Thomas Kovesi
Source
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Oct;33(10):1023-6
Date
Oct-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bacteria - classification - isolation & purification
Bronchiolitis - epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Pneumonia - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Viruses - classification - isolation & purification
Abstract
High rates of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), including bronchiolitis and pneumonia, have been reported in Inuit infants living in arctic Canada. We examined rates of LRTI in First Nations Canadian infants living in the Sioux Lookout Zone, in Northern Ontario.
A retrospective review of hospital admissions for LRTI during a 5-year period, in patients
PubMed ID
24751861 View in PubMed
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