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Pulmonary function of Canadian Eskimos.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2147
Source
Pages 320-326 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
l l !' PULMONARY FUNCTION AND CHEST DISEASES Pulmonary function of Canadian Eskimos A. RODE and R.J. SHEPHARD Despite recent advances in the delivery of health care to the northern communities, respiratory adenovirus infections are still prevalent, and many older Eskimos show late se
  1 document  
Author
Rode, A.
Shephard, R.J.
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Health, School of Hygiene, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
Source
Pages 320-326 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Acculturation
Forced expiratory volume
Forced vital capacity
Igloolik
Lung function
Lung volume
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Residual lung volume
Respiratory diseases
Smoking
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1084.
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Feeding practices and growth of Igloolik infants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2196
Source
Pages 254-259 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
* P<0.01. than those fed artificially is not supported. Other fac- tors, biological, environmental, or social, perhaps create ~ negative influence for the artificially fed Iglooligmiut infant. The age at which solid foods were introduced did not · · influence the growth achievements of the 24
  1 document  
Author
Sayed, J.E.
Hildes, J.A.
Schaefer, O.
Author Affiliation
International Biological Programme
Source
Pages 254-259 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Acculturation
Diet, traditional
Growth and development
Height
Igloolik
Infant feeding
Weight
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 1202.
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Changing pattern of neoplastic disease in Canadian Eskimos.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2206
Source
Pages 277-283 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
and significant changes in the relative prevalence of certain cancer types when compared to an earlier period (1947-66) suggest that environmental factors associated with acculturation are related to {a) the absolute and relative increase of cancer morbidity and mortality of Canadian Eskimos, and
  1 document  
Author
Schaefer, O
Hildes, JA
Medd, LM
Cameron, DG
Author Affiliation
Northern Medical Research Unit,Medical Services, Health and Welfare Canada, Edmonton, Canada
Northern Medical Unit, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada
Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Canada
Source
Pages 277-283 in R.J. Shephard and S. Itoh, eds. Circumpolar Health. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, 3rd, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, 1974.
Date
1976
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Carcinoma of the breast
Carcinoma of the cervix
Carcinoma of the salivary gland
Carcinoma of the lung
Carcinoma of the colon and rectum
Carcinoma of the kidney
NPC
Acculturation
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2163.
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Otitis media and infant nutrition: An epidemiological study of middle ear disease in bottle and breastfed Eskimo children

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2227
Source
Pages 266-268 in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Oulu, Finland, June 21-24, 1971. Acta Socio-Medica Scandinavica. Supplement 6.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1972
OTITIS MEDIA AND INF ANT NUTRITION An Epidemiological Study of Middle Ear Disease in Bottle and Breastfed Eskimo Children SCHAEFER, Orro, M. D. Northern Medical Research Unit, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Chronic suppurative Otitis Media is a major health problem in Alaska, Northern Canada
  1 document  
Author
Schaefer, O.
Author Affiliation
Northern Medical Research Laboratory (Edmonton)
Source
Pages 266-268 in Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Circumpolar Health, Oulu, Finland, June 21-24, 1971. Acta Socio-Medica Scandinavica. Supplement 6.
Date
1972
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Otitis media
Infant feeding
Nutrition
Urban migration
Acculturation
Bottle-feeding
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2450.
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Genetic disorders in isolated populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature2268
Source
Archives of Environmental Health. 26:32-35.
Publication Type
Article
Date
1973
Author
Scott, E.M.
Author Affiliation
Arctic Health Research Center
Source
Archives of Environmental Health. 26:32-35.
Date
1973
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Marshall
Pilot Station
St. Mary's
Mountain Village
Emmonak
Alakanuk
Sheldon's Point
Kotlik
King Island
Unalakleet
Hooper Bay
Chefornak
Chevak
Kuskokwim disease (Arthrogryposis syndrome)
Cholinesterase deficiency
Heredity
Genetic variations
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital
Methemoglobinemia
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 2677.
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Learning from Sweden's experiences in preventing childhood accidents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature41856
Source
Pediatr Ann. 1977 Nov;6(11):742-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1977

Socio-psychological factors and metabolic control in juvenile diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature41923
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1977 Jul;66(4):431-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1977
Author
J. Ludvigsson
Source
Acta Paediatr Scand. 1977 Jul;66(4):431-7
Date
Jul-1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Attitude to Health
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - drug therapy - metabolism
Exertion
Female
Food Habits
Humans
Insulin - therapeutic use
Male
Psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
Abstract
The influence of exogenous and environmental factors on metabolic control was studied in 58 insulin treated juvenile diabetics, 6-17 years of age. Duration of diabetes varied between 3-14 years and age at onset of diabetes between 1-13 years. The social situation as well as knowledge about and attitudes towards diabetes among the patients and their parents were estimated by interviews, questionnaires and special tests. The quality of the diet, exercise and insulin treatment was assessed. An index of diabetic control was calculated on the basis of the patients daily urinalysis made at home. Multiple regression analysis and a special statistical "instrumental" variable technique were used in an effort to analyse the correlations between all variables. The social situation of the diabetic children was comparable with that of other Swedish children, but many parents felt the economic burden of the diabetic treatment as a problem. Knowledge tests showed that 25% of the parents and 62% of the patients above 12 years had unsatisfactory knowledge about diabetes. However, 93% of the patients seemed to have predominantly positive attitudes towards the treatment. Severe psychological problems had occurred in 7 cases. Food habits were appropriate among 21% of the patients and 26% had very regular exercise customs. Physical exercise seemed to be the most important of the exogenous factors for the diabetic control (p less than 0.001). Among teenagers knowledge was positively correlated to positive attitudes which in turn were positively correlated to physical exercise. Instrumental variable technique gave further indications of a positive influence of knowledge on control, and the correlation between diabetic control on one hand and knowledge combined with positive attitudes on the other was significantly positive. The results emphasize the importance of assisting young diabetic patients and their families in their socio-psychological adaptation to the strains of diabetic therapy.
PubMed ID
899758 View in PubMed
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[Problem of possible effect of atmospheric pollution on the state of health of schoolchildren]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature41992
Source
Gig Sanit. 1977 Apr;(4):91-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1977

Childhood accidents. Three epidemiological studies on the etiology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42082
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1977;5(1):5-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
1977
Author
L H Gustafsson
Source
Scand J Soc Med. 1977;5(1):5-13
Date
1977
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident Proneness
Accidents
Accidents, Home
Accidents, Traffic
Child
Environmental health
Humans
Risk
Sweden
Abstract
Three studies on childhood accidents are presented. The aim was to study the importance of different factors regarding the accidents in question. The following factors have then been taken into consideration: the enviromental hazard, the accident proneness, the supervision and the education. Methodologically the investigations were carried out with an epidemiological technique. One is of a descriptive nature and the other two more analytically oriented. The studies are based on two different 1-year-materials consisting of accidents among children recorded in the emergency departments of Ostersund Hospital and the University Hospital in Uppsala. The results indicate that risk factors in the children's physical milieu played an important role in the occurrence of the accidents: clearly identifiable risk factors in the environment could be connected with 52% of the accidents, whereas some deficiency in supervision was noted in 20%. The investigators could identify a number of specific risk factors. Attempts were made to examine how frequency and type of childhood accidents vary with the population structure and social structure in well-defined housing areas, but the results were hard to evaluate because of methodological problems. The results are presented against the background of a detailed discussion on central methodological problems in epidemiological accident research. It is pointed out in particular that epidemiological methods have clear limitations in attempts at studying the low-frequency events that each individual type of accident in fact comprises. It is of great importance that in future research, side by side with the traditional epidemiological methods, other techniques are tested with the aim of obtaining maximal usable information from a detailed study of individual accidents and their backgrounds.
PubMed ID
857307 View in PubMed
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Why don't we prevent childhood accidents?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42271
Source
Br Med J. 1976 May 22;1(6020):1258-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-22-1976
Author
R H Jackson
A W Wilkinson
Source
Br Med J. 1976 May 22;1(6020):1258-62
Date
May-22-1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accident prevention
Accidents, Home - prevention & control
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Environment
Great Britain
Health education
Housing
Humans
Infant
Organizations
Poisoning
Abstract
Accidental injury is the most important epidemic in the Western world today, and is especially important as a cause of death and disability in childhood. Many environmental factors are important causes of accidents, but there is no organisation within which doctors, official bodies, industry, and voluntary bodies can pool their experience and co-ordinate their efforts to reduce these environmental risks. A joint committee on childhood accident prevention should be formed in this country similar to that which exists in Sweden.
PubMed ID
1268658 View in PubMed
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[Social hygiene characteristics of the conditions and mode of life of Kiev school children and their effect on health indices]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42319
Source
Gig Sanit. 1976 Apr;(4):47-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1976

The lead content of teeth. Evidence establishing new minimal levels of exposure in a living preindustrialized human population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42540
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1975 Oct;30(10):483-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1975
Author
I M Shapiro
G. Mitchell
I. Davidson
S H Katz
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1975 Oct;30(10):483-6
Date
Oct-1975
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution
Alaska
Child
Comparative Study
Dentin, Secondary - metabolism
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Environmental Exposure
Humans
Indians, North American
Industry
Inuits
Lead - analysis
Mexico
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
United States
Urban Population
Abstract
Teeth were collected from populations differing in their degree of industrialization and from prehistoric populations. Lead analysis of dentine revealed that in contemporary teeth the lead level was related to the degree of industrialization and that in prehistoric teeth very low concentrations of lead were present. Because tooth lead reflects the body burden of lead, this result suggested that the prehistoric populations and modern nonindustrial populations were exposed to environments low in lead. Teeth from a contemporary population of nonindustrialized Indians of the Lacandon forest in Mexico contain lead in concentrations comparable with those of the prehistoric populations. Comparison of the Indian teeth with teeth from a modern industrial population reveals a 45-fold difference in median tooth lead level. This finding lends support to the hypothesis that high levels of urban lead pollution result in elevated body burdens of lead.
Notes
From: Fortuine, Robert et al. 1993. The Health of the Inuit of North America: A Bibliography from the Earliest Times through 1990. University of Alaska Anchorage. Citation number 884.
PubMed ID
1180570 View in PubMed
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[School environment's hygiene now and in the future]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature42706
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 1975 Mar 31;137(14):812-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-31-1975

Case study 1: asbestos--the TLV approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251474
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976;271:152-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
W J Nicholson
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1976;271:152-69
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational
Asbestos - analysis - toxicity
Asbestosis - prevention & control
Canada
Carcinogens, Environmental
Cocarcinogenesis
Environmental health
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms - chemically induced
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced
Male
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Mesothelioma - chemically induced
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced
Risk
Smoking - complications
Time Factors
United States
Abstract
A review of the control of carcinogenic exposures using the TLV approach presents a prospect of limited effectiveness. With asbestos, as with any carcinogen, no threshold is known below which no health effect may be manifest. At best, we have only limited dose-response information at levels much above those of practical concern. In the case of asbestos, current exposures can only be described crudely at any level of exposure, and health effects are only known for past high, but ill-defined, exposures. Limited information exists on the effects of synergistic interactions with other materials. The current U.S. TLV, based on data concerned with occurrence of asbestosis, has not been evaluated with regard to possible effectiveness in the prevention of asbestos cancer. Yet cancer is the heart of the asbestos-hazard problem. Finally, enforcement of the existing TLV, especially for asbestos has been limited, frequently absent, and often ineffective. Workers are exposed in many situations to levels much above the current standard. As discouraging as this picture may seem, a TLV can be useful for stimulating the development and application of engineering-control procedures. The application of these procedures, however, must be specified and mandated in future standards to lower worker exposures to the minimum commensurate with existing technology. As technology is developed that makes lower exposure levels possible in a large part of the industry, TLVs should be reduced to take advantage of that technology.
PubMed ID
1069498 View in PubMed
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Turnover and health selection among foundry workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251552
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:90-105
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
R S Koskela
K. Luoma
S. Hernberg
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:90-105
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bronchitis - chemically induced - epidemiology
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Heart Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Humans
Job Satisfaction
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Muscular Diseases - epidemiology
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Pneumoconiosis - epidemiology
Work Capacity Evaluation
Abstract
The quantity, reasons, and health selection involved in labor turnover were studied with the use of questionnaires and employers' records. The basic material was the personnel of 20 representative foundries. The turnover in 1950--1972 was estimated from a sample of 588 workers. The causes and health selection were studied with questionnaires put to the 1,789 current employees (91% response), the 493 foundrymen who had left after at least 5 years of exposure (the 5-year-plus men, 71% response) and 424 of those who had left after less than 1 year of exposure (the 1-year-minus men, 55% response). The men were asked to describe their present and earlier work at the foundry, the nature and duration of their exposure, diagnosed lung and heart diseases, and chronic bronchitis and angina pectoris and to assess their present and former state of health and work capacity. The disability analysis was based on a sample of 2,834 men whose data were taken from the Social Insurance Register. The disability findings were compared to expected values based on the Finnish male population. Turnover proved to be rapid; short periods of employment predominated. The major reasons for leaving were poor work conditions, physically demanding work, low pay, and poor health. The turnover was fastest in dusty occupations. Relatively more exfoundrymen, both 5-year-plus and 1-year-minus, than current employees felt their health and/or work capacity to be poor. More of the older men in the 5-year-plus group than men of the same age in the current group had chronic bronchitis and diagnosed lung disorders. Both the 5-year-plus and the 1-year-minus exfoundrymen had relatively more diagnosed heart disorders than did the current employees. The disability prevalences of the foundrymen in any category of diseases did not exceed the expected values based on the male population. The overall findings indicate early health selection prior to pensionable disability and/or death.
PubMed ID
968469 View in PubMed
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Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:73-89
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
R S Koskela
S. Hernberg
R. Kärävä
E. Järvinen
M. Nurminen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:73-89
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Occupational
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Carbon Monoxide - adverse effects
Coronary Disease - chemically induced - mortality
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - chemically induced - mortality
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Mortality
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - mortality
Pneumoconiosis - mortality
Sampling Studies
Suicide - epidemiology
Abstract
The mortality of foundry workers was studied from a sample of all those men employed in 20 representative iron, steel, and nonferrous foundries for any period of time during 1950 through 1972. A statistical sample of 3,876 men from all those 15,401 workers with at least 3 months' exposure formed the cohort under study. The actual number of person-years of follow-up became 47,160. Total and cause-specific mortality was studied in the entire cohort and in different categories based on exposure time and occupation. The foundry workers' experience was compared to that expected on the basis of the general male population's death rates in Finland, and different categories of the cohort were compared to each other through direct standardization. During the period from 1950 through 1973, there had occurred 224 deaths. The mortality approached the expected value computed from the age-adjusted general male population, the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) being 90 for all foundry workers and 95 for workers in "typical" foundry occupations. The corresponding standard mortality ratios based on the estimated total number of person-years, after the application of corrections for sampling fractions, were 86 and 95, respectively. There was a slight shift of the age of death towards younger age groups among the casters, fettlers, and furnace tenders. Mortality from coronary heart disease showed a standardized mortality ratio of 80 for the whole cohort; no significant differences were found for any occupational category. Lung cancer mortality was higher than expected (SMR 150) in the entire cohort; closer analysis revealed that the excess was confined to iron foundries, and especially to molders with more than 5 years of exposure. There were no more violent deaths than expected, not even from work accidents. Because most occupational cohorts have standardized mortality ratios that are well below 90, the present results were interpreted as probably indicating slightly elevated mortality. The most important finding was the concentration of lung cancer among molders in iron foundries.
PubMed ID
968468 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and chronic bronchitis in foundry workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature251554
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:64-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
R. Kärävä
S. Hernberg
R S Koskela
K. Luoma
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:64-72
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Bronchitis - epidemiology
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Forced expiratory volume
Humans
Male
Metallurgy
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology
Pneumoconiosis - epidemiology
Smoking
Vital Capacity
Abstract
The prevalence of pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, and impaired lung function was studied among those 1,000 foundry workers (response rate 93.1%) with the longest exposure time (minimum 4.2, mean 17, SD 9 years) from a representative sample of 20 foundries. Pneumoconiosis was diagnosed from 100 x 100 mm radiographs, and the false positives and false negatives were evaluated from normal-size radiographs from all those with a positive finding and a sample of those with a negative finding. Chronic bronchitis was studied by means of a translation of the MRC Short Questionnarie on Respiratory Symptoms. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were measured with a Vitalograph Single Breath Wedge Spirometer, and the FEV % was calculated from these variables. The subjects were grouped according to smoking habits and dust exposure, which could be fairly well evaluated from measurements performed in connection with the health survey. All comparisons were made between different subcategories. The overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis was 3.8%, when allowance had been made for false positive and false negative findings. Most cases were mild. Chronic bronchitis occurred more frequently among those occupied in jobs classified as dusty. Smoking also strongly increased its prevalence; a combination of both exposures produced the strongest effect. The effect of smoking was also evident as an impairment of lung function; however, no such effect of dust exposure could be shown in this material. Since this was a prevalence study, the selective removal of workers from dusty jobs probably led to underestimates of all the health effects studied. In spite of the effect of selection excess bronchitis could be demonstrated in workers from dusty environments. Therefore effective dust control must be initiated not only with regard to silica dust but also with respect to total dust.
PubMed ID
968467 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:42-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
1976
Author
A. Tossavainen
Source
Scand J Work Environ Health. 1976;2 Suppl 1:42-9
Date
1976
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Copper
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Finland
Gases - analysis
Humans
Iron
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Metallurgy
Metals
Steel
Abstract
The metal content of melting and casting fumes was analyzed with X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, and mass spectrometric methods. The composition of fumes varied with the kind of alloy, the quality of scrap, and the type of melting process. In addition foundry workers' exposure to metal fumes was evaluated. The measurements of airborne metal concentrations in 10 steel foundries, 15 iron foundries, and 11 copper alloy foundries showed that exposure to lead, copper, and zinc may present a health hazard.
PubMed ID
968464 View in PubMed
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401 records – page 1 of 21.