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Personal and social-environmental correlates of objectively measured physical activity in Norwegian pre-adolescent children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136139
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e315-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
I H Bergh
M. Grydeland
M. Bjelland
N. Lien
L F Andersen
K-I Klepp
S A Anderssen
Y. Ommundsen
Author Affiliation
Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. ingunn.holden.bergh@nih.no
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e315-24
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Actigraphy - instrumentation
Anthropometry
Child
Child Behavior - physiology - psychology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Exercise
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Norway
Peer Group
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Self Efficacy
Social Environment
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine modifiable biological, psychological, behavioral and social-environmental correlates of physical activity among 1129 Norwegian 11-year-old children within a cross-sectional sample from the HEalth In Adolescents study. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometer, and weight and height were measured objectively. Age- and gender-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define body mass index. Social-environmental variables were self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical regression (linear mixed models) revealed that normal weight children scored higher on percentage daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [% daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] than overweight/obese children (P
PubMed ID
21410547 View in PubMed
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Reduction in diisocyanate and non-diisocyanate sensitizer-induced occupational asthma in Ontario.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136155
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2011 Apr;53(4):420-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Larisa V Buyantseva
Gary M Liss
Marcos Ribeiro
Michael Manno
Carol E Luce
Susan M Tarlo
Author Affiliation
Gage Occupational and Environmental Health Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
J Occup Environ Med. 2011 Apr;53(4):420-6
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Asthma - chemically induced - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Isocyanates - toxicity
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - chemically induced - epidemiology
Ontario - epidemiology
Retrospective Studies
Smoking - epidemiology
Workers' Compensation - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To investigate relative frequency and features of diisocyanate (ISO) and non-diisocyanate (N-ISO) allowed occupational asthma (OA) claims in Ontario, Canada, during a 5-year period (1998 to 2002).
Records were abstracted from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board using methodology similar to our previous investigation that had identified 30 ISO and 30 N-ISO claims/yr during 1980 to 1993.
There were 99 OA claims: 37 ISO (7.4 claims/yr) and 62 N-ISO (12.4 claims/yr). The ISO group had more males (86% vs 69%, p = 0.01), but there were no other significant differences. The commonest professions were spray painters (41%) and production workers (38%) in the ISO group and production workers (49%) and health care workers (8%) in the N-ISO group.
ISO and N-ISO claims declined from the previous period, especially for ISO, perhaps because of effective surveillance programs.
PubMed ID
21407095 View in PubMed
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Fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) and the risk of acute ischemic stroke.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136235
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):422-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Martin J O'Donnell
Jiming Fang
Murray A Mittleman
Moira K Kapral
Gregory A Wellenius
Author Affiliation
National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. odonnm@mcmaster.ca
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):422-31
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Brain Ischemia - chemically induced - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Confidence Intervals
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Ischemic Attack, Transient - chemically induced - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Ontario - epidemiology
Particulate Matter - adverse effects
Prognosis
Registries
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Stroke - chemically induced - epidemiology
Survival Rate
Urban Population
Abstract
Short-term changes in levels of fine ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) may increase the risk of acute ischemic stroke; however, results from prior studies have been inconsistent. We examined this hypothesis using data from a multicenter prospective stroke registry.
We analyzed data from 9202 patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke, having a documented date and time of stroke onset, and residing within 50 km of a PM2.5 monitor in 8 cities in Ontario, Canada. We evaluated the risk of ischemic stroke onset associated with PM2.5 in each city using a time-stratified case-crossover design, matching on day of week and time of day. We then combined these city-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis techniques. We examined whether the effects of PM2.5 differed across strata defined by patient characteristics and ischemic stroke etiology.
Overall, PM2.5 was associated with a -0.7% change in ischemic stroke risk per 10-µg/m increase in PM2.5 (95% confidence interval = -6.3% to 5.1%). These overall negative results were robust to a number of sensitivity analyses. Among patients with diabetes mellitus, PM2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in ischemic stroke risk (1% to 22%). The association between PM2.5 and ischemic stroke risk varied according to stroke etiology, with the strongest associations observed for strokes due to large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel occlusion.
These results do not support the hypothesis that short-term increases in PM2.5 levels are associated with ischemic stroke risk overall. However, specific patient subgroups may be at increased risk of particulate-related ischemic strokes.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21399501 View in PubMed
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of arsenic screening promotion in private wells: a quasi-experimental study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136288
Source
Health Promot Int. 2011 Dec;26(4):465-75
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2011
Author
Jolianne Renaud
Fabien Gagnon
Cécile Michaud
Sonia Boivin
Author Affiliation
Universite´ de Sherbrooke, Que´bec, Canada.
Source
Health Promot Int. 2011 Dec;26(4):465-75
Date
Dec-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Arsenic - isolation & purification
Arsenic Poisoning - prevention & control
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental health
Environmental Monitoring - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Quebec
Water Wells - chemistry
Young Adult
Abstract
The Eastern Townships (ETR) is a region in Québec (Canada) where the soil is naturally rich in arsenic (As). About a third of the people in the ETR obtain their water from a private well. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare two campaigns designed to promote As screening in well water: a mass-media campaign (MMC) followed or not by a community-based intervention (CBI). The MMC is based on a press release issued for the ETR, along with a leaflet on As made available on the Internet, and in strategic places. The CBI, formulated according to the factors of the Precede-Proceed model, was aimed at mobilizing local authorities and small media. It targets only one municipality; the intervention community (IC). Using a separate pre-post samples design, two population-based cross-sectional (pre-CBI and post-CBI) surveys were conducted by phone at 6-month intervals, by means of random samples. The samples counted, for the IC and the ETR, respectively, 87 and 156 well owners in pre-CBI, and 106 and 190 in post-CBI. The results in post-CBI showed that the proportion of well owners who had their water test increased by four times in the IC after (16% p = 0.004). When adjusting for age and gender among all the post-CBI respondents, As screening is related with intervention status (exposed to MMC and CBI; p = 0.001) and on previous microbiological water analysis behavior (p = 0.05), but is not related to knowledge. This study demonstrates the superiority of a community-based campaign over a MMC when environmental health is concerned.
PubMed ID
21393299 View in PubMed
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Windsor, Ontario exposure assessment study: design and methods validation of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136341
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2011 Feb;61(2):142-56
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2011
Author
Amanda J Wheeler
Xiaohong Xu
Ryan Kulka
Hongyu You
Lance Wallace
Gary Mallach
Keith Van Ryswyk
Morgan MacNeill
Jill Kearney
Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska
Daniel Wang
Raymond Poon
Ron Williams
Corinne Stocco
Angelos Anastassopoulos
J David Miller
Robert Dales
Jeffrey R Brook
Author Affiliation
Air Health Science Division, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. amanda.wheeler@hc-sc.gc.ca
Source
J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2011 Feb;61(2):142-56
Date
Feb-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology
Child
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Nitrogen Dioxide - analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Ozone - analysis
Particulate Matter - analysis
Questionnaires
Volatile Organic Compounds - analysis
Abstract
The Windsor, Ontario Exposure Assessment Study evaluated the contribution of ambient air pollutants to personal and indoor exposures of adults and asthmatic children living in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. In addition, the role of personal, indoor, and outdoor air pollution exposures upon asthmatic children's respiratory health was assessed. Several active and passive sampling methods were applied, or adapted, for personal, indoor, and outdoor residential monitoring of nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter (PM; PM
PubMed ID
21387932 View in PubMed
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Validation of exposure assessment and assessment of recruitment methods for a prospective cohort study of mobile phone users (COSMOS) in Finland: a pilot study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136363
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:14
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Sirpa Heinävaara
Kari Tokola
Päivi Kurttio
Anssi Auvinen
Author Affiliation
Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Health Risks and Radon Safety, Laippatie 4, 00880 Helsinki, Finland. sirpa.heinavaara@stuk.fi
Source
Environ Health. 2011;10:14
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cellular Phone - utilization
Cohort Studies
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiologic Research Design
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pilot Projects
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires - standards
Radio Waves
Self Report
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and operator-derived estimates of call time based on a three-month monitoring period, as well as the consistency of mobile phone use over time. Alternative approaches to improve participation in a cohort study of mobile phone users were also compared.
A total of 5,400 subjects were identified from network operators' subscriber databases for recruitment to the pilot study. Operator and questionnaire data were used to quantify mobile phone use. Operator data were available for a subset of the subjects for a three-month period in three consecutive years. We also evaluated the effect of the length of the questionnaire and one- or two-phase recruitment on participation.
The average response rate for both questionnaires and recruitment procedures was 12%. The response rate was not affected by the length of the questionnaire or the recruitment method.Operator data were available for 83% of the participants for 2007, the first study year. The agreement between self-reported and operator-derived call times decreased with the level of use among intermediate and heavy mobile phone users. During 2007-2009, mobile phone use increased fairly constantly over time.
The agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and operator databases was moderate and overestimation of the call time by participants was common. A prospective cohort study would be feasible in Finland, although the potentially low participation rate would increase the resources required for recruitment.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21385407 View in PubMed
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No effect by the common gene variant rs10830963 of the melatonin receptor 1B on the association between sleep disturbances and type 2 diabetes: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136432
Source
Diabetologia. 2011 Jun;54(6):1375-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
L. Olsson
E. Pettersen
A. Ahlbom
S. Carlsson
K. Midthjell
V. Grill
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden. lisa.olsson@ki.se
Source
Diabetologia. 2011 Jun;54(6):1375-8
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alleles
Case-Control Studies
Comorbidity
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - ethnology - genetics
Genotype
Humans
Insulin - metabolism
Logistic Models
Male
Melatonin - metabolism
Middle Aged
Norway
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Receptor, Melatonin, MT2 - genetics
Risk factors
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology - ethnology - genetics
Abstract
Genetic variation in the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) is associated with type 2 diabetes. Melatonin contributes to the regulation of sleep, and sleep problems are a documented risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the MTNR1B gene variant rs10830963 is associated with sleep problems and whether this variant contributes to the association between sleep disturbances and type 2 diabetes.
This was a case-control study nested within the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, including 1,322 prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes and 1,447 controls. In addition, prospective data were available for 838 incident cases and 1,133 controls. Genotyping was done by TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism allelic discrimination analysis. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using logistic regression models.
Our findings confirm an association between sleep disturbances and type 2 diabetes (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33, p = 0.0016) and between the risk allele of rs10830963 and type 2 diabetes (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.27, p = 0.0579). There was a tendency for an association between the risk allele and prevalence of sleep problems (specifically early awakening). However, the risk allele did not influence the association of sleep problems with diabetes, which was unaltered after adjustment for the MTNR1B risk allele (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.23-2.34, p = 0.0014). Results based on prospective data were similar, although non-significant.
Our findings do not support participation of the MTNR1B gene variant rs10830963 in the well documented association between sleep disturbances and type 2 diabetes.
PubMed ID
21380592 View in PubMed
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A spatial analysis of the physical and social environmental correlates of discarded needles.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136517
Source
Health Place. 2011 May;17(3):757-66
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Luc de Montigny
Anne Vernez Moudon
Barbara C Leigh
Sun-Young Kim
Author Affiliation
The Surveillance Lab, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Source
Health Place. 2011 May;17(3):757-66
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Female
Humans
Male
Needles
Quebec
Refuse Disposal - methods
Social Environment
Spatial Behavior
Substance Abuse, Intravenous
Urban Population
Abstract
The role that the urban environment plays in influencing drug users' injection and needle disposal decisions is poorly understood. We identified potential attractors and deterrents of needle discarding, and then used a geographic information system (GIS) to quantify these factors for a neighborhood in Montréal, Canada. In multivariate logistic regression, discarded needles were found to have more associations with physical factors than with social factors. Visual exposure and proximity to a single-room occupancy hotel, a pay phone, an adult service or a pawnshop were important physical environmental predictors. These findings are discussed in relation to developing public health and urban design-based harm reduction approaches to needle discarding in public space.
PubMed ID
21371930 View in PubMed
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A multi-function public health surveillance system and the lessons learned in its development: the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136545
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Nov-Dec;101(6):454-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Shihe Fan
Corinne Blair
Angela Brown
Stephan Gabos
Lance Honish
Trina Hughes
Joy Jaipaul
Marcia Johnson
Eric Lo
Anna Lubchenko
Laura Mashinter
David P Meurer
Vanessa Nardelli
Gerry Predy
Liz Shewchuk
Daniel Sosin
Bryan Wicentowich
James Talbot
Author Affiliation
Population & Public Health, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB. shihe.fan@albertahealthservices.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Nov-Dec;101(6):454-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Humans
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype - isolation & purification
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - virology
Population Surveillance - methods
Public Health Informatics - instrumentation - methods
Abstract
We describe a centralized automated multi-function detection and reporting system for public health surveillance--the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net (ARTSSN). This improves upon traditional paper-based systems which are often fragmented, limited by incomplete data collection and inadequate analytical capacity, and incapable of providing timely information for public health action.
ARTSSN concurrently analyzes multiple electronic data sources in real time to describe results in tables, charts and maps. Detected anomalies are immediately disseminated via alerts to decision-makers for action.
ARTSSN provides richly integrated information on a variety of health conditions for early detection of and prompt action on abnormal events such as clusters, outbreaks and trends. Examples of such health conditions include chronic and communicable disease, injury and environment-mediated adverse incidents.
Key advantages of ARTSSN over traditional paper-based methods are its timeliness, comprehensiveness and automation. Public health surveillance of communicable disease, injury, environmental hazard exposure and chronic disease now occurs in a single system in real time year round. Examples are given to demonstrate the public health value of this system, particularly during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009.
PubMed ID
21370780 View in PubMed
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Tools for thoughtful action: the role of ecosystem approaches to health in enhancing public health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136548
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Nov-Dec;101(6):439-41
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jena C Webb
Donna Mergler
Margot W Parkes
Johanne Saint-Charles
Jerry Spiegel
David Waltner-Toews
Annalee Yassi
Robert F Woollard
Author Affiliation
CoPEH-Canada, Montreal, QC. jennifer.webb@mail.mcgill.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2010 Nov-Dec;101(6):439-41
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Ecosystem
Health status
Humans
Public Health - methods
Social Environment
Social Justice
Socioeconomic Factors
Sociology, Medical
Abstract
The intimate interdependence of human health and the ecosystems in which we are embedded is now a commonplace observation. For much of the history of public health, this was not so obvious. After over a century of focus on diseases, their biologic causes and the correction of exposures (clean water and air) and facilitation of responses (immunizations and nutrition), public health discourse shifted to embrace the concept of determinants of health as extending to social, economic and environmental realms. This moved the discourse and science of public health into an unprecedented level of complexity just as public concern about the environment heightened. To address multifactorial, dynamic impacts on health, a new paradigm was needed which would overcome the separation of humans and ecosystems. Ecosystem approaches to health arose in the 1990s from a rich background of intellectual ferment as Canada wrestled with diverse problems ranging from Great Lakes contamination to zoonotic diseases. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) played a lead role in supporting an international community of scientists and scholars who advanced ecosystem approaches to health. These collective efforts have enabled a shift to a research paradigm that embraces transdisciplinarity, social justice, gender equity, multi-stakeholder participation and sustainability.
PubMed ID
21370776 View in PubMed
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Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136579
Source
Int J Androl. 2011 Aug;34(4 Pt 2):e37-48
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
N. Jørgensen
M. Vierula
R. Jacobsen
E. Pukkala
A. Perheentupa
H E Virtanen
N E Skakkebaek
J. Toppari
Author Affiliation
University Department of Growth and Reproduction, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Niels.Joergensen@rh.regionh.dk
Source
Int J Androl. 2011 Aug;34(4 Pt 2):e37-48
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Finland - epidemiology
Gonadal Dysgenesis - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Registries
Semen - cytology
Sperm Count
Sperm Motility
Spermatozoa - abnormalities - pathology
Testicular Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998-2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57-80) million/mL, 60 (51-71) and 48 (39-60) for birth cohorts 1979-81, 1982-83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189-272) million, 202 (170-240) and 165 (132-207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14-23) million, 15 (12-19) and 11 (8-15). Men aged 10-59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954-2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors.
Notes
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Comment In: Int J Androl. 2012 Aug;35(4):626; author reply 627-821875429
PubMed ID
21366607 View in PubMed
Less detail

IgE response to Ascaris lumbricoides in Russian children indicates IgE responses to common environmental allergens.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136580
Source
Allergy. 2011 Aug;66(8):1122-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
J-P Koskinen
T. Laatikainen
L. von Hertzen
E. Vartiainen
T. Haahtela
Author Affiliation
Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 30, FI-00271, Helsinki, Finland. jyri-pekka.koskinen@helsinki.fi
Source
Allergy. 2011 Aug;66(8):1122-3
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Allergens - immunology
Animals
Ascariasis - epidemiology - immunology
Ascaris lumbricoides - immunology
Child
Cross Reactions - immunology
Environmental Exposure
Geography
Humans
Hypersensitivity, Immediate
Immunoglobulin E - immunology
Russia
PubMed ID
21366606 View in PubMed
Less detail

Marine food pollutants as a risk factor for hypoinsulinemia and type 2 diabetes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136604
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):410-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Philippe Grandjean
Jan Erik Henriksen
Anna L Choi
Maria Skaalum Petersen
Christine Dalgård
Flemming Nielsen
Pal Weihe
Author Affiliation
Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. pgrand@hsph.harvard.edu
Source
Epidemiology. 2011 May;22(3):410-7
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Blood Glucose - analysis
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - diagnosis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Food chain
Food Contamination
Humans
Incidence
Insulin - blood
Male
Norway
Odds Ratio
Polychlorinated biphenyls - adverse effects - blood
Risk assessment
Seafood - adverse effects
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Some persistent environmental chemicals are suspected of causing an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease particularly common after the age of 70. This concern was examined in a cross-sectional study of elderly subjects from a fishing population with elevated contaminant exposures from seafood species high in the food chain.
Clinical examinations of 713 Faroese residents aged 70-74 years (64% of eligible population) included fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Lifetime exposure to persistent environmental chemicals from pilot whale and other traditional food was estimated from a dietary questionnaire and by analysis of blood samples for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related food contaminants.
Septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. In nondiabetic subjects, the fasting insulin concentration decreased by 7% (95% CI = -12% to -2%) for each doubling of the PCB concentration after adjustment for sex and body mass index at age 20. Conversely, the fasting glucose concentration increased by 6% (-1% to 13%) for each doubling in PCB. Similar associations were seen in subjects without impaired fasting glycemia, while further adjustment for current body mass index and lipid metabolism parameters attenuated some of the associations.
Impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21364465 View in PubMed
Less detail

A low COMT activity haplotype is associated with recurrent preeclampsia in a Norwegian population cohort (HUNT2).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136675
Source
Mol Hum Reprod. 2011 Jul;17(7):439-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
L T Roten
M H Fenstad
S. Forsmo
M P Johnson
E K Moses
R. Austgulen
F. Skorpen
Author Affiliation
Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim 7006, Norway. linda.tommerdal@ntnu.no
Source
Mol Hum Reprod. 2011 Jul;17(7):439-46
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Catechol O-Methyltransferase - genetics
European Continental Ancestry Group
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Haplotypes - genetics
Humans
Norway
Pre-Eclampsia - genetics
Pregnancy
Abstract
The etiology of preeclampsia is complex, with susceptibility being attributable to multiple environmental factors and a large genetic component. Although many candidate genes for preeclampsia have been suggested and studied, the specific causative genes still remain to be identified. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme involved in catecholamine and estrogen degradation and has recently been ascribed a role in development of preeclampsia. In the present study, we have examined the COMT gene by genotyping the functional Val108/158Met polymorphism (rs4680) and an additional single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs6269, predicting COMT activity haplotypes in a large Norwegian case/control cohort (n(cases)= 1135, n(controls)= 2262). A low COMT activity haplotype is associated with recurrent preeclampsia in our cohort. This may support the role of redox-regulated signaling and oxidative stress in preeclampsia pathogenesis as suggested by recent studies in a genetic mouse model. The COMT gene might be a genetic risk factor shared between preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21355050 View in PubMed
Less detail

Canadian hypocrisy regarding chrysotile.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136690
Source
Lancet. 2011 Feb 26;377(9767):720
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-26-2011

Parental smoking, nasal resistance and rhinitis in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136709
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2011 Sep;100(9):1234-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
P. Virkkula
K. Liukkonen
A K Suomalainen
E T Aronen
T. Kirjavainen
A. Pitkäranta
Author Affiliation
Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2011 Sep;100(9):1234-8
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Factors
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Nasal Obstruction - chemically induced - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Parents
Prospective Studies
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial - chemically induced - epidemiology
Rhinomanometry
Sleep Apnea, Central
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
To determine whether parent-reported perennial rhinitis or objectively measured nasal resistance is more common in children from smoking families. To assess tonsillar size, nasopharyngeal airway and upper airway surgery frequency in children with smoking and non-smoking parents.
Ninety-five children (age 3-6 years, median 68 months) participated in this prospective cross-sectional clinical study. History of nasal symptoms was obtained, and all underwent an ear-nose-throat examination, anterior rhinomanometry and a lateral cephalogram. Regular smoking by either parent and their child's snoring was inquired about with a parental questionnaire. We compared children with a parental smoker and children without a parental smoker in the family.
Smoking in the family led to increased risk for perennial rhinitis in the children up to 2.76-fold (aOR, 95%CI 1.00-7.67), but with no difference in nasal resistance between children from smoking and non-smoking households. Neither tonsillar size, nasopharyngeal airway nor upper airway surgery was associated with parental smoking.
Parental smoking is associated with symptoms of perennial rhinitis in children. The possible role of environmental tobacco smoke should be taken into account in parent counselling and in evaluation of children being treated for symptoms of rhinitis and nasal obstruction.
PubMed ID
21352364 View in PubMed
Less detail

Sleep problems and psychosocial work environment among Swedish commercial pilots.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136723
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2011 Jul;54(7):545-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
Roma Runeson
Torsten Lindgren
Kurt Wahlstedt
Author Affiliation
Department of the Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Akademiska Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden. roma.runeson@comhem.se
Source
Am J Ind Med. 2011 Jul;54(7):545-51
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Psychological
Adult
Aircraft
Confidence Intervals
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Odds Ratio
Questionnaires
Risk
Sleep
Sleep Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Social Support
Statistics as Topic
Stress, Psychological
Sweden - epidemiology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess relationships between sleeping problems and the psychosocial work situation based on the job-strain and iso-strain models among Swedish commercial pilots.
Three hundred fifty-four pilots participated (61%), who are in 2008 responded to a questionnaire concerning sleep problems, the psychosocial work situation, personal factors, and flight length.
Low social support was associated with sleep problems for pilots. High demands were associated with sleep problems among captains and long-haul flights were associated with sleep problems among first officers. Low skill discretion was associated with less sleep problems among first officers.
Psychosocial climate at work such as low social support affects negatively sleep for both captains and for first officers. More research on what creates a best social support for pilots and cabin crew is needed. Adjusting scheduling work crew teams could increase social support at work and contribute to a better sleep quality.
PubMed ID
21351117 View in PubMed
Less detail

The influence of immigrant status and concentration on psychiatric disorder in Canada: a multi-level analysis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136733
Source
Psychol Med. 2011 Oct;41(10):2221-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
N M Menezes
K. Georgiades
M H Boyle
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. menezes@mcmaster.ca
Source
Psychol Med. 2011 Oct;41(10):2221-31
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Censuses
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Multilevel Analysis
Prevalence
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Self-Assessment
Young Adult
Abstract
Many studies have reported an increased incidence of psychiatric disorder (particularly psychotic disorders) among first generation adult immigrants, along with an increasing risk for ethnic minorities living in low-minority concentration neighborhoods. These studies have depended mostly on European case-based databases. In contrast, North American studies have suggested a lower risk for psychiatric disorder in immigrants, although the effect of neighborhood immigrant concentration has not been studied extensively.
Using multi-level modeling to disaggregate individual from area-level influences, this study examines the influence of first generation immigrant status at the individual level, immigrant concentration at the neighborhood-level and their combined effect on 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety and substance-dependence disorders and lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorder, among Canadians.
Individual-level data came from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 1.2, a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorder among Canadians over the age of 15 years; the sample for analysis was n=35,708. The CCHS data were linked with neighborhood-level data from the Canadian Census 2001 for multi-level logistic regression. Immigrant status was associated with a lower prevalence of psychiatric disorder, with an added protective effect for immigrants living in neighborhoods with higher immigrant concentrations. Immigrant concentration was not associated with elevated prevalence of psychiatric disorder among non-immigrants.
The finding of lower 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorder in Canadian immigrants, with further lessening as the neighborhood immigrant concentration increases, reflects a model of person-environment fit, highlighting the importance of studying individual risk factors within environmental contexts.
PubMed ID
21349240 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Biological waste utilization in the Republic of Bashkortostan].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136777
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Sep-Oct;(5):88-90
Publication Type
Article
Author
N A Kuchimova
G R Isheeva
A S Suleimanov
A L Shamsutdinova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2010 Sep-Oct;(5):88-90
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bashkiria
Government Programs - organization & administration
Humans
Medical Waste Disposal - methods
Abstract
The paper substantiates a need for specific regulation of biological waste products due to their high potential danger to the environment. Being governed by the normative legal acts on the provision of the population with sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being, adopted by the federal executive bodies and the federal executive bodies of the subject of the Russian Federation, the Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in the Republic of Bashkortostan is competent to supervise and control the activity of enterprises and institutions, the conditions and procedures for collection, usage, decontamination, transportation, storage and disposal of waste products and utilization in accordance with the current sanitary rules and regulations. As a result, the authors took part in the elaboration of several long-term programs and resolutions of the Government of the Republic of Bashkortostan Government, realization of which will reduce the impact of environmental pollution on human health.
PubMed ID
21344702 View in PubMed
Less detail

Exposure to bisphenol A in Canada: invoking the precautionary principle.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136793
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Aug 9;183(11):1265-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-9-2011
Author
Laura N Vandenberg
Author Affiliation
Center for Regenerative and Developmental Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA. laura.vandenberg@tufts.edu
Source
CMAJ. 2011 Aug 9;183(11):1265-70
Date
Aug-9-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Animals
Benzhydryl Compounds
Canada
Child
Chromatography, Gas
Consumer Product Safety
Developmental Disabilities - chemically induced - prevention & control
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Estrogens, Non-Steroidal - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Food Packaging
Humans
Male
Phenols - adverse effects - analysis
Polymers - chemistry
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Notes
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PubMed ID
21343266 View in PubMed
Less detail

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