The research proved oil-processing, petrochemical and chemical enterprises to be potent releasers of chemical hazards containing in industrial waste. The petrochemical and oil enterprises pollute environment and deteriorate sanitary conditions in populated area. The residents evaluate actual ecologic danger adequately. Sociologic analysis of how city dwellers assess quality of their environment and health is quate objective indicator of urban ecology and could be assigned to priority methods of ecologic and hygienic studies.
Molecular epidemiology is a new field that has recently emerged from the integration of molecular biology into epidemiologic research. As yet, few countries have significant capabilities in molecular epidemiology due to a lack of trained molecular epidemiologists, and a shortage of necessary equipment and supplies. Thus, there is a great need for: 1) training in methods for integrating molecular biology and human genetics into epidemiology and public health, and 2) advanced biotechnology equipment, reagents and supplies for molecular analyses of potential genetic and environmental risk factors. The International Molecular Epidemiology Task Force (IMETAF) was established in 1993, and is actively contributing to the development of training programs, as well as effective technology transfer in several countries. This paper focuses on approaches for enhancing training opportunities in molecular epidemiology, many of which are being supported by IMETAF.
The authors present results of social and ecologic study carried out in Ufa. The results describe the course of ecologically important processes and phenomena in correlation with the public subjective understanding. Public health is influenced by hygienic parameters of food and water quality as well as a complex of social, economic and psychologic factors. Weak correlation between those parameters and ambient air pollution necessitates more accurate approach to ecologic mapping of cities and to manipulation with data on lower atmosphere pollution with chemical hazards.
There is rapid technological transformation occurring in both work and social life. The results of information technology, such as mobile telephones, computers, and electronic networks, have been looked upon as the key to solving several of the most pressing problems of the Western world. At the same time, numerous studies have shown that the great majority of computerization projects fail to meet their deadlines with the originally specified functionality mainly because human factors are not sufficiently taken into account during the planning and implementation phase of the project. In a study of the bodily, mental, and psychophysiological reactions of employees involved in the design of advanced telecommunications systems and of office employees using regular video display technology, several stress-related psychosomatic disorders have been identified. They include sleep disturbances, psychophysiological stress and somatic complaints. Controlled intervention programs aimed at enhancing organizational structures and individual coping strategies have been proved effective in counteracting the negative effects of working with information technology. The two-way interaction between the external information technology environment and bodily and mental reactions needs to be taken more into account in the design and use of modern information technology. There appears to be an increased awareness of human aspects when the risks and benefits of the rapid spread of information technologies are discussed.
General integrated system evaluates the state of soil, waters and atmosphere through natural biotest organisms and monitors anthropogenic changes in environment. The topics discussed are modern methods of soil, waters and atmosphere monitoring, main parameters for ecologic regulation of toxic chemicals, creation of biomonitoring subsystem in whole ecologic control. Efficiency of studies aimed at creation of biomonitoring subsystem depends on systematic investigations of anthropogenic influence on living creatures and on assessment of integral parameters describing biologic environment and characterizing jeopardy of various polluters.
The Chernobyl accident made it clear that the contaminants released after a severe nuclear accident may spread over large areas, and thereby form a significant external radiation hazard in areas of high population density. Since then, the weathering effects on the deposited radiocontaminants (essentially radiocaesium) have been followed on different types of surface in urban, suburban and industrial areas in order to enable an estimation of the long-term impact of such events. Analytical expressions have been derived for the typical behaviour of radiocaesium on the different surfaces, and dose measurements and calculations for different urban environments have pinpointed which surfaces generally contribute most to the dose and consequently are most important to clean. At this point, after nearly a decade, the dose rate from horizontal pavements has decreased by at least a factor of 10, whereas the dose rate from an area of soil or a roof has generally only been halved. The contamination on walls is the most persistent: it has only decreased by 10-20%.
The transfer of radiocaesium to many food products either produced in or harvested from semi-natural ecosystems is high compared with intensive agricultural areas. Radiocaesium contamination levels in semi-natural foods are highly variable and difficult to predict. Spatial analysis may help to explain some of the variability and give improved estimates of the total output of radiocaesium in food products produced or harvested from semi-natural ecosystems. Consumption of foodstuffs from semi-natural ecosystems can contribute significantly to radiocaesium ingestion by humans. The long effective half-lives that occur for some semi-natural products lead to an increase with time in their importance compared with agricultural products. In determining the importance of semi-natural food products, the diet needs to be considered for both the average population and for special groups who utilize these environments to a greater extent than normal. Effective countermeasures have been developed to reduce radiocaesium levels in some semi-natural products.
It has been suggested that ultrafine particles in urban air may cause the health effects associated with thoracic particles (PM10). We therefore compared the effects of daily variations in particles of different sizes on peak expiratory flow (PEF) during a 57-day follow-up of 39 asthmatic children aged 7-12 years. The main source of particulate air pollution in the area was traffic. In addition to the measurements of PM10 and black smoke (BS) concentrations, an electric aerosol spectrometer was used to measure particle number concentrations in six size classes ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 microns. Daily variations in BS and particle number concentrations in size ranges between 0.032 and 0.32 micron and between 1.0 and 10.0 microns were highly intercorrelated (correlation coefficients about 0.9). Correlations with PM10 were somewhat lower (below 0.7). All these pollutants tended also to be associated with declines in morning PEF. However, the only statistically significant associations were observed with PM10 and BS. Different time lags of PM10 were also most consistently associated with declines in PEF. Therefore, in the present study on asthmatic children, the concentration of ultrafine particles was no more strongly associated with variations in PEF than PM10 or BS, as has earlier been suggested.
[Use of "Criteria for evaluation of regional ecological situation in detection of dramatic ecologic zones and zones of ecologic disaster" in assessment of ecologic situation in towns neighboring major chemical enterprises].
In Canada, veterinary biological products derived by using conventional and new techniques of biotechnology are licensed and regulated under the Health of Animals Act and Regulations. Biological products include vaccines, bacterins, bacterin-toxoids and diagnostic kits which are used for the prevention, treatment or diagnosis of infectious diseases in all species of animals, including fish. Veterinary biologicals are licensed on the basis of fulfillment of four criteria: purity, potency, safety and efficacy. A risk-based approach is used to evaluate the safety of the product in target species, as well as non-target species, humans and the environment. On the basis of biological characteristics, biotechnology derived veterinary biologicals have been divided into two broad categories, high and low risk products. The paper describes the regulatory framework for the licensing of veterinary biologicals in Canada, with emphasis on the regulatory considerations for recombinant fish vaccines. Stages of movement of the product from research in a contained laboratory facility to a fully licensed product for free sale are discussed. The requirements for field testing and environmental assessment involved in these stages are highlighted. Manufacturers and researchers who intend to commercialize experimental vaccines are encouraged to consult with the Veterinary Biologics and Biotechnology Section early in the product development process so that the research data and quality assurance documentation are consistent with regulatory requirements.
To investigate whether methylhexahydrophthalic acid (MHHP acid) in urine and plasma can be used as a biomarker for exposure to methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA).
MHHPA in air was sampled by Amberlite XAD-2 and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionisation detection. MHHP acid in urine and plasma was analysed by GC with mass spectrometric detection. Workers occupationally exposed to MHHPA were studied. Air levels of MHHPA were determined by personal sampling in the breathing zone. Urinary levels of MHHP acid, a metabolite of MHHPA, were determined in 27 workers. In eight workers all urine was collected at intervals during 24 h. Plasma levels of MHHP acid were determined in 20 workers.
The time-weighted average (TWA) air levels ranged from 5 to 60 micrograms MHHPA/m3 during 8-h workshifts. The urinary levels of MHHP acid increased during exposure and decayed after the end of exposure with an estimated half-life of about 6 h. A correlation was found between the TWA air levels of MHHPA and creatinine-adjusted MHHP acid levels in urine collected during the last 4 h of exposure. A correlation was also seen between the TWA air levels of MHHPA and the plasma concentrations of MHHP acid. An exposure to 20 micrograms MHHPA/m3 corresponded to about 140 nmol MHHP acid/mmol creatinine and about 40 nmol MHHP acid/l plasma.
The results indicate that MHHP acid in urine or plasma may be used for biological monitoring of the exposure to MHHPA.
Many years' experience with complex supervision of the environmental radiation situation, the specific features of the population's physiological and health status after radiation accidents (the Chernobyl, Kyshtym and other accidents). The paper emphasized the necessity of having a knowledge of the specific features of the influence of a radiation factor (and its components) on establishing the radiation dose for the population due to the environmental peculiarities of the radiation background in different regions and abnormal zones of the Earth. The paper provides evidence for the need to apply an environmental and physiological approach to working out the standards of radiation doses for the inhabitants of post-accident polluted areas. To this end, a concept of the regional standard of exposure is proposed for different regions of the Earth with regard to the specific natural radiation background, technogenic and medical "additives" on making diagnostic and therapeutical efforts by using X-rays and radiation therapy. A new concept is offered to develop the life-support systems in the areas exposed to radiation contamination, whose main goal is to minimize radiation exposures with regard of data on each area-specific data on the regional standard of the pre-accident radiation background, technogenic background, medical additives and prediction of future radiation doses. Exposure of the population to radiation is minimized by reasonably operating its components and making special life regimens in the contaminated areas.
The paper analyzes the present health status of the population, including mortality of able-bodied individuals, examines the changes in age-specific mortality rates. This also gives the results of studies into the causes of increased deaths from various unfavourable exposures to occupational, environmental, socioeconomic and other factors. The paper also presents epidemiological cohort surveys of workers exposed to lead and outlines the objectives and tasks of the section "Environmental Epidemiology" of the Environmental Control Project.
Regular physical activity, sports participation, and active recreation are essential behaviors for the prevention of disease, promotion of health, and maintenance of functional independence. This health behavior is essential for persons with and without disabilities. Population-based surveys have consistently demonstrated that persons with disabilities are less likely to be physically active, compared to persons without such limitations. However, these observations are based on relatively few surveys and are dependent on physical activity assessment methods that may not be sensitive and specific enough for persons with disabilities. Studies clearly demonstrate that many persons, representing a variety of selected disabilities, can adapt to increased levels of physical activity, as evidenced by alterations in various components of physical fitness. More importantly, other studies consistently provide evidence that participation in regular physical activity among persons with selected impairments and disabilities results in improved functional status and quality of life. Further efforts are critically needed in the area of the development of physical activity assessment methodology for persons with disabilities. Methods need to be developed that will provide survey researchers and those in public health the capacity to measure and monitor activity patterns of persons with disabilities. This information is important not only for public health officials but also health policy analysts, service providers, and disability advocacy groups. Further understanding of the role of physical activity in the maintenance of function and independence among persons with disabilities is needed. The understanding of environmental and social barriers to physical activity among persons with disabilities needs further exploration. Finally, physical activity determinants research among persons with disabilities, including the role of assistive technology as well as maximizing the intrinsic capacity of functional anatomy and physiology, needs to be addressed.
Thorough work of specialists in occupational hygiene and environment protection enables State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Supervision Departments to better work conditions substantially and to lower harm to environment and public health. State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Supervision Department in Shchelkovo [correction of Shyolkovo] accomplished cessation of some industrial processes polluting environment, resettlement of inhabitants away from expanded zones of sanitary protection, important measures in industrial ecology.