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5th Western Alaska Interdisciplinary Science Conference and Forum (2012) : "Resilience in a changing world". [Abstract book]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297025
Source
Western Alaska Interdisciplinary Science Conference Forum 2012. UAF Bristol Bay Campus, Dillingham, Alaska, March 28-31, 2012. 50 p.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2012
Health, Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, mbrubaker@anthc.org Climate Change and Public Health – Connecting the Dots in Southwest Alaska Mike Brubaker specializes in the assessment and management of environmental impacts in rural Arctic communities. Mike was born in Juneau and
  1 document  
Source
Western Alaska Interdisciplinary Science Conference Forum 2012. UAF Bristol Bay Campus, Dillingham, Alaska, March 28-31, 2012. 50 p.
Date
2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
3624398
Keywords
Alaska
Fisheries
Marine science
Traditional knowledge
Subsistence
Sustainable energy
Waste disposal
Food security
Ecosystems
Education
Documents
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A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91637
Source
J Hum Evol. 2008 Nov;55(5):772-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Weninger Bernhard
Jöris Olaf
Author Affiliation
Universität zu Köln, Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte, Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weyertal 125, 50923 Köln, Germany. b.weninger@uni-koeln.de
Source
J Hum Evol. 2008 Nov;55(5):772-81
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Calibration
China
Chronology as Topic
Climate
Greenland
Hominidae
Humans
Paleontology - methods
Radiometric Dating - methods
Abstract
This paper combines the data sets available today for 14C-age calibration of the last 60 ka. By stepwise synchronization of paleoclimate signatures, each of these sets of 14C-ages is compared with the U/Th-dated Chinese Hulu Cave speleothem records, which shows global paleoclimate change in high temporal resolution. By this synchronization we have established an absolute-dated Greenland-Hulu chronological framework, against which global paleoclimate data can be referenced, extending the 14C-age calibration curve back to the limits of the radiocarbon method. Based on this new, U/Th-based Greenland(Hulu) chronology, we confirm that the radiocarbon timescale underestimates calendar ages by several thousand years during most of Oxygen Isotope Stage 3. Major atmospheric 14C variations are observed for the period of the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, which has significant implications for dating the demise of the last Neandertals. The early part of "the transition" (with 14C ages > 35.0 ka 14C BP) coincides with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion. This period is characterized by highly-elevated atmospheric 14C levels. The following period ca. 35.0-32.5 ka 14C BP shows a series of distinct large-scale 14C age inversions and extended plateaus. In consequence, individual archaeological 14C dates older than 35.0 ka 14C BP can be age-calibrated with relatively high precision, while individual dates in the interval 35.0-32.5 ka 14C BP are subject to large systematic age-'distortions,' and chronologies based on large data sets will show apparent age-overlaps of up to ca. 5,000 cal years. Nevertheless, the observed variations in past 14C levels are not as extreme as previously proposed ("Middle to Upper Paleolithic dating anomaly"), and the new chronological framework leaves ample room for application of radiocarbon dating in the age-range 45.0-25.0 ka 14C BP at high temporal resolution.
PubMed ID
18922563 View in PubMed
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14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health -- Abstract book

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96055
Source
14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, July 11-16, 2009, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Date
2009
..................................................................................................................................................................................37 Community Participatory Research Methods #2 .......................................................................................................................37 CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH ADAPTATION IN NORTHERN FIRST NATION AND INUIT COMMUNITIES PROGRAM
  1 document  
Source
14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, July 11-16, 2009, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Date
2009
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Documents

abstract-book-2009.8.6.pdf

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20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95958
Source
Ambio. 2001 Mar;30(2):72-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2001
Author
Kullman L.
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden. leif.kullman@eg.umu.se
Source
Ambio. 2001 Mar;30(2):72-80
Date
Mar-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Climate
Geography
Greenhouse Effect
Humans
Sweden
Trees - growth & development
Abstract
Climate warming by ca. 0.8 degree C between the late-19th and late-20th century, although with some fluctuations, has forced multispecies elevational tree-limit advance by > 100 m for the principal tree species in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian mountain range. Predominantly, these processes imply growth in height of old-established individuals and less frequently upslope migration of new individuals. After a slight retardation during some cooler decades after 1940, a new active phase of tree-limit advance has occurred with a series of exceptionally mild winters and some warm summers during the 1990s. The magnitude of total 20th century tree-limit rise varies with topoclimate and is mainly confined to wind-sheltered and snow-rich segments of the landscape. Thickening of birch tree stands in the "advance belt" has profoundly altered the general character of the subalpine/low alpine landscape and provides a positive feedback loop for further progressive change and resilience to short-term cooling episodes. All upslope tree-limit shifts and associated landscape transformations during the 20th century have occurred without appreciable time lags, which constitutes knowledge fundamental to the generation of realistic models concerning vegetation responses to potential future warming. The new and elevated pine tree-limit may be the highest during the past 4000 14C years. Thus, it is tentatively inferred that the 20th century climate is unusually warm in a late-Holocene perspective.
PubMed ID
11374309 View in PubMed
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21st century climate change impacts on marine animal biomass and ecosystem structure across ocean basins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295788
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Nov 08; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-08-2018
Author
Andrea Bryndum-Buchholz
Derek P Tittensor
Julia L Blanchard
William W L Cheung
Marta Coll
Eric D Galbraith
Simon Jennings
Olivier Maury
Heike K Lotze
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, 1355 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2018 Nov 08; :
Date
Nov-08-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Climate change effects on marine ecosystems include impacts on primary production, ocean temperature, species distributions and abundance at local to global scales. These changes will significantly alter marine ecosystem structure and function with associated socio-economic impacts on ecosystem services, marine fisheries, and fishery-dependent societies. Yet how these changes may play out among ocean basins over the 21st century remains unclear, with most projections coming from single ecosystem models that do not adequately capture the range of model uncertainty. We address this by using six marine ecosystem models within the Fisheries and Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project (Fish-MIP) to analyze responses of marine animal biomass in all major ocean basins to contrasting climate change scenarios. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5), total marine animal biomass declined by an ensemble mean of 15-30% (±12-17%) in the North and South Atlantic and Pacific, and the Indian Ocean by 2100, whereas polar ocean basins experienced a 20-80% (±35-200%) increase. Uncertainty and model disagreement were greatest in the Arctic and smallest in the South Pacific Ocean. Projected changes were reduced under a low (RCP2.6) emissions scenario. Under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, biomass projections were highly correlated with changes in net primary production and negatively correlated with projected sea surface temperature increases across all ocean basins except the polar oceans. Ecosystem structure was projected to shift as animal biomass concentrated in different size-classes across ocean basins and emissions scenarios. We highlight that climate change mitigation measures could moderate the impacts on marine animal biomass by reducing biomass declines in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins. The range of individual model projections emphasizes the importance of using an ensemble approach in assessing uncertainty of future change. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
30408274 View in PubMed
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A 700-year paleoecological record of boreal ecosystem responses to climatic variation from Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature85780
Source
Ecology. 2008 Mar;89(3):729-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2008
Author
Tinner Willy
Bigler Christian
Gedye Sharon
Gregory-Eaves Irene
Jones Richard T
Kaltenrieder Petra
Krähenbühl Urs
Hu Feng Sheng
Author Affiliation
Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013 Bern, Switzerland. willy.tinner@ips.unibe.ch
Source
Ecology. 2008 Mar;89(3):729-43
Date
Mar-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Climate
Diatoms
Ecosystem
Fires
Forestry
Fossils
Geologic sediments
Greenhouse Effect
Ice Cover
Plant Physiology
Pollen
Time Factors
Trees
Abstract
Recent observations and model simulations have highlighted the sensitivity of the forest-tundra ecotone to climatic forcing. In contrast, paleoecological studies have not provided evidence of tree-line fluctuations in response to Holocene climatic changes in Alaska, suggesting that the forest-tundra boundary in certain areas may be relatively stable at multicentennial to millennial time scales. We conducted a multiproxy study of sediment cores from an Alaskan lake near the altitudinal limits of key boreal-forest species. Paleoecological data were compared with independent climatic reconstructions to assess ecosystem responses of the forest tundra boundary to Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic fluctuations. Pollen, diatom, charcoal, macrofossil, and magnetic analyses provide the first continuous record of vegetation fire-climate interactions at decadal to centennial time scales during the past 700 years from southern Alaska. Boreal-forest diebacks characterized by declines of Picea mariana, P. glauca, and tree Betula occurred during the LIA (AD 1500-1800), whereas shrubs (Alnus viridis, Betula glandulosa/nana) and herbaceous taxa (Epilobium, Aconitum) expanded. Marked increases in charcoal abundance and changes in magnetic properties suggest increases in fire importance and soil erosion during the same period. In addition, the conspicuous reduction or disappearance of certain aquatic (e.g., Isoetes, Nuphar, Pediastrum) and wetland (Sphagnum) plants and major shifts in diatom assemblages suggest pronounced lake-level fluctuations and rapid ecosystem reorganization in response to LIA climatic deterioration. Our results imply that temperature shifts of 1-2 degrees C, when accompanied by major changes in moisture balance, can greatly alter high-altitudinal terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic ecosystems, including conversion between boreal-forest tree line and tundra. The climatic and ecosystem variations in our study area appear to be coherent with changes in solar irradiance, suggesting that changes in solar activity contributed to the environmental instability of the past 700 years.
PubMed ID
18459336 View in PubMed
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Source
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (Canada). Ottawa, ON. 54 p.
Publication Type
Report
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (Canada). Ottawa, ON. 54 p.
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
Keywords
Alaska
Chukotka
Climate change
Arctic Council
Biodiversity
Human Rights
Environment
Sustainable development
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2009 Alaska health workforce vacancy study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288901
Source
Anchorage, AK : Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. 94 pages.
Date
2009
Alaska continues to experience health professional shortages. The state has long had a deficient “supply side” characterized by insufficient numbers of key health workers whose recruitment, retention, and training have been impeded by Alaska’s remoteness, harsh climate, rural isolation, low population
  1 document     1 website  
Author
Alaska Center for Rural Health.
Landon, Beth
Source
Anchorage, AK : Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of Alaska Anchorage. 94 pages.
Date
2009
Geographic Location
U.S.
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
File Size
1879670
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Medical personnel
Supply and demand
Statistics
Health facilities
Employees
Medical care surveys
Health planning
Manpower planning
Abstract
This health workforce study is an assessment of health manpower shortage based on budgeted staff positions and their vacancies in organizations throughout the state. This report highlights employers' needs for employees to fill budgeted positions. This is different from a needs assessment that would take into account population demographics and disease incidence and prevalence.
Notes
ALASKA RA410.8.A4A43 2009
Funding provided by Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Alaskan's for Access to Health Care (ACCESS), University of Alaska Fairbanks, Tanana Valley campus Telemedicine program, and University of Alaska Anchorage's Community and Technical College (CTC) and the School of Nursing.
Online Resources
Documents
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2009 Circumpolar Inuit Health Summit: Yellowknife, Canada, July 9-10, 2009.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296469
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada. 17 p.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2009
borders, that have a real impact on our health and wellness. Climate change and the international debate on Arctic wildlife are two such examples. In all these areas, it is the ICC’s role to bring to the world’s attention the concerns of Inuit, to ensure that our voice is heard, and to ensure that
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada. 17 p.
Date
2009
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
File Size
1875662
Keywords
Alaska
Chukotka
Inuit
Health and wellness
Documents

2009_healthsummitreport_final.pdf

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2010-2011 Annual Report: Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297081
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). Ottawa, ON. 26 p.
Publication Type
Report
......................................................................................................................................................................... 12 ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................................................................ 12 CLIMATE CHANGE
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). Ottawa, ON. 26 p.
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
2639832
Keywords
Inuit
Alaska
Chukotka
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Health
Environment
Sustainable development
Documents

20102011annualreportenglish.pdf

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Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada. Ottawa, ON. 34 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2015
on Indigenous Peoples ..................................................................................... 9 Environment and Sustainable Development ......................................................................................... 10 Climate Change
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada. Ottawa, ON. 34 p.
Date
2015
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3283810
Keywords
Inuit
Climate change
Wildlife
Biodiversity
Sustainable development
Environment
Health
Mercury
Languages
Documents

merged_document__2_.pdf

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2017/18 Annual Report : Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297094
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council Canda. Ottawa, ON. 76 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2018
climate change and address its widespread consequences. We see a need to bring Inuit knowledge and values to this dia- logue to build on commitments in the Paris Agreement. During this meeting, the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples Platform (LCIPP) was launched with agreement on its first
  1 document  
Source
Inuit Circumpolar Council Canda. Ottawa, ON. 76 p.
Date
2018
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3830676
Keywords
Inuit
Environment
Health
Knowledge
youth
Documents

icc_2017-2018_annual_report_for_web.pdf

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Aajiiqatigiinniq: seeking solutions through collaboration

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284446
Source
Pages 21-24 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69(Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
ernployment anc the social anc physical environment. Exarnples of the latter include tbe prevention or mitigation of crime 1 violence, pollution, climate change and unsustainable consu rnption of resources. 4. Ensuringthateconon1icand politicalforcesare utilizeC fortheir intended goa I-to promote and
  1 document  
Author
Pamela Orr
Author Affiliation
President, International Union for Circumpolar Health
President, Canadian Society for Circumpolar Health
Professor, Departments of Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada
Source
Pages 21-24 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69(Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Multi-National
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Notes
Overview I. Circumpolar Health Movement
Documents
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The Aboriginal economic benchmarking report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294132
Source
The National Aboriginal Economic Development Board. 37 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
June 2012
that responds to new and changing economic conditions and emerging opportunities, seeks to leverage partnerships to achieve sustainable economic development, and aims to ensure that Aboriginal Canadians enjoy the same opportunities for employment, income and wealth creation as other Canadians. The
  1 document  
Source
The National Aboriginal Economic Development Board. 37 p.
Date
June 2012
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3667838
Keywords
Canada
Humans
First Nations
Inuit
Métis
Notes
Updated and reprinted.
Documents

the-aboriginal-economic-benchmarking-report.pdf

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Aboriginal Food Security in Northern Canada: An assessment of the state of knowledge.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297086
Source
Expert Panel on the State of Knowledge of Food Security in Northern Canada, Council of Canadian Academies.
Publication Type
Report
Date
2014
conducted. To understand food security in northern Canada, we considered the unique dimensions of northern Canada’s vast geography, remote and diverse communities, a cold but shifting climate, and quickly changing economic and social environments — to name a few. While these are all important and
  1 document  
Source
Expert Panel on the State of Knowledge of Food Security in Northern Canada, Council of Canadian Academies.
Date
2014
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Report
File Size
4736035
Keywords
Canada, Northern
Naive Poeples
Nutrition
Food security
Traditional knowledge
Experience
Policies
Notes
ISBN 978-1-926558-73-8 (pbk.)
ISBN 978-1-926558-74-5 (pdf)
Documents

foodsecurity_fullreporten.pdf

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Aboriginal / subsistence whaling (with special reference to the Alaska and Greenland fisheries).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295212
Source
Reports of the International Whaling Commission. Special issue 4. 86 p.
Publication Type
Report
Date
1982
, or struck but lost, of which the majority are thought to die from their wounds. The number lost increased from 10 in 1973 to 79 in 1977, and was associated with a progressive change from using the darting gun to use of the shoulder gun. Bombs from the latter frequently fail to detonate and do
  1 document  
Source
Reports of the International Whaling Commission. Special issue 4. 86 p.
Date
1982
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Russia
U.S.
Publication Type
Report
File Size
3179731
Keywords
Bowhead whales
Aleuts
Eskimos
Inuits
Subsistence hunting
Whaling
Nutritional Requirements
Acculturation
Documents

RS464_SI04-AboriginalSub-1982.pdf

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Abrupt climate change and collapse of deep-sea ecosystems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95566
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1556-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-5-2008
Author
Yasuhara Moriaki
Cronin Thomas M
Demenocal Peter B
Okahashi Hisayo
Linsley Braddock K
Author Affiliation
U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192, USA. moriakiyasuhara@gmail.com
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Feb 5;105(5):1556-60
Date
Feb-5-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Climate
Crustacea
Ecosystem
Seawater
Abstract
We investigated the deep-sea fossil record of benthic ostracodes during periods of rapid climate and oceanographic change over the past 20,000 years in a core from intermediate depth in the northwestern Atlantic. Results show that deep-sea benthic community "collapses" occur with faunal turnover of up to 50% during major climatically driven oceanographic changes. Species diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index falls from 3 to as low as 1.6 during these events. Major disruptions in the benthic communities commenced with Heinrich Event 1, the Inter-Allerød Cold Period (IACP: 13.1 ka), the Younger Dryas (YD: 12.9-11.5 ka), and several Holocene Bond events when changes in deep-water circulation occurred. The largest collapse is associated with the YD/IACP and is characterized by an abrupt two-step decrease in both the upper North Atlantic Deep Water assemblage and species diversity at 13.1 ka and at 12.2 ka. The ostracode fauna at this site did not fully recover until approximately 8 ka, with the establishment of Labrador Sea Water ventilation. Ecologically opportunistic slope species prospered during this community collapse. Other abrupt community collapses during the past 20 ka generally correspond to millennial climate events. These results indicate that deep-sea ecosystems are not immune to the effects of rapid climate changes occurring over centuries or less.
PubMed ID
18227517 View in PubMed
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Abrupt climate change at the end of the last glacial period inferred from trapped air in polar Ice

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95994
Source
Science. 1999 Oct 29;286(5441):930-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-29-1999
Author
Severinghaus
Brook
Author Affiliation
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Geology, Washington State University, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue, Vancouver, WA 98686, USA.
Source
Science. 1999 Oct 29;286(5441):930-4
Date
Oct-29-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The last glacial period was terminated by an abrupt warming event in the North Atlantic approximately 15,000 years before the present, and warming events of similar age have been reported from low latitudes. Understanding the mechanism of this termination requires that the precise relative timing of abrupt climate warming in the tropics versus the North Atlantic be known. Nitrogen and argon isotopes in trapped air in Greenland ice show that the Greenland Summit warmed 9 +/- 3 degrees C over a period of several decades, beginning 14,672 years ago. Atmospheric methane concentrations rose abruptly over a approximately 50-year period and began their increase 20 to 30 years after the onset of the abrupt Greenland warming. These data suggest that tropical climate became warmer or wetter (or both) approximately 20 to 80 years after the onset of Greenland warming, supporting a North Atlantic rather than a tropical trigger for the climate event.
PubMed ID
10542141 View in PubMed
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Abrupt Climate Change in an Oscillating World.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290626
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 22; 8(1):5040
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-22-2018
Author
S Bathiany
M Scheffer
E H van Nes
M S Williamson
T M Lenton
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. sebastian.bathiany@wur.nl.
Source
Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 22; 8(1):5040
Date
Mar-22-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
The notion that small changes can have large consequences in the climate or ecosystems has become popular as the concept of tipping points. Typically, tipping points are thought to arise from a loss of stability of an equilibrium when external conditions are slowly varied. However, this appealingly simple view puts us on the wrong foot for understanding a range of abrupt transitions in the climate or ecosystems because complex environmental systems are never in equilibrium. In particular, they are forced by diurnal variations, the seasons, Milankovitch cycles and internal climate oscillations. Here we show how abrupt and sometimes even irreversible change may be evoked by even small shifts in the amplitude or time scale of such environmental oscillations. By using model simulations and reconciling evidence from previous studies we illustrate how these phenomena can be relevant for ecosystems and elements of the climate system including terrestrial ecosystems, Arctic sea ice and monsoons. Although the systems we address are very different and span a broad range of time scales, the phenomena can be understood in a common framework that can help clarify and unify the interpretation of abrupt shifts in the Earth system.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29568006 View in PubMed
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2813 records – page 1 of 141.